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A
A 256-bit AVX2-based C/C++ Library for the Smith-Waterman Algorithm
Qian ,Gang University of Central Oklahoma
Renaldi,FNU "Ray" University of Central Oklahoma
The Smith-Waterman algorithm (SWA) is the standard approach to producing the optimal local alignment between two biological sequences. The striped Smith-Waterman algorithm is an effective algorithm that improves the efficiency of SWA by properly utilizing the parallel SIMD commands provided by modern processors. This presentation introduces a 256-bit Intel avx2-based library that implements the striped SWA. Our implementation is derived from an existing C/C++ library developed by Mengyao Zhao, et al. While the original library is based on Intel’s 128-bit SSE SIMD instructions, we use the newer 256-bit avx2 instruction set. Our experimental results show that our implementation achieved an average increase of 25% in the alignment speed over the original library. We have also analyzed the bottleneck of the striped SWA, which prevents us from achieving a 100% performance improvement.
Poster
A Bio-Forensic Study of the P63 Protein during the Stages of Wound Healing and Postmortem: A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry protocol.
khadiri ,mohamed University of Central Oklahoma
Wound healing and wound age determination remain as some of the most challenging areas of both clinical and forensic pathology research. Cutaneous wounds and injuries are any intrusions or damages to the body’s epidermal tissue surface. When it comes to cutaneous wounds, there is a great deal of knowledge that ought to be understood and later used for valuable applications both in a clinical and in a forensic setting. However, there are many challenges both medically and forensically facing the research behind wounds and wound healing pushing one to further explore many aspects of such topic. In the medical field there are many challenges in terms of wound treatment especially that of chronic wounds due to the diverse health conditions under which the healing process exists, progresses, and/or stops. In the forensic field however, the challenge is to closely determine the timing of wounds and injuries. In this study we are investigating a Post Mortem Interval (PMT) of wounds and wound vitality in terms of the inflammation and the proliferation of tissue before and after death using a protocol that combines the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), histopathology, and Immunohistochemistry techniques.
Poster
A Collaborative Production Design for Jones and Schmidt's "The Fantasticks"
Pursley ,Robyn Northeastern State University
Pursley ,Scott Northeastern State University
Miller,Christopher Northeastern State University
Musical theatre is a style that requires a variety of unique skills on the part of all production members. For the designers of such a production, the challenge is to provide the audience with a visual aide to accompany the music, which is at the heart of the production. Designing for a musical production differs from designing for a straight play in that a musical typically allows for more exaggerated and whimsical imagery. In developing the production design for this particular production of "The Fantasticks," the designers were inspired by the natural theatricality of the play.
Poster
A Comparison of Arguments for and Against Agriculture Subsidies in the Context of the 2014 U.S. Farm Bill
Molnar ,Marisa Southwestern Oklahoma State University
The success of agriculture subsidies has long been disputed by economists and policy makers. And the 2014 U.S. Farm Bill, the newest iteration of long standing, but ever changing set of subsidies started in 1933 with the New Deal, has not been excluded from these criticisms. The bill’s creators claim that this bill will close the loopholes, expand crop insurance, and improve upon its 2008 predecessor, but will these changes be enough to combat the tide of public opinion in an environment where controlling the budget and shrinking deficit have moved to the forefront of many voter’s minds? I intend to study and compare the arguments for and against agriculture subsidies, while presenting what evidence the bill has for its defense.
Poster
A Comparison of Self-reported Self-care Outcomes Following a Two-day Wellness Seminar
Guidry ,Jessie Northeastern State University
Keller-Dupree,Elizabeth Northeastern State University
Rodriguez,Jennifer Northeastern State University
Gwin,Gregory Northeastern State University
Wellness is defined as a way of life that is directed toward enhanced living through an integrated awareness of the mind, body, and spirit. Because wellness is a holistic counseling intervention, meaning that it focuses on individual physical, emotional, spiritual, social, and other components of overall health, it is a valuable topic to integrate not only into counseling practice but also into counselor-in-training experiences. The current study involved undergraduate and graduate participants completing an online two-day wellness seminar. Students were given pre- and post-tests of three assessments measuring levels of self-care, professional quality of life, and stress reaction. Results offer findings into the self-reported levels of self-care noted by students directly following completion of this experience. Implications for helping professional training and practice will be offered. Keywords: Wellness, Wellbeing, Experiential Education, Counselor Training
Poster
A Comparison of Statistical Methods for Phenotype Prediction From Genotype Data
Hu ,Xiaowei Oklahoma State University
Zhu,Lan Oklahoma State University
Predicting phenotypes from genotype data is important for human health, medicine, animal and plant breeding, and evolutionary biology. Recently, it has also been applied to forensics science. To help researchers select an appropriate prediction model for their own data analysis, in this study, we offer a comparison of three popular statistical methodologies in the field of predicting phenotype from genotype data. Specifically, we compare Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) (Ober et al 2012), BayesB Model (Gianola et al 2011), and Neural Networks (Chang and McGeachie 2011). Each methodology performs well if all its assumptions are satisfied. However, some assumptions are often violated in reality. Therefore, no one statistical method outperforms others for all types of data. Besides assumptions, factors that affect the performance of prediction include but are not limited to sample size, available informative biomarkers, nature of phenotypes, etc. In this study, we compare above three methods and evaluate the performance of prediction by exploring different levels of sample size and various distributions of phenotypes, with the goal of providing a useful guideline for researchers to wisely select a suitable model that fits their research needs.
Poster
A Comparison of the Nestling Provisioning Rates of Male and Female Swainson's Warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii)
Revels ,Mia Northeastern State University
Hanna,Darby Northeastern State University
The young of altricial species require parental care to develop and survive. In birds, the nestlings remain in the nest for some time and the parents must bring them food. Provisioning rates, the rate at which a parent brings food to its nestlings, are a critical part of the natural history of birds with altricial young. Little is known of the natural history of the Swainson’s Warbler, Limnothylpis swainsonii, including information about provisioning rates. Nests were located and filmed on the Little River National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Oklahoma. Videotapes were viewed and the following behaviors were noted: frequency and duration of visits by each parent to the nest, frequency of parental provisioning of the nestlings, and the number of nestlings fed during each trip. Provisioning rates were compared within early, middle, and late developmental stages. We found that the overall provisioning rates increase as the nestlings age, with the average female rate increasing disproportionately to the average male rate. This overall feeding increase is consistent with the idea that as the nestlings grow, they require more food to meet higher metabolic demands.
Poster
A Complementary Training Method for Young Children with Severe Motor Impairments with LEGO Robots
Zeng ,Wenxi University of Central Oklahoma
Garien,Cole University of Central Oklahoma
Fu,Jicheng University of Central Oklahoma
Wheelchair simulation systems have been used for children with severe motor impairments to avoid the high price and steep learning curve associated with pediatric wheelchairs. However, the limited cognitive ability may prevent young children from using such simulation systems effectively. Thus, we propose to use a wirelessly controlled LEGO robot to complement existing simulation systems. The use of LEGO robots is not only safe and affordable, but it also allows us to easily create appropriate training environments, such as strictly forward movement, navigating in narrow corridors, locating objects, etc. By applying advanced control mechanisms, the robot is able to return to its starting location when a mission completes, as well as to stop in front of a detected obstacle. The manipulation of the robot is monitored by a scoring system. In other words, children have to practice repeatedly in one stage until they achieve the stage’s preset goal. Moreover, a with-infrared-beacon-robot will be built as a tour guide to interact with the child and his/her robot. In summary, the LEGO robots will enrich existing training approaches by providing an affordable and entertaining way to enhance young children’s wheelchair maneuvering skills.
Poster
A Computational Study of Electron Donating and Electron Withdrawing Substituents on Phenazine and Dibenzo-[b,i]Phenazine
McInnes ,Daniel East Central University
DeNike,Kayle East Central University
N-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are proposed for use as organic solid state transistors or switches. Simple molecules of this sort include phenazine and dibenzo[b,i]phenazine. This study examines the band gaps of these molecules after substitution of electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents. The most effective substituent in lowering the band gap for phenazine was the electron donating isopropyl group. This group produced a band gap of 0.09087. For dibenzo[b,i]phenazine, the electron withdrawing substituent -OCF3 was most efficient, producing a band gap of 0.07080.
Poster
A Descriptive Analysis of Homicides from 1972 to 2013 in the City of Lawton, Oklahoma
Odo ,Jonathan Cameron University
Hong,Moonki Cameron University
The objective of this research project is to describe patterns and temporal trends of homicides in Lawton from 1972 to 2012 by using the Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR) of the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Data for Oklahoma. To accomplish this objective, we will conduct a descriptive analysis aimed at answering four questions: (1) What is the most common month for homicides occurred in Lawton, Oklahoma? (2) Who are the victims and offenders of homicides in Lawton? (3) What is the relationship between the victims and offenders of homicides? and (4) What are weapons used most in homicides in Lawton? Although this research project is very preliminary, the finding will advance our understanding of homicides in Lawton. And, local police department and policymakers may use this finding to develop their own public safety strategies. The finding is useful for Lawton residents who want to make the city a safer place to live in. Also, the finding is an important cornerstone for the future study, which identifies economic, social, other factors affecting homicide in Lawton.
Poster
A Narrative of an Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Project Cameron University/School of Science and Technology
Jackson ,Karisha Cameron University
Johnson,William Cameron University
Johari,Abbas Cameron University
The project is funded by the “Support for Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities” grant from the School of Science and Technology at Cameron University. It reports on scholarly activities of a few minority undergraduate students. The purpose of the project is to produce a rich literature review on Self-Determination Theory and Service Learning approaches and their interrelated motivational connections to seek research funding via a qualitative (case study) research design. The project will provide in-depth research activity, support, and publication opportunities for minority students who have not previously been engaged in any faculty-mentored undergraduate research process. Hence, the fund supports undergraduate research and is used to increase the number of undergraduate scholars who are participating in research, and will have at least a scholarly product- a review of research publication. The intent is to submit the results via a research paper to Oklahoma Journal of Undergraduate Research.
Poster
A New KNN Distance Metric for the Classification of Power Wheelchair Maneuvering Data
Liu ,Tao University of Central Oklahoma
Fu,Jicheng University of Central Oklahoma
Smartphones are convenient and easy to use for monitoring wheelchair user’s daily activities and collecting the maneuvering data, which can quantify their physical activities and motivate to improve the quality of life. In our previous study, the k-nearest-neighbor (KNN) algorithm was applied to analyze data, which often yields competitive classification results despite its simplicity. However, due to the variety in design, different smart phones may generate different readings even for the same driving trajectory, and the unpredictable background noise may also impact the accuracy, hence, KNN with traditional Euclidean distance metric is not able to yield satisfying classification accuracy. To overcome these challenges, we focus on the acceleration and calculate on each 10-element data section to present a 7-tuple set as a vector for KNN distance metric which takes into account: the number of positive values, the accumulated positive value, the number of positive values greater than a threshold, the number of zero values, the number of negative values, the accumulated negative value and the number of negative values less than a threshold. Then KNN is applied on this new distance metric, i.e., the 7-tuple vector. The experiment results showed that significantly higher accuracy in the classification of wheelchair maneuvers (i.e., stationery and moving) was achieved by employing this new distance metric than by using the original approach.
Poster
A New Roadmap for Sustainable Value Chain from the Value Creation Perspective
Yoon ,Kanghyun University of Central Oklahoma
Vu,Vy Ngoc Thao University of Central Oklahoma
Managing value or supply chain is an important task for firms since it governs the process of passing products to customers to serve their unmet needs. Considering two emerging concepts of sustainability and value creation process, the goal of this project is to propose a conceptual framework for sustainable value chain management (VCM) from the value creation perspective. Our guidelines focus on encouraging customer engagement into the value creation process during the value chain management.
Poster
A Novel Google Glass Application to Guide Wheelchair Users in Achieving Effective Tilt and Recline Usage to Reduce Risk of Pressure Ulcers
King ,Melicent University of Central Oklahoma
Fu,Jicheng University of Central Oklahoma
Individuals with disabilities often benefit from the use of power wheelchairs to improve their mobility and quality of life. However, prolonged sitting associated with wheelchair use has been shown to cause pressure ulcers, which can be painful, expensive to treat, and even fatal. To reduce this risk, clinicians recommend adjusting the wheelchair’s tilt (the angle between seat and floor) and recline (the angle between seat and back). Unfortunately, power wheelchairs are rarely equipped with hardware to measure tilt and recline. Users rely on their own proprioception when making these adjustments, and thus they often fail to achieve a dramatic enough adjustment to reduce the risk of developing pressure ulcers. This project proposes to employ the cutting-edge Google Glass technology to address these problems. We are developing an application to guide the wheelchair user in adjusting tilt and recline while providing immediate feedback. The application will use advanced algorithms along with sensors in the Google Glass to precisely measure tilt and recline. Data regarding usage will be collected by Google Glass and transmitted to the cloud for storage and processing via the Google App Engine platform. There, the data will be analyzed using state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to provide a clear picture of tilt and recline usage to users and healthcare providers. This application will provide an immediate benefit to both wheelchair users and the research community.
Poster
A Novel Method for Non-Invasive Measurement of Stress Hormone Levels in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Jones ,Alexis Northeastern State University
DeNeen,Whitney Northeastern State University
The popularity of zebrafish as a model organism in behavioral neuroscience, neuropharmacology, and specifically in stress research, raises the need for measuring circulating levels of stress hormones. However, due to the small size of zebrafish, blood collection is difficult and involves sacrificing the fish, and the amount of plasma collected is small (1-5µL). Homogenates can also be used to measure hormone levels but this prevents repeated sampling of the same individual. Previously validated non-invasive methods require technical expertise and equipment that may not be available at every institution. Our study investigated use of EIA for non-invasive measurement of cortisol from the holding water of zebrafish. 10 adult wild-type zebrafish were used; individuals were removed from the home tank and placed individually into a well containing 10mL of RO filtered, deionized water for 30 min, 1 hr, or 2 hrs. After this, the water was collected from each well and stored at -20oC until analysis. Water samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration using the ACE™ Competitive EIA and results were interpreted using a microplate reader. We found that measurement of holding water cortisol using this method effectively determines free cortisol released into the water through the gills of zebrafish. Given that cortisol released to holding water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, this method represents a novel alternative to blood collection or whole body homog
Poster
A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Interactive Whiteboard Technology in an Early Intervention Classroom
Benson ,Susan University of Central Oklahoma
Crumrine,Daiquirie University of Central Oklahoma
Numerous scholarly articles and anecdotal reports describe the uses of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) in educational settings. To date, few studies using experimental designs exist, and no studies were found investigating the effectiveness of this technology for children with communication disorders. As a first step in the investigation of IWB effectiveness, the purpose of the proposed research project was to use a single subject design to compare children's on-task behavior during instruction using an IWB with on-task behavior during traditional instruction in which an IWB was not used. It was hypothesized that young children with and without communication disorders would demonstrate increased on-task behavior when curriculum was delivered using an IWB. On-task behavior was defined as a child oriented towards, or looking at, the instructor or the IWB. If the instructor had directed the child to look at an object, picture, or another child, on-task behavior included the child following the instructor’s direction. In general, children demonstrated slightly better on-task behavior in response to instruction delivered via an IWB. However, unique cognitive profiles and learning styles were noted and should be taken into consideration when choosing instructional methods.
Poster
A Proteomic Approach to Analyze Novel Interactions of Mcm10 in DNA Damage Repair Pathway
Smith ,Todd Northeastern State University
Miller,Cody Northeastern State University
Patrick,Ofelia Northeastern State University
Genomic stability must be maintained to avoid the development of cancer. Problems in DNA replication and repair may lead to genome instability. One protein implicated in maintaining genome stability is minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10). Mcm10 is a conserved eukaryotic DNA replication factor known to interact with other DNA replication proteins such as Mcm2-7 and PCNA. Preliminary work from our lab has implicated a novel role for Mcm10 in DNA damage repair pathway. The focus of our research is to investigate the interactions of Mcm10 under normal replication and under conditions of DNA damage. Our approach will be to purify Mcm10 from budding yeast and then analyze its novel interactions by mass spectrometry. To accomplish this, we will be over-expressing 6xHis-tagged Mcm10 from a Gal promoter in a protease deficient yeast strain. We will purify the His-tagged Mcm10 by Ni-NTA affinity columns and then check the purity using Coomassie Blue staining and Western blot. The purified Mcm10 will be analyzed for its interactions by mass spectrometry. Ultimately, we would like to analyze interactions in yeast subjected to DNA damage conditions.
Poster
A Punch on Collagen Punch: Induced Wound Reveals Tension in Human Dermal Equivalent
Tinnin ,Lauren University of Central Oklahoma
Anderson,Cory University of Central Oklahoma
Vaughan,Melville University of Central Oklahoma
Xu,Gang University of Central Oklahoma
The objective of this research project is to probe and quantify the mechanical tension generated in an in vitro dermal equivalent model created for studying wound healing. The dermal equivalent is made up of collagen lattices cultured with human fibroblasts. We probe the stress in these dermal equivalents by removing a small piece of tissue from the center of the lattice then observing the expansion of the hole. The faster the hole expands, the more tension is present. We study the effect of transforming growth factor on the tension. Also, we have studied the effects of different concentrations of media as well as different biopsy punch sizes. Understanding the biomechanics of the models will be an important step in understanding wound healing.
Poster
A Review of Edible Vaccines in the field of Molecular Farming
Swar ,Bishr Northeastern State University
Traditional vaccine injections have been dramatically effective in reducing a large number of diseases throughout the world. This vaccination method however, has had many disadvantages especially concerning delivery and administration in developing countries. There are still millions of deaths that occur worldwide due to factors including lack of reliable immunizations, absence of trained medical professionals to administer the vaccine, and more importantly the cost of the vaccine. As a solution to such problems, there has been relatively recent methods produced to add genes of interest into plants in order for them to make important proteins. These “transgenic” plants can be made to produce such proteins in their edible regions allowing them to function as subunit vaccines when ingested. The body can then develop immunity against specific disease-causing pathogens as a result. These “food vaccine” producing plants can be grown locally and inexpensively almost anywhere needed even in the more remote regions of the world. Moreover, the many economical, procedural, and administrational problems associated with traditional vaccines are not a concern with edible vaccines. Such a new and feasible vaccines fit for human consumption have been primarily established for certain illnesses like cholera and hepatitis B. Here, I review some different aspects concerning edible vaccines in the field of molecular farming.
Poster
A SERVICE LEARNING APPROACH FOR SECURITY EDUCATION
Park ,Myung Ah University of Central Oklahoma
Service learning in higher education aims at educating students as a life-long responsible citizen. It has been shown in the literature that service learning can make positive impacts on students in various ways. However, there is a little work that has been done in security education to provide a service learning experience for students. In the last two years, the author has attempted to incorporate a service learning component into security education through course assignments and research experiences for undergraduates. Specifically, the research experiences were intended to address gender inequity issue in information security field. The beneficiary of the services has been the Office of Information Technology of the university the author is affiliated with. The details of how this work has been conducted will be presented.
Poster
A Statisitical Analysis of the Last 78 Years of the Heisman Trophy
Sanders ,Jessica University of Central Oklahoma
Morris ,Tracy University of Central Oklahoma
The Heisman Trophy is given annually to the best U.S. college football player regardless of position. Sports journalists from around the country and previous Heisman winners cast ballots with a list of the voter’s top three choices in order. Each first place vote receives three points, second place votes receive two points, and third place votes receive one point. The player with the most points is named the winner and presented with the Heisman Trophy at a ceremony in December of each year. There is some controversy surrounding the selection of Heisman Trophy winners. Specifically, critics have speculated the presence of selection bias with respect to region, position, conference, and school, arguing that the best player is not necessarily selected each year. This research investigated the presence or absence of this bias through statistical analysis. Data concerning 755 players, including nominees and winners from 1935 to 2013, were collected from www.sports-reference.com. Variables related to player ability as well as variables concerning school, geographic location, and other demographics were examined to determine what variables are significantly related to winning the trophy. A logistic regression model was developed to predict the winner of the Heisman Trophy. This model was then used to predict the winner of the 2014 Trophy.
Poster
A Statistical Analysis of the Deterioration of Cartridge Cases
Webb ,Ariel University of Central Oklahoma
Bayles,Mary University of Central Oklahoma
Morris,Tracy University of Central Oklahoma
Gibson,Amanda University of Central Oklahoma
Christophe,Deion University of Central Oklahoma
Project SCHOLAR (Student Consulting Help for Organizational Leaders and Academic Researchers) is a statistical consulting service composed of undergraduate students at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO). Faculty from the Department of Mathematics and Statistics oversee the work of the SCHOLAR students on projects submitted by other researchers. A graduate student from the Forensic Science Institute at UCO conducted an experiment concerning the matching of cartridge cases. In this study, 1,296 cartridge cases were collected. These cartridge cases were placed in six different locations and over the course of a year, 18 cartridge cases were collected from each location every 30 days for analysis. The cartridge cases were then matched to a set of control cases. Those greatly deteriorated cartridge cases that were unable to be matched then underwent one of three cleaning techniques to determine which technique had the best capability of restoring the cartridge cases’ original features. The SCHOLAR students analyzed the data resulting from this experiment. Specifically, two questions were addressed: (1) what factors, including time, rainfall, temperature, humidity, composition, and gun, are significantly related to whether or not a cartridge case can be matched, and (2) which cleaning technique, if any, should be used depending on the composition of the cartridge case and in which location it was found.
Poster
A Statistical Study of Deer Density in Sequoyah State Park, OK From 1989 Through the Present
Cameron ,Joseph Northeastern State University
Rutter,Andrew Northeastern State University
Terdal,Erik Northeastern State University
Monitoring and controlling deer density is important for maintaining healthy herds. Sequoyah State Park in Cherokee county, OK, houses a nature center which monitors the habitat of 10 km2 of wildlife, including a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population at or above carrying capacity. The park has been monitoring deer density using bi-annual ‘deer drives’ with Northeastern State University from 1989 through the present. These ‘deer drives’ have allowed park biologists to reduce parasitic diseases and tick population through relocation and controlled harvest of the white-tailed deer. Until now, these decisions have been based on the raw data, which demonstrates that the herd density is decreasing at 0.75 deer/km2 each year. We aim to determine the major factors attributed to predicting fall white-tailed deer density. We hypothesize that the fall density indicates the parks’ carrying capacity and is dependent upon fawn recruitment to the herd. Further, through analysis of the factors that affect fawn recruitment, we will be able to account for a significant amount of the variation in herd density each year. This will be accomplished using statistical inquiry to analyze the effects of both county and park hunting harvest, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), lake elevation/flooding, area of controlled burns, number of park visitors, and disease prevalence among harvested deer.
Poster
A Study of the Most Vulnerable
Murray ,Cynthia University of Central Oklahoma
Hiddink,Seth University of Central Oklahoma
Holmes,Jennifer University of Central Oklahoma
This study examines hospital discharges in Oklahoma for a disease prevalent in the elderly, stroke, and one common in children, asthma. The Oklahoma State Department of Health provided data for 2010 – 2012. Their research questions for stroke patients included discharge destination with regard to type of insurance, county of residence, and procedures during hospitalization. Research questions for childhood asthma included a trend analysis of hospitalization rates and costs with regard to air quality. In addition, yearly distributions for age, race, and sex were determined for both diagnoses. For stroke patients, survival distributions by race were compared as well as mortality rates for Oklahoma counties which were categorized into 5 regions. For the hospitalization and cost analysis involving asthma patients, Oklahoma counties in which ozone (15 sites, 9 counties) and fine particulate matter (8 sites, 5 counties) are measured were dichotomized into good and poor. SPSS was used for graphs and statistical tests. U.S. census data from 2010 was used to adjust rates for population in OK counties.
Poster
A Survey of Optometric Meaningful Use Compliance in the State of Oklahoma
Geiger ,Matt Northeastern State University
Purpose. A survey of optometrists in Oklahoma, to measure their compliance with meaningful use guidelines and to determine if there were any correlations with years in practice or the electronic health record software that they were using. Methods. The study was an anonymous survey-based study, which contained four questions as well as a comments section. The survey was given to optometrists attending a continuing education meeting at the Five State Symposium in Tahlequah, OK. Results. We found "number of years practiced" to be the only statistically significant factor for non-compliance. Although more participants would have increased the reliability of our findings, we did observe a correlation between a practitioner's dislike of electronic health record system and non-compliance. Conclusion. Based on our findings, "years of practice" was confirmed statistically to have an effect on rate of compliance. Due to the broad range of electronic health records our participants used, we were unable to correlate the type of electronic health record used with rate of compliance. Key Words: Meaningful use, electronic health records, HITECH Act, practice management
Poster
A Systematic Review of Grounded Theory Methodology and Reporting Practices in Medical Education Literature
Holzmann ,Matthew Oral Roberts University
Vassar ,Matt Oklahoma State University
Grounded theory is among the most popular qualitative methods in medicine and among the most widely cited references of qualitative research in medical education. Given its widespread usage relative to other qualitative approaches, as well as misapplication of the technique, we conducted a systematic review of three medical education journals over a ten year period. One hundred three (103) articles were retrieved that met criteria and were coded based on relevant study characteristics including constant comparison, theoretical saturation, iterative process, and theoretical sampling; we also examined evaluative criteria for qualitative studies. Results suggest that constant comparison was discussed in 62% (n=62) of the articles, theoretical sampling in 86.4% (n=89), iterative process in 51.5% (n=53), and theoretical saturation in 37.4% (n=37). We also found that many of the evaluative criteria are not adequately mentioned in our sample of studies. In conclusion, we found significant variability in the reporting of these studies. We recommend that methods sections of grounded theory manuscripts more adequately describe these important components.
Poster
Accounting Statement Footnotes Contextual Association with Firm Financial Characteristics?
habibi ,azam University of Central Oklahoma
Swanson,Zane University of Central Oklahoma
Information quality of financial accounting statements is an issue for readers’ decision-making. This project investigates the association of the readability of financial statement management’s discussion and analysis (MD&A) and footnotes with the firm’s weighted average cost of capital (a key ratio used in firm valuations and investments). The study focuses upon the oil and gas industry in order to include an analysis of “successful efforts” versus “full cost” accounting methods. We use a regression system of two equations. The first equation is based on the premise that firm management/financial statement preparers will act to minimize the weighted accounting average cost of capital (WACC) with respect to their readability of MD& A and footnotes. The second equation posits that the MD&A readability is a function of WACC plus footnote readability characteristics. We also analyze a logistic regression to investigate the impact of WACC information on accounting method choice of “successful efforts” versus “full cost”. Results indicate that accounting readability of footnotes does associate with weighted average cost of capital. This study extends readability research into the footnote area. In an unexplored area, the study finds firm financial data impacts the accounting choice of “successful efforts” versus “full cost”, but no association is apparent of the method with weighted
Poster
Acute Effects of two Different Foam Rollers on Range of Motion
Henry ,Isaac University of Central Oklahoma
Foam rolling is based on the concept of self-myofascial release (SMR), which simply means using one’s own body weight to achieve myofascial release. The popularization of foam rolling is partly due to the documented and perceived benefits of increasing ROM before physical activity such as lowering the risk of injury and maximizing the benefits of certain exercises. The purpose of this study is to compare the acute effects of two different foam rollers on hip and shoulder ROM. It is hypothesized that the denser and more versatile foam roller will more significantly increase hip and shoulder ROM. Only those who have had experience foam rolling will be allowed to participate. A randomized cross-over design will be used, with three different treatments: multi-rigid foam roller, super nova, and a control trial which will receive no treatment. Hip and shoulder ROM will be measured with a goniometer before and after each treatment by the same tester. Both foam rolling treatments are expected to improve ROM more effectively than the control, but the super nova treatment is expected to show the most favorable results. The results of this study will help clarify if foam rolling is effective at acutely increasing ROM and which foam roller is superior. Health professionals will then be able to make a better decision as to whether foam rolling should be practiced before physical activity and which foam roller will be most effective.
Poster
Adoption of Virtualization and its Business Impact
Nandedkar ,Ankur Cameron University
Bisht,Rahul Cameron University
Chaudhary,Jayant Cameron University
Businesses are investing heavily on technological enhancements and one of the emerging technology that has garnered the attention of scholars and practitioners alike is virtualization. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the effectiveness of virtualization. We demonstrate it by explaining the way businesses can embrace this technology to significantly reduce their operating expenses. Overarching goal of virtualization is to eliminate inefficiencies in resource utilization, and enhance profitability for the business. In order to shed light on the efficacy of virtualization, various business specific case studies provided by virtualization vendor companies like Cisco, VMware, and Tech target were considered. Additionally, the financial statistics provided by these studies were also used to ascertain the facts presented in the paper. A thorough understanding of the virtualization and how it can help business improve the overall performance is a necessity before implementation of the technology. This paper intends to help managers understand what virtualization is and how the businesses can embrace this technology to enhance their overall performance. The limitation of this paper is that it only focuses on server virtualization and does not go in depth about other virtualizations techniques like storage virtualization and desktop virtualization. It was done for the parsimony of the research.
Poster
Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for A Generic Sport Utility Vehicle Using Rear Suction
Yadav ,Rohan University of Central Oklahoma
Fischer,Justin University of Central Oklahoma
MOUSSA,ABDELLAH University of Central Oklahoma
The high demand for new and improved aerodynamic drag reduction devices has led to the invention of flow control mechanisms and continuous suction is a promising strategy that does not have major impact on vehicle geometry. The implementation of this technique on sport utility vehicles (SUV) requires adequate choice of the size and location of the opening as well as the magnitude of the boundary suction velocity. We report here a new methodology to identifying these parameters for maximum reduction in aerodynamic drag. The technique combines automatic modeling of the suction slit, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a global search method using orthogonal arrays. It is shown that a properly designed suction mechanism can reduce drag by up to 9%.
Poster
Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck using Bump-Shape Vortex Generators
Fischer ,Justin University of Central Oklahoma
Yadav,Rohan University of Central Oklahoma
MOUSSA,ABDELLAH University of Central Oklahoma
The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this project we investigate the extent to which bump-shape vortex generators placed in the rear of the cabin roof have on the overall reduction of aerodynamic drag for a generic model of a commercial truck. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, a probability density and repetitive restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.
Poster
Aggressive behavior between forager nestmates and non-nestmates of the sweat bee Halictus scabiosae (Rossie) in Turkey (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)
Gonzalez ,Victor University of Kansas
Patton,Ry University of Kansas
Girisgin,Onur Uludag University
Plascencia,Montserratt University of California, Santa Cruz
Barthell,John University of Central Oklahoma
Hranitz,John Bloomsburg University
Çakmak ,Ibrahim Uludag University
Bees of the family Halictidae, commonly known as sweat bees, are unique because of their plastic social behavior. Even within the same population, females in some nests are entirely solitary while in others they live in groups and are completely social. Additionally, depending on the region and development of the colony, movement of foragers among nests are also possible. We studied behavioral interactions between forager nestmates and non-nestmates of the sweat bee Halictus scabiosae (Rossie), a common species in the campus of the Uludag University in Bursa, Turkey. We experimentally paired social females from the same nest (n = 8 trials) and females from different nests (n = 9 trials) within a circle-tube and video recorded their behavior in the dark. We recorded the frequency of 10 behavioral patterns during 20 min per trial (n = 5.3 hours total). Aggressive behaviors were significantly more common between nestmates than between non-nestmates. However, cooperative and avoidance behaviors were significantly higher between non-nestmates than between nest-mates. Our behavioral observations support recent molecular studies in other European populations of H. scabiosae that show that nest switches among foragers are common and suggest that nests of this species in Turkey may also include a mixture of related and unrelated workers.
Poster
Algae: The Key to Unlocking Multicellularity Abstract
Fields ,Joseph-Michael Langston University
Cancer, a devastating disease that results from the breakdown in the pathways that lead to multicellularity potentially making genes associated with multicellular evolution defective. This suggests that cancer results from errors in the cell cycle regulatory pathway. The hypothesis for my project is modifications in the cell cycle regulatory pathway in Volvocine algae has resulted in multicellularity. So, the goal of this research project is to use the Volvocine algae as a model system to study multicellular evolution using candidate genes from the multicellular organism Gonium pectorale and transforming then into the unicellular organism Chlamydomonas. The methodology to this project was to take cloned candidate multicellularity genes from Gonium and functionally test them looking for a gain of function in the Chlamydomonas cells. The transformed Chlamydomonas cells were then plated, grown, picked and examined under a microscope for evidence of transformation. The Chlamydomonas cells that were electroporated with the cell-cell adhesion gene from Gonium were successfully transformed; the unicellular Chlamydomonas became multicellular with the insertion of the Gonium gene. With these results it is possible to further our research by taking the next step and performing a RNA-seq on the transformed multicellular Chlamydomonas. Using this we hope to one day transition our knowledge from the algae model system to vastly improve our ability to detect and treat human cancers.
Poster
All About the 3-Point Kick
Murray ,Cynthia University of Central Oklahoma
Hiddink,Seth University of Central Oklahoma
Perlingiere,Danielle University of Central Oklahoma
Sanders,Jessica University of Central Oklahoma
This study investigates whether there is variability in successful field goal DISTANCES in professional football with regard to the team, quarter (1-4, OT), stadium (indoor/outdoor/both), regular/post season game, home/away game, time (month and year) and the kicker’s age and size. In addition, because a team can reduce its reliance on a bad FG kicker, the NUMBER of successful field goals was analyzed. To determine reliability, 5 years (2009-2013) of data was collected (NFL.com) which included 4207 successful field goals by 56 kickers. Statistical methods included t-tests, analysis of variance, goodness-of-fit chi-square tests, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression. Based on univariate analyses, the longest average distance occurred in stadiums with a retractable roof, regular season games, and in 2012 or 2013. The number of field goals was greatest in the 2nd quarter, outdoor stadiums, and the month of December. The greatest number of field goals (61.6%) was between 20-30 and 30-40 yards. The largest percent of kicks greater than 40 yards (43.4%) occurred in October 2013.
Poster
Alteration of Flower Morphology Ballota Acetabulosa Influences Pollinator Guild Composition and Behaviour
Carson ,Rhonda University of Central Oklahoma
Plascencia,Montserratt University of California Santa Cruz
Naranjo,Shiala Muhlenberg College
Salazar,Timothy University of Chicago
Young,Chelsea Muhlenberg College
Pastor,Maria Jose San Francisco State University
Hranitz ,John Bloomsburg University
Gonzalez,Victor University of Kansas
Barthell,John University of Central Oklahoma
The Greek horehound, Ballota acetabulosa (Lamiaceae), is an evergreen shrub native to Southeast Greece, Crete, and West Turkey. Flowers of this plant are bilateral, with filaments and styles located on the adaxial side or top of the flower. Thus, many bee species, have morphological adaptations to passively collect pollen from this type of flowers. Flowers also feature a nectar guide, which may serve to signal reward and guide the searching behavior of pollinators. To investigate how removal of the flower's nectar guide affects bee visitors, we conducted an experiment in two adjacent plots, one control plot and one experimental plot, on the island of Lesvos, Greece. Bee visitation, handling time per bee, and nectar flow per plant were measured during 30-minute trials that were timed at two-hour intervals on each day. Nine bee species visited our plots; however, honey (Apis mellifera) and leaf cutter bees (Megachile lefebvrei) were the most frequent visitors. Handling time per bee were similar but also displayed high variance, suggesting that individual bees might have learned or that innate differences may exist between species. Our results support the hypothesis that nectar guides reduce searching behavior of bee foragers, but also suggest that different bees may not use nectar guides or that they rely on other clues to locate flowers.
Poster
Americans with Disabilities Act and the Hospitality Management Programs
Reeve ,Elizabeth Education & Professional Studies
Cambiano,Renee Education & Professional Studies
When looking at the desires of the many hospitality management programs, many state that they will prepare the students to become qualified hospitality professionals for the various opportunities available in the fastest growing segments of the nation’s economy (Milwaukee Area Technical College, 2014). Part of becoming prepared is understanding the many issues related to the field, such as the many allegations due to not being in compliance with the Americans with disabilities act (US Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, 2014). There are methods to train adults in different environments, such as the Malcolm Knowles’ theory of andragogy, just-in-time learning theory, and adult education theory by Mezirow and Brookfield (Wang & Kania-Gosche, 2011). However, it is unknown rather higher education students in the hospitality programs are being trained to use these resources, in regards to the ADA, or being assessed for the use of these programs (Šerić, Saura, & Descals, 2011). Adult education theories state that the adult needs to feel empowered and in-control of their learning (Coryell, 2013; Franz, 2007). The qualitative, transformative study will explore how the training and assessment allows the students to feel empowered when applying the ADA in the hospitality industry.
Poster
An Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Determination Using ortho-Nitroaniline and Carbon nanotube Modified Microelectrode
Khan ,Taimoor Northeastern State University
Abia,Jude Northeastern State University
In this study, an amperometric glucose micro-biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized ortho-nitroaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PoAN/CNT) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Electropolymerization of ortho-nitroaniline on the surface of the 10micron Pt electrode was carried out at constant potential (0.75 V, vs. Ag/AgCl) using an electrochemical cell containing ortho-nitroaniline, glucose oxidase, and multi-walled CNT. The working conditions for preparing the film was optimized and effects of temperature, pH and operational stability were investigated. Quantification of glucose was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The micro-biosensor showed a fast response time of 2.0s, a glucose calibration detection limit of 5.8 x 10-8M, 98% of initial activity was retained after 30 days (when stored in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at 4 °C), and no significant interference from L-ascorbic acid, uric acid, and acetaminophen.
Poster
An Analysis of Food Options Available at and Near the University of Central Oklahoma Dania Ghassoub, Tawni Holmes PhD, RD, LD; University of Central Oklahoma
Ghassoub ,Dania University of Central Oklahoma
Holmes Ph. D., R.D., L.D.,Dr.,Tawni University of Central Oklahoma
It is well known that college students have generally poor eating habits. This research aims to assess the food preferences of UCO students by use of a survey and to assess food options on or near the UCO campus. Nutritional content of foods available as well as healthy alternatives to preferred foods will be provided. Results from survey and analysis will be presented on the Oklahoma Research Day.
Poster
An ANALYSIS on the BEIGE BOOK’S DALLAS DISTRICT
Huhman ,Ashley East Central University
The Beige Book is an anecdotal and economically relied report released through the Federal Reserve. My research will explore comparing the anecdotal to the factual data gathered from a variety of sources. Through rigorous statistical methods and testing, we will demonstrate evidence for comparison. Results will either show economic relevance or that testing needs to continue.
Poster
An antioxidant 3,4’,5-trismethoxybenzophenone inhibits growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells
Kotturi ,Hari University of Central Oklahoma
Patton,Christopher University of Central Oklahoma
Khadka,Pritika University of Central Oklahoma
Liver diseases affect about 30 million Americans (American Liver Society). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Risk factors for HCC include viral infection such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C, alcoholic hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver cirrhosis. Current therapies available for treating HCC include Sorafenib, surgical resection, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, ethanol ablation, combination drug therapy, and liver transplantation. However, these approaches are inadequate in controlling the progression of HCC and there is a growing need for inexpensive new therapeutic agents with minimal side effects to humans. Human hepatoma cell line (FCA4 cells) that harbors a subgenomic selectable HCV replicon was used to study the effect of 3,4’,5-Trismethoxybenzophenone (TMBP). Western blot was conducted to analyze the viral NS5B polymerase level in FCA4 cells treated with varying concentrations of the drug. The effect of TMBP on cell proliferation/viability was assayed using MTT method. TMBP was found to be highly effective in reducing NS5B polymerase level at 2.5 µM, which was found to be below its IC50 as determined by the MTT assay. Our results indicate that TMBP possesses anti-cancer and anti-viral properties.
Poster
An Ecological Survey of a Freshwater Bog in South-Central Oklahoma
Tedford ,Kinsey University of Central Oklahoma
Bass,David University of Central Oklahoma
An unusual wetland pond, known as a quaking bog, is located on the Oka’ Yanahli Preserve in Pontotoc County. A quaking bog possesses a false-bottom composed of a thick layer of vegetation floating beneath the water surface. There is little known about these ecosystems, and none have been described in any published studies in Oklahoma. The objectives of this study included determining basic water quality, identifying macroinvertebrates present, estimating population sizes, calculating species diversity, and comparing macroinvertebrate samples from different areas of the bog. In June of 2014, water samples were collected from the pond to determine basic water quality parameters. Six biological samples were collected using a petite Ponar bottom grab in a transect (center, middle, outer) across the bog. These samples were preserved and returned to the laboratory for sorting, identification, and counting. Results have shown high water quality exists in the wetland. There were 28 different taxa identified out of the 2,930 macroinvertebrates collected, 334 of the organisms being insects. Annelids and fingernail clams were the most abundant taxa. When comparing sampling areas, the center contained the largest number of individuals and middle samples had the greatest diversity. Shannon-Wiener Species Diversity results are as follows: center (1.67), middle (2.46), outer (2.11), and collectively (1.76).
Poster
An Evaluation of the Optelec Low Vision Diagnostic Tool
Reece ,Jedediah Northeastern State University
Purpose. We evaluated the Optelec Low Vision Diagnostic Tool (OLVDT), a portable electronic magnification device, for its accuracy in determining add power. We also provided a survey to determine the subject’s optimism in achieving their goal of reading more effectively while using the device. Methods. We performed an observational clinical study of 20 low vision subjects. Exclusions: BCVA of 20/40 or better, illiteracy, and significant dementia. Each subject’s predicted add power for reading 1.0M text was assessed with the MNRead and the OLVDT. Subjects then rated each test on a 1-10 scale for its ability to give them more hope for improved reading ability. Results. The mean predicted add powers for the MNRead and the OLVDT were 7.80 and 7.29 D respectively, a difference of 0.51 D with a standard deviation of 3.59 D. The paired t-test for means was not significantly different between the two methods of add prediction (p=0.531). The mean levels of subjective hopefulness on a 1-10 scale for the MNRead and the OLVDT were 7.75 and 8.30 respectively, a difference of 0.55 with a standard deviation of 1.905. The paired t-test for means was not significantly different between the two (p=0.212). Conclusion. We found the OLVDT compared favorably with the MNRead in determining predicted add power. In our study, the OLVDT did not make subjects more hopeful about their ability to successfully read compared with the MNRead. Further research is indicated due to small sample siz
Poster
An evolutionary theory of Industry and Firm Dynamics: A Demand-side Analysis
Manral ,Lalit University of Central Oklahoma
We provide a demand-side perspective on the structural determinants of firm heterogeneity along an industry’s life-cycle. Our theoretical framework, which includes both industrial and firm dynamics, features a dynamic demand environment that provides the structural context for firms’ temporally heterogeneous strategic choices. Demand-side competence is conceptualized as a mediating firm-specific construct to explain the endogenous relationship between the dynamic structural characteristics of the demand environment and firms’ path dependent demand-side investments. Our alternate demand-side explanation of temporally heterogeneous firm behavior focuses on three distinct facets of evolution of firm heterogeneity – entry heterogeneity, investment heterogeneity, and exit heterogeneity – along the evolutionary path of an industry. Notably, the empirical predictions generated by the stylized theoretical model are not only novel but also directly conflict with the results of competing models of the endogenous relationship among industry and firm dynamics.
Poster
An Examination of Global Methamphetamine Trends
Shukla ,Rashi University of Central Oklahoma
Magness,Matt University of Central Oklahoma
Stoneberg,Danielle University of Central Oklahoma
Watkins,Brad University of Central Oklahoma
Methamphetamine is increasingly becoming a problem internationally. As the most widely manufactured amphetamine type stimulant (ATS), methamphetamine use ranks second only to marijuana as the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. Few studies have examined methamphetamine from an international perspective. This study examines recent shifts in patterns of use, trafficking, and production occurring in regions around the world. Data were gathered from secondary sources including governmental drug assessments and media reports. Though the methamphetamine problem continues to be dynamic, recent indicators suggest it is becoming increasingly complex and expansive; various dimensions are appearing in new areas and shifts are being identified within and between countries around the world. Global trends and the limitations of sources of information currently available will be presented.
Poster
An Experimental Study for Evaluating the Accuracy of a Smartphone App
Wang ,Yuxuan University of Central Oklahoma
Fu,Jicheng University of Central Oklahoma
We have developed a smartphone app for measuring wheelchair tilt and recline angles. In this study, we attempt to compare the measurement precision of the smartphone app against a commercial angle gauge (Wixey, WR300). The smartphone and the angle gauge were placed side by side on the armrest of the wheelchair. The tilt angle of the wheelchair was adjusted by 5 degrees a time from 0 degree to 45 degrees. We repeated the experiment for 11 times to ensure the fairness of the comparison. Experimental results show that angle differences only occurred in the range of 30 to 45 degrees. The difference is no more than 1 degree on average. We also analyzed the experimental data with SPSS, which showed the difference of measurement results between the smartphone and angle gauge was not significant (p > 0.05) Therefore, we can conclude that our smartphone app offers high measurement precision that is comparable to the commercial angle gauge.
Poster
An Initial Heuristic to Dynamically Generate a Student’s Optimal Course Schedule
Paynter ,Bradley University of Central Oklahoma
Harris ,Spencer University of Central Oklahoma
Sundy ,Kristina University of Central Oklahoma
Minimizing the number of semesters a student must take in college before graduation can help students find a paying job faster, minimize per-semester fees associated with the college, and reduce transportation, housing, and food costs for the student. This type of problem is an optimization problem requiring the creation of a schedule to minimize a given resource (in this case, semesters taken). The problem is complicated by several constraints; for example, the dependencies courses have on each other. In this project, a complex degree program including many dependencies and several concurrent dependencies was examined. Previous work has developed a heuristic based on the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and the critical path method (CPM). This heuristic finds the critical courses and has been implemented in C++. The next stage of development is another heuristic to turn this critical path information into an actual schedule of courses. We present the implementation details of the former heuristic and the initial progress on the latter.
Poster
An Introduction to STIX with Examples
McCarthy ,Ryan University of Tulsa
Structured Threat Information Expression (STIX) is a standard developed by Mitre that is being backed by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). STIX aims to standardize the way companies and governments share indicators of compromise so we can better protect computers across the world. STIX attempts to achieve this goal by defining a standardized language to represent cyber threat information. Standardizing the threat indicators allows for computers to become much more automated in how they handle and use these indicators. Computers can work with data much more efficiently than humans can and this allows them to ingest and act on information much quicker than humans ever could. This makes it possible to share and use indicators around the world in near real-time. The advantages and attributes of STIX with be demonstrated while analyzing a sample of malware to see how STIX conveys an in-depth knowledge of attacks and targets.
Poster
An Investigation of Cellular Motility Using Rescued Algal Cells
Fijalka ,Daniel University of Central Oklahoma
Nguyen,Thi University of Central Oklahoma
Karpowicz,Steven University of Central Oklahoma
Xu,Gang University of Central Oklahoma
The flagella of green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are a popular model system utilized to study human cilia due to their remarkably similar genetics, structure, and functions. With an ultimate goal of understanding human cilia-related diseases, the correlation between structure and function in Chlamydomonas flagella must be investigated to provide better understanding in this area. The observation of how cells adapt to move in a variety of media can bring new insight. To achieve this, Chlamydomonas cells were cultured in various medium viscosities and then diluted with a control media to revert or “rescue” them from their thicker growth media. Videos of the cells were immediately taken after the dilution with a digital camera under a microscope and their velocities were tracked using a custom Matlab imaging processing program. Our data show that Chlamydomonas flagella appear to maintain their ability to propel the cell body. Combined with genetics data, this information may shed new light on how mechanics and genetics are regulated for flagellar and ciliary functions.
Poster
An Investigation of the Declining U.S. Natural Gas Imports
Cevera ,Kyle University of Central Oklahoma
Alger,Opal University of Central Oklahoma
It is evident that the natural gas imports of the U.S. have been declining in recent years. Several demand and supply factors may be behind the decline in the imports. The proliferating production appears to be the main driving force behind the imports decline. In addition, staggering demand due to efficiency improvement and more or less normal weather in more recent years could be contributing to it as well. In our study, we examine several aspects of gas import declines. Specifically, we study the patterns of the gas imports in more recent years with respect to the sources of imports such as pipeline imports and LNG imports. In addition, we study the connections between the declining patterns in imports and the increases in the production pattern. The trend in consumption pattern and its connection with imports will also be investigated. The data will be based on the information from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Empirical analysis based on this data will be expected to provide some stylized facts about the gas imports, as well as some information about the factors behind the decline in imports. Our study hopefully will provide some insight into the future of the gas import and export business.
Poster
Analysis and Comparison of Biodiesel and Diesel Used as Fire Accelerants
Rodne ,Rumer University of Central Oklahoma
Fires can occur unintentionally (accidental), occur naturally, or be intentionally started which is arson. No matter how the fire occurred, it can destroy a lot of property as well as cost humans their lives, which makes it hard to investigate how a fire was started. Often in the case of arson a fire accelerant is used to help spread the fire and collection of debris from the fire is important as traces of the fire accelerant could be detected in the debris. In this study biodiesel and diesel were used as fire accelerants to start fires and the debris from those fires was used to see if the fire accelerant could be determined using a carbon strip and Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). It was hypothesized there would be similarities between biodiesel and diesel as they have similar chemical properties however differences would be seen as they are two different fuels. The results from the GC-MS of both accelerants were analyzed and then compared against each other. The results showed that while biodiesel and diesel shared common characteristics which are typically seen in hydrocarbons in general, it was found that the two were different from each other. This information can be used in the criminal aspect as it can tell investigators what started the fire in an arson crime if an arsonist used biodiesel or diesel or eliminate the two as possible fire accelerants.
Poster
Analysis of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Genes In Oklahoma Plants
Spencer ,Diana Tulsa Community College
DeLeon,Alex Tulsa Community College
Cox,Jordan Tulsa Community College
Rice,Samantha Tulsa Community College
Noble,Tyler Tulsa Community College
Nichols,Jennifer Tulsa Community College
The protein Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a well-understood enzyme in cellular respiration. The target of this study is the GAPC family of genes that code for GAPDH. Human GAPDH is over expressed in certain types of cancer and appears to have roles in DNA replication and repair, regulation of transcription, programmed cell death, and human neuronal diseases. Our aim was to have a major portion of the GAPC gene sequenced from native plants in northeastern Oklahoma and investigate whether potential phylogenetic placement based upon the sequences of the GAPDH gene would be similar to present taxonomic schemes. We hypothesized that the plants from Asteraceae would be most similar to each other, and the monocot data would exhibit the greatest genetic distance from the dicot data. In this study, DNA from Oklahoma plants was extracted and evaluated. The DNA was amplified and analyzed on an agarose gel. The purified product was ligated into a plasmid vector and then transformed into a bacterium for selection. Plasmids were purified, restriction enzyme digested, and DNA sequenced from positive clones. Following bioinformatics analysis, we conclude that the relationship between the GAPC gene sequences may support traditional phylogenetic placement.
Poster
Analysis of house prices in Dallas, Texas
Qayyum ,Arif Cameron University
Aryal.Astha Cameron University
Rehman,Omer Cameron University
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the prices of houses in Dallas, Texas and observe the relation between house price and its characteristics. In order to carry out our analysis, we considered factors such as number of bed rooms, number of bathrooms, parking spaces, lot size, fire place, pool, and the age of the house. This paper also analyzes the highly influential characteristics in setting house prices.
Poster
Analysis of leaching of dibutyl phthalate from a commercial faucet hose into water using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC MS)
Bowen ,John University of Central Oklahoma
Briscoe,Thomas University of Central Oklahoma
Brooks,Erin H.S. Homeschool
Westhover,Justin H.S. Homeschool
Chisam,Juliette Edmond North HS
Albahadily,F. University of Central Oklahoma
Figueora,Luis University of Central Oklahoma
Ellis,Shawna University of Central Oklahoma
Lewis,Dalton Edmond North HS
Various Phthalate Esters are used as plasticizers in commercial plastics and are known to leach into drinking water. Some are also implicated as endocrine disruptors. For this study, a common flexible plastic faucet hose was purchased from a hardware store, and analyzed using SPME-GCMS using an internal standard. Timed samples of deionized water were exposed to the hose, and quantitated for dibutyl phthalate concentration. Several internal standards were synthesized and used for this study.
Poster
Analysis of the Effects of the 2008 Financial Crisis on Banks: Regional and national
Qayyum ,Arif Cameron University
Bannon,Roger Cameron University
Diallo,Thierno Cameron University
Toni’Osagie,Ehenedon Cameron University
Williams,John Cameron University
The purpose of this research is to look at national banks versus regional banks (Oklahoma and Texas) during the 2008 financial crisis. We will attempt to determine whether differences in size and level of risk between large and small institutions have any financial effect during the 2008 financial crisis. We examine six institutional annual financial reports over the course of several years. Our results show level of risk and profitability of both types of banks under stressful macroeconomic conditions.
Poster
Animals on Campus
Von Bergen ,Clarence Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Bressler,Martin Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Robinson,Emily Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Roberts,Sarah Southeastern Oklahoma State University
For decades, universities have been accommodating physically disabled students who require guide dogs and other types of service animals. Within the past several years, however, mentally disabled students have increasingly petitioned colleges with “no pet” policies to permit them to bring their animals on campus because they need a companion or emotional support animal to make college life easier and to reduce their stress, loneliness, depression, and/or anxiety. Institutions that unlawfully reject such requests are finding themselves in court and charged with disability discrimination. Schools are understandably confused about their obligation, if any, to waive their pet bans under these circumstances. This article discusses pets on campus and provides administrators guidance with respect to this increasingly contentious issue and to keep their organizations “out of the legal dog house.”
Poster
Antagonistic interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different age groups of cystic fibrosis patients
Wright ,Anna Oklahoma State University
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and immunocompromised individuals contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. Once infected with P. aeruginosa, patients are chronically colonized and unable to clear the infection even with antimicrobial treatment. P. aeruginosa is inherently resistant to many antimicrobials which has encouraged the hunt for novel potential therapeutics. Recently, P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from the same CF patient were shown to interact antagonistically where secreted signals from one isolate decreased protease production by another isolate. This antagonistic interaction also decreased the virulence of the virulent P. aeruginosa isolate. The purpose of this study was to determine if P. aeruginosa isolates from a variety of patients in three different age groups (under 13, between 13 and 18, and above 18) would respond to the antagonistic signals. Two antagonistic signal producing P. aeruginosa isolates (14672 and 14651) were co-cultured with P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from various patients. After P. aeruginosa cultures are grown and mixed they are spotted onto skim milk plates to test for the levels of protease production. Protease production is measured by a zone of clearing around the bacterial culture. The mixed cultures are then compared to individual strains also spotted on the skim milk plates. This method was used to test P. aeruginosa isolates from all age
Poster
Antitumor Laser Immunotherapy: A Mathematical Model and Analysis
Dawkins ,Bryan University of Central Oklahoma
Laverty,Sean University of Central Oklahoma
We present a mathematical model describing the immune-mediated dynamics of primary and metastatic tumor cell populations treated with laser immunotherapy. We explicitly model dendritic cell and cytotoxic T cell dynamics in the immune response to treatment. Also included in the model are tumor antigens, which are tumor-specific proteins released during tumor irradiation by laser and tumor cell death via cytotoxic T cells. We present the qualitative cases that our model simulations predict as a function of key parameters directly influenced by regulatory T cells. Using these key parameters, we describe conditions for successful and unsuccessful treatment. The qualitative cases of our model simulation will be compared to experimental tumor burden data.
Poster
Application of Orange and Rosemary Oil Emulsions to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Yogurt
Sousa Junior ,Wanderley University of Central Oklahoma
Almeida,Matheus University of Central Oklahoma
Bhargas,Kanika University of Central Oklahoma
Barros,Julie University of Central Oklahoma
Yogurt is well known for its health properties. Essential oils have been suggested for its vast benefits such as flavor, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Therefore, they can be applied to improve quality and shelf life of yogurt. However, application of these oils is limited due to their lipophilic nature. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of the use of essential oil emulsions in yogurt. The essential oil emulsions were made by ultrasonication process and characterized for particle size and stability. 2% low-fat milk was supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of orange and rosemary oil emulsions. The samples were inoculated with yogurt culture (Danisco YO-MIX 883 LYO 500 DCU), fermented (8 hours), and stored at 4 °C. Total titrable acidity (TTA), pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Average particle size of emulsions was 130 nm and emulsions were stable for at least 4 months. The results indicated that the application of essential oil emulsions in yogurts could be a possible alternative for a better improvement of the quality and shelf life of yogurt.
Poster
Application of Silver, Gold, and Platinum complexes in Medicine
Rahman ,A.K.Fazlur Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
This review summarizes the various usage of silver, gold, and platinum complexes and nanoparticles in medicine including some future perspective. The use of metals in medicine was rare in the ancient world. Recent research showed the versatility of metals in pharmacology and medicine. In medicine, metals are now used as complexes or as nanoparticles. When used as complexes, the compounds attach to various ligands in the body to serve targeted functions. Platinum complexes are used to treat cancer due to its ability to prevent the division of living cells. Silver complexes interrupt the ability of bacteria cells to form bonds which causes the bacteria to fall apart.While silver nanoparticles are relatively inert, gold nanoparticles were found to be effective, especially in the treatment of cancer.
Poster
Application of Silver, Gold, and Platinum complexes in Medicine : An Educational Study
Wu ,Tina Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
This review summarizes the uses of silver, gold, and platinum complexes and nanoparticles in medicine. The use of metals in medicine was unknown or limited in the ancient world. In the field of medicine, metals are most commonly used in complexes or as nanoparticles. When used in complexes, the compounds attach to various ligands in the body to serve different functions. Most notably, platinum complexes were developed to treat cancer due to its ability to prevent the division of living cells. Similarly, silver complexes interrupt the ability of bacteria cells to form bonds which causes the bacteria to fall apart. Beginning in the 20th century, developments were made in the field of nanomedicine and the use of nanoparticles. While silver nanoparticles are relatively inert, gold nanoparticles were found to be very effective, especially in the treatment of cancer. With the knowledge of both complexes and nanoparticles, further research could lead to the discovery of effective cures for cancer.
Poster
Arguing against yourself: Exploring the relationship between episodic memory and perjury
Jent ,Kelly University of Central Oklahoma
Hancock,Thomas University of Central Oklahoma
Pyle, Jordan University of Central Oklahoma
False memories are the incorporation of new material into memory which modifies what people believe they experienced. This acquisition of new information contaminates the original memory of the event, reconstructing it. False memory research has consistently shown how misinformation presented after an event affects subsequent recall. What is unknown in the literature is how malleable memory is once the participant has already provided a testimony of the event. To this end, this study evaluated the effects of false information given to participants contingent upon their original testimony. Participants were required to watch a video and either give a testimony or answer questions about what they witnessed. After a week delay, participants were provided with information that either confirmed or dis-confirmed their original testimony. For each statement participants had to indicate if the statement was accurate or not and provide their confidence for each claim. Participants were likely to accept misinformation presented to them a week later that specifically contradicted their original accurate testimony. Confidence ratings showed that participants overall confidence was less about the new information; however, when given a dichotomous choice (yes, it happened/no, it did not happen) they would still choose the former. This study suggests that false information presented after a period of time still affects the memory of an event.
Poster
Art and Illustration: Are Educators Missing the Big Picture When Developing Studio Curriculum?
Webb ,Keith University of Central Oklahoma
In keeping with tradition, art, illustration and design educators collectively agree that the ability to create foundational renderings in the form of sketches represents the initial visual dialog between the student and the instructor. With further instruction, and perhaps input from peers, the student internalizes the vast majority of the process which is filled with experimentation, self reflection, mechanical and technical problem solving driving toward the final illustrated solution. The road to image completion includes both cognitive and psychomotor hurdles for the student to overcome, adapt and build upon. Students and educators find themselves with more choices than ever in the methodology of image creation. With these options comes the added institutional pressure to learn and teach ever-changing and expanding software in our curriculum to meet industry expectations. This paper discusses the results of a study that applied a pedagogical model and practices using Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy in the development of illustration studio objectives in comparison to the traditional studio model. Included in the discussion are the results of student performance outcomes using applied progressive objectives based on the taxonomy during three academic semesters. This study incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods of investigation in its conclusion and its findings reflect the outcomes of beginning, intermediate and advanced illustration students.
Poster
Art Communication and Theatre's different organizations.
Graham ,Justice Southeastern Oklahoma State University
The different clubs, organizations and involvement that a person can be involved in with Southeastern Oklahoma State University's department of Art Communication and Theatre.
Poster
Art? or Artifact? A Thematic Art Curriculum
Beach ,Gleny Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Scribner, Thelma Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Sheppard,Cassi Southeastern Oklahoma State University
This thematic unit explores the ideas and definition of the terms "art" and "artifact. Throughout history cultures have created objects. Often creations were and are simply for aesthetic purposes. However, many objects were created for other purposes. Some were created as functional objects, while others were created as narratives of people’s lives and history. The purpose of this unit is to focus on created works to determine the maker’s intent and purpose. Students analyze and make critical judgments about “art” or “artifact” and produce artistic works that in future years could be considered “artifacts”. Students are guided to make decisions and defend what constitutes an artifact, as well as what makes a work of art, “art”. In the unit lessons, students practice critical thinking and evaluation to be able to explain the difference between the two terms,which expands their abilities to process information as well as make connections in cultural relations between the past and present. These integrated art lessons address artistic, creative, research, and written components as well as utilize individual and collaborative efforts.
Poster
Assessing Black Rail occupancy and habitat along the Texas Gulf Coast
Tibbits ,Jeffrey University of Central Oklahoma
Butler,Chris University of Central Oklahoma
The Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) is one of the most secretive birds in North America, and little is known about the habitat requirements of Black Rails along the Gulf Coast. Anecdotal observations suggest that this species’ population has declined during the last century, and wetland surveys document a substantial loss of breeding habitat. We conducted breeding bird surveys to estimate occupancy and detection probability for the Black Rail in estuarine wetlands. Surveys occurred at Brazoria and San Bernard National Wildlife Refuges from March to May of 2014. We incorporated breeding bird survey data with habitat covariates to identify the variables that influence Black Rail occupancy. This information will be used to improve Black Rail survey protocols and management strategies for Black Rails along the Texas Gulf Coast.
Poster
Assessing Overall Satisfaction of American Indian Students with the NSU Experience
McCann ,Jennifer Northeastern State University
Jackson,Tom Northeastern State University
Northeastern State University’s Indigenous Scholar Development Center (ISDC) is a Title III NASNTI grant designed to identify and facilitate the success of at-risk American Indian students. In order to provide the necessary services the ISDC assesses American Indian students’ overall levels of satisfaction and familiarity with NSU and its Indigenous services and programs. Familiarity with support and programs were also assessed. The survey consists of five demographic questions and 19 satisfaction program familiarity questions. The Checkbox software used allowed for only self-identified American Indian students to receive the survey link as well as limiting their completion of the survey to one iteration. In order to increase the response rate, ISDC gained IRB approval to distribute and collect the survey in a paper format from American Indian students. Results indicate positive satisfaction overall and some of the services provided as well as a degree of familiarity with NSU indigenous services and programs which, while acceptable, needs further promotion. Discussion will include the survey results as well as steps to be taken to heighten awareness, familiarity and satisfaction with all of NSU’s indigenous programs.
Poster
Attitudes, Impulse, and Mechanisms: The Who, What, and Why of Student Debt
Martin ,Heather University of Central Oklahoma
Grellner ,Janelle University of Central Oklahoma
The significant debt of college students rises with each graduating class. The United States’ increased use of credit cards ranks with the highest levels of bankruptcy rates in the world. The current research conceptualizes the components of student debt as financial attitudes, impulse control, and spending mechanisms. Up to 100 students from two undergraduate psychology courses will be assessed for financial attitudes and impulsivity using empirically supported scales. After assessment students will randomly participate in a payment group, the control group (combination of payment methods chosen by participants), a cash only group, or a card only group, for a four week period. At the conclusion of the spending period participants will submit receipts and statements for analysis and receive financial education resources provided by Oklahoma CPAs and Oklahoma Money Matters. We hypothesize poor financial attitudes and high impulsivity will result in increased spending overall, low impulsivity and conscientious financial attitudes will result in lowest spending overall, and students who use cash only will spend less than the card only or control group. We seek to identify specific individual and combinations of cognitive and behavioral processes involved in varying levels of student debt and to create a financial education program that generates awareness among college students and teaches the skills and perspective needed to graduate from higher institutions debt free.
Poster
Auction Clerkin
Auction Clerking System
Alrifai ,Rad Northeastern State University
Crozier ,Justin Northeastern State University
Baldridge ,Blair Oklahoma State University
This project aims to recreate the clerking system for auction houses by using a modern programming language and modern graphical user interface. The auction clerking system is used to manage information needed to run an auction. It tracks information about buyers, sellers, and items being sold. The application performs all necessary calculations and generates receipts for buyers and sellers. This application was developed in C# programming language and Microsoft Access 2013 for database storage.
Poster
Auto Attendance App for Android
Alrifai ,Rad Northeastern State University
Stewart ,Matthew Northeastern State University
Many instructors like to monitor classroom attendance, and many students come to the classroom carrying with them mobile phones or tablets. This app allows students to record their attendance. Thus, it provides an easy solution for instructors to track attendance while preserving class time from being wasted on roll calling. Instructors can login to the system to manage classes and students information to view and report on attendance history. This project is developed in Eclipse IDE with the android ADT plug-in and android 4.2 SDK. It was coded in java, XML, and SQLite.
Poster
Autofluorescence in C.elegans can be Used as an Indirect Measure of Pore-Forming Toxin Activity Laci LeFlore, Brad Ludrick Southeastern Oklahoma State University
LeFlore ,Laci Southeastern Oklahoma State University
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains lysosome-like gut granules within the intestine that strongly emit blue autofluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light.We believe this can be used as an indirect measure of intestine damage caused by pore-forming toxins by measuring intestinal autofluorescence intensity using ImageJ and Excel software.We used transformed E. coli that can be induced with IPTG to produce the pore-forming toxin, Cry5B. Cry5B is a native crystal protein of certain Bacillus thuringiensis strains and is toxic to C. elegans.C.elegans and transformed E. coli were cultured according to standard techniques.Transformed E. coli without the pore-forming toxin insert were used as thecontrol.Using a single-well assay (96-well plate), synchronized L4 individuals were placed in wells containing E. coli bacteria (toxic and control) and S medium.Individuals were grown for 24 hours at RT, immobilized with 500 mM ethyl alcohol, and then examined under a fluorescent microscope.Based upon our results, fluorescence intensity of the intestine is greatly reduced in C. elegans fed transformed E. coli(toxic). These results indicate that intestine damage caused by pore-forming toxins in may be quantified using fluorescence intensity as an indirect measure.
Poster
Autophagy plays an essential role in neuronal development and maintenance.
Holgado ,Andrea Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Powers ,Ashley Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Abbott ,Matt Southwestern Oklahoma State University
For the past decades, scientists noted that many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s, Huntington and Parkinson’s Disease are characterized by pathological accumulations of protein aggregates. However, more recently, analyses from brain autopsies and animals models show that the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates come together with a reduced protein recycling machinery. Autophagy, the primary focus of the research summarized herein, involves the removal of cell debris and the recycling of protein aggregates in health and disease. BEC-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans protein conserved from human to yeast, was shown to play an essential in autophagy and recycling of nutrients under starving conditions. Furthermore, recent research suggested that BEC-1 may link recycling of nutrients in nerve cells with growth, differentiation and maintenance of neurons. To test this probable link, we characterized the neuronal structure and function of C. elegans mutants expressing all proteins except BEC-1. Collectively, we found that BEC-1 mutants have developmental and functional defects at the level of motor neurons. Imaging analysis revealed a reduction in the number of motor neuron extensions called commissures. Quantification of motor function demonstrated severely dysfunctional locomotion. Last, results of chemical dose-response assays indicate neuronal synapses have a normal neurotransmission.
Poster
B
Bacterial diversity isolated from cystic fibrosis patients
Zheng ,Link Oklahoma State University
Pascual ,Elizabeth Oklahoma State University
Lutter ,Erika Oklahoma State University
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common recessive genetic disorder that is widely known to adversely affect an individual’s lungs resulting in thicker and stickier mucus that becomes chronically colonized by a variety of pathogens. Within the clinical setting, patients with CF routinely undergo microbiological laboratory testing to identify pathogens within their sputa. Sputa tested from multiple patients exhibited growth on Burkholderia cepacia selection agar (BCSA) in the laboratory, but not at the clinical laboratories. The objective of this study was to identify the bacterial species isolated on BCSA. Genomic DNA was obtained from each isolate and used as a template for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify the ribosomal RNA genes, which were subcloned into pCRTOPO2.1 and sequenced. All recovered isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance. A number of unique isolates identified were the Acidovorax species, Actinobacter species, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Many of the species identified are known bacterial pathogens of CF patients and some may represent novel or emerging pathogens.
Poster
Barcoding the COI Mitochondrial Gene of Culicoides, Biting Midges
Spencer ,Diana Tulsa Community College
Cox ,Jordan Tulsa Community College
O'Brien ,Valerie Tulsa Community College
Nichols ,Jennifer Tulsa Community College
Tulsa Community College Departments of Biotechnology and Biology DNA barcoding has emerged as a powerful tool to supplement traditional methods of taxonomy. Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI), a highly conserved 650 base pair segment of the mitochondrial genome, has become a ‘global standard’ to sort out broad taxonomic diversity in animals and this gene is the target of the study. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides spp.) were collected in two wildlife management areas in Oklahoma. Biting midges are vectors for parasites and pathogens but can be difficult to identify morphologically. Our aim was to investigate a protocol to name the specimen to the species level using molecular biology techniques of the barcoding standard. Our techniques included DNA extraction, PCR amplification, sequencing, and analysis through a multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree formation. We conclude that the identification of as few as five midges could be completed using the COI amplification protocols outlined here.
Poster
Battling Stickman – An Android Act Game using AndEngine
Zeng ,Wenxi University of Central Oklahoma
Sung ,Hong University of Central Oklahoma
Game engines that provide reusable components are widely used for rapid game development. In the Android platform, AndEgine is one of the most popular 2D game engines. In this project, an action game is developed using AndEngine. The main characters in this game are stickmen, and the UI of the game uses hand-painted style. Similar to most action games, the player can manipulate a controllable character to fight with enemies by using keyboard. AndEgine provides easy collision detection when attacking happens between the player and other game figures. In order to enhance combat experiences, two attacking methods are designed, a normal hit and a continuous hit. The normal hit happens each time when the attack button is pressed and released within a short duration. However, when the attack button is kept pressing without interrupt, the continuous hit is triggered. The player’s weapon and moves change over time, and the score increases exponentially during the continuous hit period. In summary, using AndEgine’s powerful physical engine and rendering mechanism, an action game with some complexity can be rapidly implemented and this project demonstrates it.
Poster
BIOINFORMATICS OF AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN (APP) IN DEMENTIA
Pollard ,Kellyn Langston University
Lewis ,Sharon Langston University
During my senior thesis, I decided to select a gene that was previously implicated in susceptibility to dementia. I chose to use bioinformatics to investigate and visualize the Amyloid Precursor Protein, which has the gene symbol of app. Amyloid Precursor Protein (app) mutations are suspected to occur in individuals with dementia. Looking to expand the knowledge of mental and emotional disorders, an investigation of dementia was performed. Dementia is a syndrome that involves a significant loss of cognitive abilities such as attention, memory, language, logical reasoning, and problem-solving with various extensions into other cognitive and chronic diseases (WebMd.com). The objective of this research is to use bioinformatics to investigate and visualize the app gene mutation in dementia and show the correlation and susceptibility of developing dementia with a mutation of this gene. Bioinformatics began to surface in the mid to late 1970s and 1980s, and is the science of gathering and analyzing intricate biological data such as genetic codes using computers and statistical techniques. Bioinformatics includes multiple disciplines working simultaneously to extract meaningful knowledge from large biological datasets which are generated from high-throughput technologies such as arrays, mass spectrometers, and meta-sequencing techniques (Hodgman, T. C.).
Poster
Building a Modern Sporting Rifle (AR15): How Much Expense, Time & Skill are Needed?
Salmon ,Thomas Northeastern State University
Salmon ,Erika Northeastern State University
Modern sporting rifles (AR15s) are the most popular rifles in the US. Their modular design allows customization for recreational and competitive shooting, personal defense and hunting. AR15s are patterned after the Army M16, but are incapable of automatic fire. Objective--To investigate how difficult it is to build a modern sporting rifle in terms of expense, time and mechanical skill. We assumed that building would be cheaper than buying, but it would be time consuming and difficult. Methods--Parts were purchased through local and online stores. Referring to a guidebook and online instructional videos, the principle investigator built an AR15 and recorded expenses, building time and observations. Conclusion--On the low end, the parts needed for a complete build cost about $600. $50-$100 additional may be needed for tools. Comparable commercial products cost about $700. It was surprisingly easy to build. Anyone with rudimentary mechanical skills and attention to detail can build an AR15 from a kit in about 3 hours. This is a good option for shooting sports enthusiasts who want to save money, who enjoy building and who want to understanding the inner workings of their rifle.
Poster
C
Cameron University Stock Portfolio: An Analysis
Qayyum ,Arif Cameron University
Aryal ,Aastha Cameron University
Bisht ,Rahul Cameron University
Morris ,Ann Cameron University
Hughes ,Jack Cameron University
The purpose of this research is to analyze the risk and return of student managed Cameron University Stock Portfolio. We evaluate three years of investment data for Cameron’s Portfolio and compare it to S&P 500 stock index. Our results present the importance of diversification and its influence on risk and return of a portfolio.
Poster
Cameroon Bamiléké Kwifo Zoomorphic Mask:The Secret Society and its Power Through the Masks
Shiraiwa ,Shikoh University of Central Oklahoma
The University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) Chamber Library houses a pronounced collection of African Art from various African societies. This paper focuses on the art of the Kwifo society from the Cameroon grasslands region. The art reflects the framework of the social, cultural, religious, and political institutions at the time of its creation. The Kwifo society was a powerful governmental administrator that balanced the power of the kings and secured the social order of the kingdoms through the use of different types of masks, such as human male and buffalo masks. Both masks were used by the Kwifo society in different rituals and ceremonies. The human mask linked the society with royal ancestors, led performances, contained medicine for healing and empowered the prestigious objects, such as the kings’ thrones and stools. This paper discusses the Bamiléké Kwifo Zoomorphic Mask from the UCO collection. The paper argues that due to its zoomorphic qualities, the mask took the major role in the Kwifo society. The first section will discuss the Cameroon grasslands artwork associated with the power of the kings, titleholders, and the Kwifo society. The second, the complex symbolism of the Bamiléké Kwifo Zoomorphic Mask is discussed in Kwifo’s political, social, religious, and economic power and zoomorphic quality of the mask. The third section demonstrates how the zoomorphic qualities of the Bamiléké Kwifo Zoomorphic Mask reflect the mask&#
Poster
Can a student manage Bond portfolio beat national indices?
Qayyum ,Arif Cameron University
Bannon ,Roger Cameron University
Diallo ,Thierno Cameron University
Toni’Osagie ,Ehenedon Cameron University
Williams ,John Cameron University
The purpose of this research is to compare the risk and return of student managed Cameron University BancFirst bond Portfolio with national bonds indices. We examine three years of investment data from Cameron’s Portfolio and compare it to data over the same period of national bond indices. Our results indicate the importance of diversification and its influence on risk and return of a portfolio.
Poster
Cardiac Vagal Regulation in Complex PTSD
Huskey ,Alisa University of Central Oklahoma
Rutter, Andrew University of Central Oklahoma
Shirali, Yasmine University of Central Oklahoma
Haws, Kyle University of Central Oklahoma
Lack, Caleb University of Central Oklahoma
Objectives The proposed study examines potential differences between nosologically differing trauma symptomology. This investigation proposes the polyvagal theory as a comprehensive theory that examines psychological and physiological coupling, demonstrating a systemic perspective of Complex PTSD and its fundamental differences from PTSD alone. Hypotheses Downward trends in RSA and shorter heart periods are expected to be most pronounced in the Complex PTSD group. We anticipate a lower correlation between RSA-change and heart-period-change in the Complex PTSD versus the PTSD and control groups, indicating decreased vagal regulation. Methodology Clinical and control samples will be selected via diagnostic, screening, and other self-report measures on Qualtrics. Participants selected to participate will be monitored with an ECG amplifier. Subsequently, they will complete a ten minute stress-inducing math task, and then a five minute post-stress resting period. Participants will then complete the Trauma History Screen and be debriefed. Summary Hypothetically, observations of vagal regulation, proposed by the Polyvagal Theory will reveal differences between Complex PTSD and PTSD populations. Vagal regulation is expected to be very low or absent post laboratory-induced stress in both groups. However, during the resting period following the stressful task, individuals in the Complex PTSD are expected to exhibit less vagal brake than those in the PTSD group.
Poster
Challenges That Saudi Students Face in Higher Education in the United States
Alsharif ,Lama Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Alshareef ,Safa Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Hurt ,Rachel Southwestern Oklahoma State University
One important service provided by the government of Saudi Arabia to the citizens is education for all age groups. Education is free for all genders regardless of education level. Saudi opened many public and private universities in the country to accommodate all of the students. One of the educational opportunities provided to students are scholarships to study outside of the country. In 2007 only 10 thousand students were studying in the United States. By 2014 the number had risen to 111 thousand. Eighty-eight of those students are studying at Southwestern Oklahoma State University in Weatherford, Oklahoma. Coming to the United States to receive an education is rewarding. However, it can be difficult. What challenges do Saudi students face in the United States?
Poster
Challenging Inequality Through Ritualized Enactments: The Case of Notting Hill
Edwards ,Jennifer Northeastern State University
Knottnerus ,J. David Oklahoma State University
This study investigates the Notting Hill Carnival, an annual ritual event in London, United Kingdom. Building on our previous research, we contend that the Notting Hill Carnival represents a special collective ritual event that is used to bring attention to social problems, such as inequality, affecting the black population within the Notting Hill section of London. Employing content analysis, we examine the Notting Hill Carnival as an annual ritual event, providing an understanding of the ritual dynamics which define the event. Further, we analyze the extent to which the carnival has become a prominent event in London. We conclude that the Notting Hill Carnival is an important ritual practice that demonstrates various themes such as social identity, conflict, unity, and culture.
Poster
Changing the Way We Teach Undergraduate Organic Labs Using Microwave Synthesis.
Rivas ,Alexander Cameron University
Nalley,Elizabeth Cameron University
Worthen,Kristen Cameron University
Adelusi,Taiwo Cameron University
Ahmad,Taj Cameron University
Allowing many chemical reactions to be completed within minutes, microwave heating has revolutionized preparative chemistry. As a result, this technology has been widely adopted in both academic and industrial laboratories. Integrating microwave-assisted chemistry into undergraduate laboratory courses enables students to perform a broader range of reactions in the allotted lab period. As a result, they can be introduced to chemistry that would otherwise have been inaccessible due to time constraints (for example, the need for an overnight reflux). A number of the chemical transformations use water as a solvent in lieu of classical organic solvents. This contributes to greener, more sustainable teaching strategies for faculty and students, while maintaining high reaction yields. The advantages inherent in microwave use make it ideal for the undergraduate laboratory. Although students are exposed to many different reactions in the classroom, many important organic reactions described in undergraduate textbooks are presently not included in the laboratory course owing to long reaction times, high temperatures, or sensitive reagents that present a potential danger to the students. In this poster, five syntheses using microwave heating will be described.
Poster
Characterization of Alumina Supported Syn-Gas Conversion Bimetallic Nanocatalysts
Davis ,Lindsay Langston University
The purpose of this project is to increase the efficiency of the Fischer-Tropsch process by targeting the most effective catalyst for the reaction. In previous work, different compositions of nanoparticle metal oxides (Co, Fe, and Cu) co-entrapped sol-gels were synthesized, reduced, and ran catalytic reaction. The products were analyzed using a gas chromatography system (GC). The samples were analyzed after synthesis, reduction, and catalytic reaction using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) for their magnetic properties and the Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) for their thermal properties. Our goal was to analyze the samples after each process to determine a trend in our result that could possibly lead to a reasonable conclusion. The main objective of this project is to study the order of ferromagnetism for each of the samples. By analyzing the saturation magnetization of these samples, we will be able to provide estimations on metal loading, reduction efficiency, and poisoning of the catalyst.
Poster
Characterization of DMID, an Isoflavonoid Pathway Enzyme, via Interactions With Vestitone Reductase
Shannon ,Tyler Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Paiva ,Nancy Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Sharp ,James Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Blackburn ,Abe Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Isoflavonoids benefit human health by acting as antioxidants or mild phytoestrogens reducing heart disease, osteoporosis, and cancer rates. All enzymes leading to pterocarpans (a class of isoflavonoids) have been cloned except for DMID [7,2’-dihydroxy-4’-methoxy-isoflavanol (DMI) dehydratase]. DMID was discovered as the final enzyme leading to pterocarpans, and was demonstrated to exhibit weak protein-protein interactions with the preceding enzyme VR (vestitone reductase). Our goal is to use protein-protein interactions and new protein techniques to isolate enough DMID or partial sequence to allow its eventual cloning and characterization. Alfalfa seedlings were grown and treated according to published methods. The levels of VR in protein extracts were assessed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting using anti-VR antiserum. Crude protein extracts were concentrated using centrifugal filtration, and an attempt was made to purify or enrich VR and DMID using co-immunoprecipitation. We are improving upon a previous method by using Protein G-magnetic Dynabeads in place of Protein A-red agarose. We have established methods for producing protein extracts containing high levels of VR, and these should also be a good source of DMID. We are continuing our DMID purification efforts by finding an appropriate ratio of beads, antibody, and protein extract before scaling up.
Poster
Characterization of Three Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Loci in Neotoma albigula
Stone ,Lindsay University of Central Oklahoma
Haynie ,Michelle University of Central Oklahoma
The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is an important component of vertebrate immune systems. Genetic analysis at Mhc loci can provide information on susceptibility to certain viral strains. Neotoma albigula (white-throated woodrat) has been associated with at least three distinct strains of arenaviruses, suggesting an interesting coevolutionary history between the host and virus. In this study, we have been screening three Mhc class II loci to detect genetic variation within N. albigula subpopulations in Arizona. We hypothesize that specific alleles for each locus will be positively correlated with disease susceptibility. Initially, we screened two loci using capillary electrophoresis-based single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Using this method, we found moderate levels of genetic variation at the loci and little correlation between disease susceptibility and alleles. Due to SSCP optimization issues, we have added a third locus and are sequencing the alleles to confirm their identity.
Poster
Chemical Composition of Femoral Gland Secretions in Male Collared Lizards
McGee ,Abigail University of Central Oklahoma
Baird,Troy University of Central Oklahoma
Albahadily,F. University of Central Oklahoma
Bowen,John University of Central Oklahoma
Jourdan,Thomas University of Central Oklahoma
Lord,Wayne University of Central Oklahoma
Chemical signals function for intraspecific communication in numerous lizard species that have well developed chemosensation using their vomeronasal organs. Other species, such as eastern collared lizards (Crotaphytus collaris), have highly developed visual signaling, but also produce secretions from their femoral glands, suggesting that both chemical and visual signals may be involved in intraspecific communication. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the femoral gland secretions of male collared lizards (N = 44) to determine the chemical composition and compare it with that in the secretions of lizards having highly developed chemical-based communication. Six of the compounds in C. collaris secretions were similar to those in a visually oriented congener, as well as those in other lizard taxa that rely heavily on chemical signaling. Future studies will examine the potential associations among these compounds and the ability of male collared lizards to signal competitive ability to rival males and attributes of males that promote high reproductive success.
Poster
Chlamydia trachomatis Manipulates Protein Kinase C During Infection
Romine ,Brooke Oklahoma State University
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported bacterial infection in the United States and the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Infection by C. trachomatis can lead to severe medical complications in women, including pelvic inflammatory disease; yet, despite these concerns, there are fundamental gaps in our understanding of Chlamydia pathogenesis, particularly with regards to the mechanisms used to manipulate host proteins for intracellular survival and growth. Our central hypothesis is that C. trachomatis manipulates and recruits host signaling proteins, such as Protein Kinase C (PKC). We have shown that C. trachomatis manipulates PKC during infection, recruiting multiple isoforms of PKC to the chlamydial parasitophorous vacuole, the inclusion, during infection. Phosphorylated PKC co-localizes with activated Src family kinases at discrete microdomains on the inclusion membrane. PKC substrates were also found to localize to the entire periphery of the C. trachomatis inclusion. The recruitment of PKC and PKC phosphorylated substrates suggests that PKC may play a very important role during C. trachomatis infection. These studies provide novel insights into the diverse mechanism by which C. trachomatis manipulates host cell processes for survival and infection.
Poster
Chlamydia trachomatis Recruits Protein Kinase A and Protein Kinase A Substrates During Infection
Behar ,Amanda Oklahoma State University
The obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, usurps many host cell-signaling pathways from within a membrane bound vacuole, deemed an inclusion. C. trachomatis has been previously shown to recruit and activate Src family kinases at discrete microdomains on the inclusion membrane. These microdomains are theorized to be regions for additional kinase activity. This study investigated the recruitment of Protein Kinase A (PKA) and PKA phosphorylated substrates to the inclusion membrane microdomains during C. trachomatis infection. PKA was found to be sequestered to the inclusion membrane microdomains and colocalizing with active Src family kinases at mid to late infection. Phosphospecific antibodies to PKA phosphorylated substrates demonstrated that PKA substrates also colocalized with Src family kinases. Pharmacological inhibition of PKA activity resulted in a loss of PKA phosphorylated substrate recruitment and localization, while PKA recruitment remained unaffected. These studies provide novel insights into the diverse role of PKA during C. trachomatis infection and suggest that the active Src family kinase rich microdomains function as highly active kinase regions on the inclusion membrane surface that may be involved in many essential chlamydial processes.
Poster
Church Revival in London: Keeping the Roman Catholics at Bay.
Chaple ,Alan University of Central Oklahoma
Claim: This research draws upon British social, political, and religious reactions to perceptions of imperialism in the mid-nineteenth century. On a cultural and regulatory level, the anti-Catholicism in London, brought about by the Restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in 1850, caused an upsurge in proposals for the demolition and renovation of many local churches. This effort left some to fall under scrutiny for allegedly being potential locations for the Tractarians and pro-Catholic denominations; some within a few blocks walk of St. Paul’s Cathedral itself. The nature of such reaction correlates to fears of encroaching Roman Catholicism, which at the time imperialists perceived as a threat. More specifically, this scenario shows how the public and city administrators attempted to regulate where certain denominations could flourish in London after the 1850s. Thesis: The City of London attempted to regulate and contain the spread of Catholicism after the restoration of the Catholic Hierarchy in 1850 by drastic renovations and demolitions of notable and historic churches throughout the city. The content of this research relates to the principle theme of reaction against a perception of imperialism extending from a foreign sovereignty; for the British, they identified it as the papacy in Rome. As it remained clear the government could not simply oust the hierarchy due to a considerably large number of a domestic Catholic population, regulation and containment became th
Poster
Circulating-Water Garment in Prevention of Intraoperative Hypothermia
Flowers ,MacKenzie Northwestern Oklahoma State University
Mast ,Stephanie Northwestern Oklahoma State University
Nighswonger ,Lindsey Northwestern Oklahoma State University
General anesthetics impair the body’s ability to achieve thermoregulation, which can result in intraoperative hypothermia. Hypothermia is defined as core body temperature that falls below 36°C. Hypothermia increases the risk of cardiac irregularities, infection, bleeding, and death. These complications may prolong recovery time and increase cost (Galvão, Liang, & Clark, 2010). The purpose of this evidence-based project is to compare the effectiveness of two warming methods in the prevention of hypothermia during the intraoperative period. Forced-air warming is currently the most used warming method during surgeries. However, due to the inability to cover adequate body surface area, hypothermia continues to remain an issue. Alternatively, circulating-water garments have been utilized as another effective warming method and in fact have been found to be superior compared to forced-air warming systems in the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia due to the system’s ability to cover more body surface area (Hasegawa, Negishi, Nakagawa, & Ozaki, 2012). As well as the garments improve blood circulation by the pulsation of water through the garment, which further aids in thermoregulation (Galvão, Liang, & Clark, 2010).
Poster
Climb the Beanstalk: a simple touch-based mobile game
Kuba ,Renan University of Central Oklahoma
In this project, a simple touch-based game called Climb the Beanstalk is developed for Android-based mobile devices. The storyline of the game is borrowed from Jack And The Beanstalk fairy tale. The player taps on the screen to climb the beanstalk. The objective of the game is to climb as high as possible by avoiding the beans that appear randomly to block the climb path. At the same time, the objective is to climb up as fast as possible under the given time constraints. This game was developed using object oriented programming paradigm. Classes are defined to represent all the game figures including the player, enemies, beans, and other items. Without using sophisticated libraries to build animation and scenarios, this project provides players with fun interactions and live colors in graphics.
Poster
COI Microgenomic Identification and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Arachnida and Insecta Specimens
Spencer ,Diana Tulsa Community College
Guerrero,Lina Tulsa Community College
Whinery,Nicol Tulsa Community College
Chrapla,Grant Tulsa Community College
Fortner,Angela Tulsa Community College
Johnson,Gabriel Tulsa Community College
Williams,Ashton Tulsa Community College
The purpose of this study was to compare phylogenetic relationships of Oklahoma Arthropoda organisms through discriminate analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. COI codes for an enzyme in cellular respiration, and the 650-base nucleotide fragment on the 5’end of the mitochondrial gene is designated as the universal barcode of life in animals. DNA was extracted, and amplified through polymerase chain reaction with the LCO1490 and HCO2198 primers. Products were quantified, purified, and sequenced. Electropherograms were analyzed and trimmed, with contigs assembled. The data were analyzed using a Maximum Likelihood clustering method; genetic distances were visualized in Jalview. The katydid grasshopper samples were highly conserved. Although our samples were not professionally identified morphologically, they were analyzed through NCBI BLAST with divergences and similarities often verified. Seven of the twenty original samples were phylogenetically placed. Consistent with our expectations, the spiders and insects showed marked genetic similarities with some unexpected aberration.
Poster
Collapse for Change: Rana Plaza and Multinational Corporations
Price ,Ron Cameron University
Wright ,Katelynn Cameron University
Currier ,Susanne University of Central Oklahoma
Doan ,Cuong University of Central Oklahoma
In 2013 a factory collapsed in Rana Plaza, Bangladesh. It was something that could have been avoided, but occurred due to negligence. With this garment factory directly connected to multiple nations (fourteen, according to reports),this incident became more than just an issue within Bangladesh. It has become a multinational crisis. Thus, the analysis of such an incident can only be explained through consideration of numerous entities: Bangladesh, the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker's Safety, and the Walmart/Gap Initiative. Upon investigation, the intention was to concentrate on a specific entity and their interactions with Bangladesh after the crisis in Rana Plaza. However, the multinational influence was too much of an important factor. With a globalized world comes globalized problems, and globalized neglect. This crisis of a multilateral scale was confronted by the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker's Safety, unilaterally by Walmart/Gap Initiative, and once mobilized by the Bangladesh population. This rhetorical analysis was informed by the research perspectives provided by Halford Ross Ryan and B.L. Ware and Wil A. Linkugel, authors published in the Quarterly Journal of Speech.
Poster
Colleges Retention Rate: A Survey and Further Findings
Currier ,Susanne University of Central Oklahoma
Usher ,Devin University of Central Oklahoma
College retention has been among the most important topics in higher education institutions across the country. The student retention affects students, educators, higher education institutes and thus the well-being of a nation’s economy as a whole. Although the college retention is a continuously evolving topic, it has been a topic of interest for researchers since early 1970s, resulting in many published articles focusing on numerous factors affecting the retention rate. The purpose of this study is to identify the common factors affecting the retention rate among available studies and identify new factors to further enhance the literature. Some of the more common factors of interest are: Community Involvement, Demographic, ACT scores, Academic Performance, Social Support and Ethnicity. Examples of less attended factors affecting retention rate in the literature are:Financial Stability Impact, Personal factors;Type of Student and Unexpected factors(any factor that cannot be realistically captured). This study consists of a quantitative analysis, with the help of recent parametric methods, which could help to identify (and isolate) the possible effect of these factors on the retention rate using available UCO data.
Poster
Color Vision Testing Among Practicing Optometrists
Wilson ,Haley Northeastern State University
Thompson ,Anna Northeastern State University
ABSTRACT Purpose. A survey of optometrists to identify the frequency, type, and administration of color vision testing. There are currently no studies to determine how often color vision tests are performed, which tests are used, or whether the tests are being accurately administered under the specific testing conditions required. Methods. A survey was presented to optometrists at March 2014 Spring Oklahoma Association of Optometric Physicians Continuing Education (CE) Conference in Norman, OK. No participative incentives were provided. The surveys were collected anonymously and data analysis performed using Microsoft Excel. Results. The response rate was 138, of which 105 surveys were complete meaning all questions answered with the correct number of responses per question. Color vision testing is performed on every patient at every exam by 10.69% of optometrists. A screening only color vision test is used by 43.5% as their test of choice for diagnosing color vision anomalies. Inadequate fluorescent only lighting for test administration is used by 99% of respondents. Conclusions. Administering the correct color vision test under the correct testing conditions is crucial for accurate results. Given the importance of color vision testing, providing optometrists with tools, including continuing education, may help increase awareness of correct vision test administration.
Poster
Combined Effects of Fluoxetine and β-Funaltrexamine on Chemokine Expression in Normal Human Astrocytes
Simsek ,Zinar Oklahoma State University
Introduction: Neuroinflammation is a key component of brain disorders including neurodegenerative disorders, infection and depression. The therapeutic effectiveness of some antidepressants such as fluoxetine (FLX) is reportedly due in part, to anti-inflammatory action. We are particularly interested in the effects of FLX and other novel anti-inflammatory agents. Astrocytes have a fundamental role in neuropathogenesis in part, through the release of neuroinflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL10). Our goal was to explore the combined effects of FLX and β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA), a novel anti-inflammatory agent, on CXCL10 expression in normal human astrocytes (NHA). Methods: NHA were maintained in cell culture with media replenished every 48 to 72h. Chemokine expression was induced with IL-1β (3ng/ml) or IFNγ (10ng/ml) + HIV-Tat 1-72 (100 nM). β-FNA and FLX (5µM or 10µM) were added at time of stimulation. CXCL10 levels in media were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blotting was used to assess NF-κB activation. MTT viability assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity of treatments.Results: Unstimulated cells expressed negligible CXCL10; however, IL-1β and IFNγ + HIV-Tat 1-72 significantly induced CXCL10. As we previously reported 10µM β-FNA inhibited CXCL10 expression whereas neither 5µM β-FNA nor FLX (5µM or 10µM) were inhibitory. Interestingly, the combination of 5µM
Poster
Combined Physical and Voice Training For Parkinson’s Disease
White ,Lacey University of Central Oklahoma
Ahrens,John University of Central Oklahoma
Covey,Kyle University of Central Oklahoma
Olson,Jacilyn University of Central Oklahoma
Mcclelland,Amanda University of Central Oklahoma
Sealey-Holtz,Linda University of Central Oklahoma
The primary purpose of this study was to estimate the feasibility of group physical fitness and voice treatment for individuals with Parkinson's Disease. The second purpose is to report changes in pre-to-post outcomes on measures of fitness, balance, bone density, voice perturbation and noise, vocal intensity, and maximum phonation time as the result of a simultaneous physical fitness and voice treatment program. Combining physical and voice training in a dual purpose program is anticipated to be successful because both types of training rely on similar principles to elicit results. Eight males with Parkinson's Disease attended 60 minute sessions, three times per week for four weeks. Vocal measures were obtained using the OperaVox application program and the Voice Handicap Index. Physical measures included aerobic fitness, muscular strength and endurance, agility, and flexibility. Changes in pre-to-post outcomes of physical and voice measures were compared. Increase in vocal and physical performance was noted after participating in this pilot study. Results indicated that receiving voice and physical therapy simultaneously can be helpful for individuals with Parkinson’s disease. More research is needed with this type of therapy.
Poster
Community partnerships in Juvenile Justice
Bidjanga ,Isabelle University of Central Oklahoma
This project aims at enhancing community collaboration with law enforcement and other community stakeholders for a safer and better environment for juveniles. In a bid to proactively prevent juveniles from getting involved in crime and help those who get in trouble, this project seeks to foster community development activities to sensitize youths both non-offenders and former offenders(reintegration into the society).
Poster
Comparative analysis of Dictyostelium discoideum and Myxococcus xanthus
Ubeidat ,Muatasem Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Tatah ,Canisia Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Dictyostelium discoideum is a powerful biomedical model organism to study developmental regulation and cellular signaling because of the ease of genetic, biochemical and cell biology approaches. Upon starvation, single-celled amoebae emit cAMP and migrate toward aggregation centers. This gives rise to a discrete multicellular structure called the "slug". In the migrating slug, the precursors for stalk and spore cells become recognizable and are localized in specific regions. Prestalk cells are located in the anterior 20% of the slug and prespore cells occupy the remainder. Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium with a developmental life cycle, social behavior and multicellular morphogenesis that resemble the eukaryotic Dictyostelium discoideum. This resemblance between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic organism can hold key information about the common evolutionary ancestor of these social organisms and probably their relation to other organisms with similar characteristics. In this study both organisms are being compared in growth and simple physiology to initiate a larger project.
Poster
Comparison of Acid Production and Growth Rate of Selected Gram Negative Bacteria and Yeasts in Different Carbohydrates
Little ,Erin Northwestern State University
Several species of gram negative bacteria are known to ferment different types of sugars, including maltose, sucrose, dextrose, and many others. However, the amount of acid produced by different bacteria varies greatly depending on the type of carbohydrate that is present. In this experiment, five gram negative species of bacteria: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, and two species of yeast, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were compared to see the growth pattern and acid production in various carbohydrate media. Results show that Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris fermented sugars into acid more efficiently compared to the rest of the microbes used in this experiment. The pH of the acid produced by the bacteria is directly related to the growth rate of individual species.
Poster
Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness using the iVue SD-OCT and Pachmate DGH-55
Chang ,Jennifer Northeastern State University
Purpose. To evaluate and compare CCT measurements with the gold-standard Pachmate ultrasound pachymeter and the newer less invasive iVue SD-OCT. Repeatability was evaluated for the iVue. Methods. Observational clinical study, 30 subjects over 18 years old. Exclusions: corneal astigmatism >2.0D, corneal anomalies, history of refractive surgery or contact lens wear within 24 hours. Each subject’s right cornea was assessed using biomicroscopy, auto-keratometry, and iVue measurements were taken twice followed by the Pachmate. Results. The mean for the iVue and Pachmate were 530.23μm and 555.53μm, respectively. Overall mean for both devices was 542.88μm. Standard deviation of means was 29.90. The paired t-test for means was not significantly different after allowing for the consistent offset of 25μm (p=0.82). Utilizing Bland-Altman, the standard deviation of differences was 7.51μm. The iVue's repeatability index was r=0.997. Within-subject coefficient of variation was 5.59%. Conclusion. The iVue SD-OCT and Pachmate correlated very well with an offset of 25μm thinner readings with the iVue. This may be due to induced corneal edema from anesthetic or to inherent differences in the two instruments. Clinically, the readings did not show a significant difference. The iVue measurements were highly repeatable, allowing for accurate and consistent data. This study allows practitioners to utilize the less invasive, multipurpose iVue in practice to measu
Poster
Comparison of the Cirrus HD-OCT and the iVue SD-OCT Derived Cup-to-Disc Values
Henderson ,Kyle Northeastern State University
Ricks ,Colby Northeastern State University
ABSTRACT Purpose. The main purpose of this study is to use the Cirrus HD-OCT and the iVue SD-OCT to compare and analyze the cup-to-disc values given by each instrument for the same patient at one visit. Methods. We recruited 48 subjects primarily from the NSUOCO optometry student population. We measured the vertical cup to disc ratio, average rim area, and average disc area of each subjects optic nerve using the Cirrus HD-OCT and the iVue SD-OCT. Results. According to our results, the comparison of data shows the Cirrus HD-OCT measured the vertical C/D ratio larger than the iVue SD OCT on 58% of the scans. The iVue had a greater average rim area measurement 84% of the time vs. the Cirrus. Finally, the iVue rated the average disc area of each individual larger than the Cirrus on 98% of the scans. Conclusion. We found a statistically significant difference when comparing the average rim area and average disc area, but no statistically significant difference when comparing the vertical C/D ratio. Key Words: oct, optic nerve head, cup-to-disc ratio
Poster
Comparison of Website Creation Platforms: Weebly.com and Wix.com
Rosener ,William Northeastern State University
Trying to decide which website builder is better for you? This poster presentation will compare and contrast two popular website creation platforms – Weebly.com and Wix.com. More specifically, this project will compare 1) template designs available, 2) drag and drop structures, 3) user support, 4) steps to exporting a domain name, 5) advertising, 6) popularity, 7) tools, and 8) comparison of pricing. Hopefully, this project will help you decide overall whether Wix or Weebly is the better website creation platform for your needs.
Poster
Comparison of Work Performance in Men with Traumatic Transtibial Amputation and One Male at Risk for Residuum Injury
DeLoach ,Eugene Langston University
Transtibial amputations (TTAT) are frequently performed in individuals who have sustained a traumatic event. The majority of adults with a traumatic transtibial amputation are healthy, male, and of working age. Nevertheless, residuum pain and injury suffered during work-related activity (WRA) are chief reasons adults with amputation are overly represented among the unemployed. The purpose of this study was to compare self-paced gait, brisk gait, carrying, and lifting in healthy working adults to a working adult at risk for residuum injury. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess consenting men (25-55 yrs) with unilateral TTAT. The subjects completed a Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) and Locomotor Capacity Index survey. During 2-minute self-paced walk, 2-minute brisk walk, floor-to-knuckle lifting, and 25-ft carrying tests, single limb support, cadence, step length, and stride length were recorded concurrently with perceived pain and exertion. Data were tabled and graphed for analysis. Data collected in each WRA indicated that the “at-risk” subject demonstrated greater single limb support on his residual limb than the group at a brisk walking pace and less difference in speed and stride length while carrying a weighted test box. Overall, the “at-risk” subject operated at a comparatively lower performance level. WRA capacity, specific gait parameters, anthropometrics, PEQ subscales are proposed measures to test in men for residuum inj
Poster
Comparison research of sport culture between Qiang minority in Chinese southwest area and Cherokee in Oklahoma
Shi ,Wei Northeastern State University
Sport is a very important part in culture, and also one of the carriers for national culture, it gradually appears and develops along the human history of civilization, then becomes various sport cultures with different national characters. Chinese southwest area is a place where has plenty of minorities, and with colorful, juicy minority sport resource, but people know little about it because the barriers of geographical environment. America is a strong sport nation which has very advanced well known competitive sports, school sports and public sports, however the American Indian sport culture is also a mystery for most of us. This research compared the intension of the sport culture between Qiang minority in Chinese southwest area and Cherokee in Oklahoma. Conclusions drawn from this study : 1. Qiang minority sports cultural inheritance and development in a specific geography, subject to regional economic and cultural development and impact are the mainstream sports culture of Asian sports culture formation; 2. The sports culture of Cherokee is rooted in the original North American sports culture, development of the twists and turns in the history of changes and tenacious; 3. Both sports and cultural patterns are showing a trend towards nature; 4. Two sports cultural development requires not only a good external environment support, needs to stimulate internal causes of self-development.
Poster
Computational Studies of Transition Metal Hydroxides
Myers ,Dwight East Central University
Stiles ,Cerina East Central University
Asaro ,Laura East Central University
Modern superalloys used in the construction of turbomachinery contain a wide variety of metals in trace quantities. Formation of volatile metal hydroxides at elevated temperatures is an important mechanism for corrosion of metal alloys or oxides in combustion environments (N. Jacobson, D. Myers, E. Opila, and E. Copland, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 66, 471-478, 2005). Theoretical calculations of reaction energies are an important check on experimental results. However, computational methods involving transition metals are more challenging than for lighter elements. The focus of this project is to examine the effects of different basis sets on energies for the hydroxides of scandium, cobalt, and manganese. Initial results will be presented.
Poster
Consequences of Steric Mismatch on Tg Composition Dependence
Aronson ,Carl Northeastern State University
Brewer ,William Northeastern State University
An investigation of phenolic functional group accessibility in hyperbranched poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS-B) is presented. The phase behavior and extent of hydrogen bonding in blends of either PHS-B or linear PHS with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), a complimentary Lewis basic polymer, were calculated from glass transition temperature (Tg) enhancements measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The effects of local steric screening and overall steric mismatch as well as the thermodynamic competition between inter-molecular and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding are discussed with respect to the observed miscibility and compositional dependence of blend Tg. An extension to literature equations applicable to conventional, symmetric polymer blend Tg composition dependence is presented in order to model asymmetric Tg composition dependence. Modeling utilized an extrapolated blend composition wherein linear and parabolic behaviors coalesced. Furthermore, the effect of varying the Lewis base linear polymer molecular weight on the hydrogen bonded PHS-B fraction is discussed with respect to the free energy of mixing polymers from Flory-Huggins theory. PHS-B/HPC blend data helped begin to establish a new molecular architecture-functional group accessibility property relationship for use with the design of functionalized hyperbranched synthetic macromolecular targets.
Poster
Continued Investigations on Use of Plant Pigments in Photovoltaic Cells
Bidlack ,James University of Central Oklahoma
Graves ,David University of Central Oklahoma
Zajac-McConaghy ,Winifred University of Central Oklahoma
Murphy ,Erinn University of Central Oklahoma
Sutter ,Ben University of Central Oklahoma
Tatum ,Baylee University of Central Oklahoma
This investigation is a continuation of on-going research to find a plant substance which is suitable for the manufacture of practical dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells. During the past year, we focused on evaluation of chloroplast isolations from moss, fern, pine, and deciduous specimens for incorporation into photovoltaic cells. These cells were constructed with glass planes, an anode and cathode; one doped with tin-oxide, with a deposited layer of titanium dioxide, later stained with the plant extract; the other being a similar tin doped glass plane, except coated with graphite. The titanium dioxide coated plane (anode) was stained with a plant extract of chloroplasts and chlorophyll, given a protective seal to protect it from the atmosphere, and then injected with a solution of electrolyte to permit the flow of electricity to the cathode plate. The plates were joined with rubber bands, and offset slightly, to allow the connection of digital voltmeters connected to a computer for data logging. Among treatments applied to the cells, pine demonstrated the highest and most consistent voltage over a 30 day period. An unusual phenomenon, in which cells stopped producing voltage and then demonstrated a spike of voltage many days later, was consistently observed in pine treatments and these data are currently being evaluated.
Poster
Control Mechanism Modeling of Human Cardiovascular-Respiratory System
Gutta ,Sandeep Oklahoma State University
Cheng ,Qi Oklahoma State University
According to the World Health Organization, non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are a leading cause of deaths in the world. About 17.3 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008 (about 30% of global deaths). It is possible to predict several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in advance with right diagnostic information and tools. Mathematically modeling the underlying physiological systems will greatly help in providing accurate diagnostic information. It allows us to accurately quantify the complex interactions between several systems, and predict certain diseases in advance which alter the normal system function. The mechanisms of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are highly interconnected with each other. In this research, we consider the local control mechanism of the cardiovascular-respiratory system during the transition from awake state to stage 4 non-REM sleep state. A discrete-time model of the cardiovascular-respiratory system with transport delays is considered. The system model is nonlinear and not first-order Markov. We convert the system into a first-order Markov process. We propose an iterative algorithm to find the optimal control inputs that drive the cardiovascular-respiratory system from awake state to sleep state. In each iteration, we linearize the system using the nominal state and input sequences. We perform simulations to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Poster
Coquetry in Courting
Davis ,Emily East Central University
From the first early American novel concerning courting and the tragedy of unrequited young love to the diary of a young man committed to finding love by jumping through all the right hoops, “Coquetry in Courting” journeys through the courting rituals of the late 18th century and early 19th century noting the similarities and highlighting the differences that time period play in the development of young love. This paper considers both fictional literature (Hannah Webster Foster’s The Coquette) as well as firsthand accounts of a journey through changing courtship rituals and phases (diary entries from Isaac Mickle from the age of fourteen to the age of twenty two). By focusing on the importance of letter exchange and intimate interpersonal relationships, enhanced by written communication, “Coquetry in Courting” showcases both the struggle and the victory that young romantics endured and often experienced during their teenage years and often times their early twenties. As forty years pass between the time period of Foster’s novel and the documented start of Isaac Mickle’s courting experience, readers see Mickle encountering new challenges concerning courting which Foster’s characters did not encounter in The Coquette. Though the struggles are not the same, both stories of youth pursuing both romantic love and sensible love spark interest in whether love is a concept which is eternal or whether the meaning of love changes with
Poster
Correlation Analysis of Nine Major Stock Indices: An Empirical Study
Lin ,Jiajun East Central University
Zhang ,Hongkai East Central University
Hollinshead ,Josh East Central University
Henry ,Chasten East Central University
Ma ,Yifei East Central University
This study empirically examines the magnitude and directions of linear correlation among nine major stock price indices selected from three continental regions throughout the global financial crisis around 2008 and during the ensuing economic recovery. The indices are Dow Jones, NASDAQ Composite, and S&P 500 in the United States; DAX, FISE 100, and CAC 40 in Europe; and Hang Seng Index, Nikkei 225, and SSE Composite in East Asia. Two time periods, August 2007 - February 2009 and February 2009 - May 2014, are considered in our study. We aim at determining how the stock indices in the same and different regions in the world correlate over time. The sample correlation coefficients are computed and then a two-tailed t-test is conducted for each pair of the nice indices. Our findings, as shown by the line charts of the price indices, the matrix of their correlation coefficients and the outcomes of the two-tailed t-test, indicate that the U.S., European, and Asian stock indices considered in the study exhibit significantly positive correlations throughout the financial crisis, while SSE Composite Index has significant negative correlation with six of the other stock indices during the economic recovery. The results of this empirical study shed some light on the dynamic complexity of the global stock markets and offer managerial implications for investment decision in those markets.
Poster
COST-VOLUME-PROFIT ANALYSIS
Norris ,Chelsi East Central University
The objective of this project was to analyze the benefits of a company performing a Cost-Volume-Profit analysis before they began selling products. My thesis for the project involved the question, “Why and when is it important to perform a Cost-Volume-Profit analysis?” In order to explore this thesis, I took an example problem from my Managerial Accounting textbook that involved a hypothetical business determining certain variables of the company that, in the end, constituted a full Cost-Volume-Profit analysis. In determining these variables, I made several calculations and graphs to explain each point. I found that the hypothetical company Success Systems needed to make 60 composite units in order to break-even with their profits and costs. After performing this analysis, the company knows how much product they need to create in order to have a profit. Without this analysis, the company could have risked creating not enough products and becoming bankrupt. Therefore, these analyses need to be performed before a company jumps into creating product and building up costs.
Poster
Country Comparisons of Proven Energy Reserve Utilization
Leon ,Chrisopher University of Central Oklahoma
Rutter ,Andrew University of Central Oklahoma
Gray ,Johnathan University of Central Oklahoma
Most countries are sitting on some type of energy reserve big or small, whether it is natural gas, oil, or coal. When looking at the top reserves in the world one would expect those same countries to also be in the top producing, exporting, and maybe consumption. Questions arise when one country owns the world’s largest reserves and produces only a fraction compared to that of another country who owns a smaller reserve. We noticed that this is the case when researching about proven global reserves and left with some questions which we would like to find the answers to. Our intention is to show who owns the largest energy reserves (not just oil) and compare it with their respective production, export, import, and consumption levels. With those comparisons we can pin point which country is utilizing their reserves efficiently. The countries who seem to not, we would like to find an adequate answer as to why that is. Hopefully our research will lead us to more questions and cause us to dig deeper into how each country uses their reserves and why.
Poster
Country Institutional Distance and Franchise System Performance
Rivas ,Jaynne University of Central Oklahoma
Drawing insights from neo-institutional theory, the present study suggests institutional distance is related to franchise system performance in international setting. I advance the argument that the partnership between an international franchise system and a franchisee in a host country is constrained by the level of differences in the environment. Each country shows specific institutional characteristics that build a distance -geographic, regulative, economic, normative, political, and cognitive- between franchise system and franchisee, and influence the final performance of the system. Using factor analysis, I identify the main factors of institutional distance. Following, I applied a correlation analysis to test the hypotheses. The results suggest that the dimensions of institutional distance are related to franchise system performance. The relationship between institutional distance and franchise performance is more important between partners when the level investment is low (<50K) and high (>101 K), the franchise system have few years of operation (< 39 years), and the franchise operate in the services and retail industry.
Poster
CRISIS IN CORRECTIONS-THE IMPACT OF THE "TRUTH IN SENTENCING ACT OF 1999 ON THE OKLAHOMA CORRECTIONS SYSTEM.
Brown ,Dan Southwestern Oklahoma State University
THIS PRESENTATION WILL EXAMINE THE IMPACT OF THE "TRUTH IN SENTENCING ACT" PASSED IN OKLAHOMA IN 1999. THE FOCUS OF THE PRESENTATION WILL BE ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF REQUIRING FELONY OFFENDERS TO SERVE 85% OF THEIR SENTENCE INSIDE A CORRECTIONAL FACILITY IN THE STATE OF OKLAHOMA; THE PRESENTATION WILL EXAMINE THE ISSUES OF PRIVATE PRISONS, PRISON OVERCROWDING, RIOTS, AND INMATES ESCAPING FROM OKLAHOMA CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES SINCE 1999.
Poster
Critter Emporium: An online pet store
Alrifai ,Rad Northeastern State University
Searcy ,Jackie Northeastern State University
Critter Emporium is an online pet store with responsive user-friendly interface that allows a user to browse pet products. This project provided an introduction to designing a website. It serves as an overall model of the general construction of websites. The application uses HTML5 and CSS to create a user-friendly interface that is visually appealing. C# sets up and allows for LINQ to query the database.
Poster
Cryptic Species and Contact Zones: Using Molecular Markers to Assess Geomys Distributions in Oklahoma
Coffman ,Cristina University of Central Oklahoma
Haynie ,Michelle University of Central Oklahoma
Dimanche ,Rebecca University of Central Oklahoma
The aim of this project is to utilize genetic markers to address two questions concerning members of the genus Geomys (pocket gophers) found in Oklahoma: 1) What are the distribution boundaries of G. bursarius (plains pocket gopher) and G. breviceps (Baird’s pocket gopher) in central Oklahoma and 2) Is G. jugossicularis present in the Oklahoma panhandle? The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (cytb) gene, the Y chromosome SmcY gene, and a suite of 14 microsatellite markers will be used to identify specimens collected in central Oklahoma and the panhandle. The geographic boundary between G. bursarius and G. breviceps in central Oklahoma is undefined, though Heaney and Timm proposed a boundary based on morphological data and a known contact zone has been identified in Norman. Testing will be done to determine if the boundary suggested by morphological data is supported by genetic data, and if additional contact zones exist along the boundary of the two species. Genetic data obtained from samples collected in central Oklahoma will be compared to samples collected from within the well-defined ranges of the two species (western Oklahoma – G. bursarius; southeastern Oklahoma – G. breviceps) to ensure correct genetic identification and to account for the possibility of hybridization between the two species in central Oklahoma. Additionally, samples collected in the panhandle will be compared to known G. bursarius samples to determine if they represent a different spec
Poster
Cu-Bicyclen as a DNA Cleavage Component for use in Artificial Nucleases
O'Neal-Johnson ,Sequojah Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Hubin ,Tim Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Gwyn ,Lori Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Methicillin (MRSA) and Vancomycin (VRSA) resistant Staph. aureus have proven to be lethal. A possible alternative to developing new antibiotics is to synthesize artificial nucleases to attack the genes of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Nucleases are enzymes that hydrolyze (cleave) phosphodiester bonds in the backbone of nucleic acids. Binding specificity of naturally occurring nucleases ranges from non-specific to very specific. For this project, an engineering approach was used to make modular artificial nucleases with differing DNA specificities and DNA cleavage rates. In general, nucleases have a DNA cleaving and DNA binding domain. Metal-chelates are compounds that have been shown to exhibit some nonspecific DNA cleavage activity. In this study, the DNA cleavage activity of [Cu(C12H26N4)(H2O)(C2H3O2)](PF6) (Cu-Bicyclen) was measured under varying conditions (incubation time, metal chelate concentration, and pUC19 DNA concentration). Fe-EDTA, known for its DNA cleavage activity, was used as a control to compare to Cu-Bicyclen. Preliminary data indicate that Cu-Bicyclen may cleave DNA but its activity is much weaker than that of Fe-EDTA. Future work will include designing a specific DNA binding domain (including the use of TAL effectors) aimed at the nuc gene of Staph. aureus (a gene that codes for an infectious protein agent).
Poster
Cultural Value Conflict, Problem Solving Skill, and Psychological Well-Being in 1.5 and 2nd Generation South Asian Indians in America
Melakayil ,Eunice University of Central Oklahoma
Youll ,Lorry University of Central Oklahoma
Family structures within European Americans differ from those found in Asian Indian families, in which European American families are usually nuclear, egalitarian, and individualistic. For Indians, with collective values, the concepts of privacy, personal space, and individualism are diametrically opposed to that of European Americans. Many Indian immigrants struggle to reconcile the opposing values of their Indian culture with that of their host country. Generally, the younger immigrants, specifically the 1.5 and 2nd generation immigrants, want to be independent as they become more assimilated into the culture of their host country, but they do not at the same time want to disappoint their families. However, the older immigrants from the 1st generation usually cling tightly to their Indian values and fear the impact the host country’s culture will have on their family structure. The goal of the current study is to examine cultural value conflict, interdependent and independent problem solving skills, and psychological consequences of cultural value conflict in 1.5 and second-generation South Asian Indian immigrants living in the United States. It is expected that higher ratings of cultural value conflict will be positively related to psychological distress and second-generation immigrants will have independent type problem solving skills as opposed to interdependent type problem solving skills with the 1.5 generation.
Poster
Current and Desired School Psychological Services: Perceptions by Education Professionals
Barnett ,Amy Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Sobansky ,Robin Southwestern Oklahoma State University
The National Association of School Psychologists (Blueprint III, Ysseldyke et al., 2006) identifies two objectives of school psychological services: (a) enhancing the competence of students, including academic/cognitive and social-emotional areas of functioning, and (b) building and maintaining the capacity of systems so they are able to assist students to become competent. However, a review of available research suggests that school psychologists are often limited in the scope of their practice. To gain a better understanding, stakeholder perceptions of current and desired school psychological services should be considered. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine current perceptions held by educational professionals, including administrators, teachers, as well as service providers. The study specifically addresses: (a) level of knowledge, satisfaction, and perceived helpfulness of school psychological services; (b) perceptions regarding the roles and functions of school psychologists; and (c) future desired roles and functions of school psychologists. Results will lead to an increased understanding of the field in regards to actual practice and existing models, as well as a better conceptualization of training needs. An increased understanding by stakeholders of school psychologists’ roles and functions may lead to an increased demand for services, thus an increase in enrollment in training programs.
Poster
D
Data Acquisition System for Fluid Dynamics Research
Seay ,Lillian University of Central Oklahoma
The proposed project will be designed to examine the flow in microjunctions using cutting-edge entropy generation techniques. Using these techniques, we will have an alternative view of how a fluid behaves during microfluidic flow. This will give other researchers a better understanding of the energy losses in any microfluidic system. My research project is to create the most efficient data acquisition system that will process all of the analog inputs from mechanical sensors and change those analog signals into accurate digital representations. The types of sensors disseminated throughout the microchannels are pressure sensors and flow meters, which measure the pressure and velocity of the fluid flowing through the system. I am currently working on a programming code to expand the amount of analog inputs by using an external analog to digital converter. This will allow more pressure sensors and flow meters to be used. Therefore, we can acquire more data and have a better picture of what is going on in the microchannel.
Poster
DATA MINING AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INDUSTRIES
Nandedkar ,Ankur Cameron University
Ajisafe ,Funke Cameron University
Technology plays an important role in enhancing business effectiveness. The primary purpose of the paper is to shed light on data mining technology and its utility for the business. In this paper, the literature on data mining techniques was reviewed using different journals, articles and books. This manuscript gives a clearer understanding of the basic techniques used, data mining models and also explains the benefits and drawbacks of data mining. The main objective of data mining in businesses is to improve decision making. It helps businesses to predict potential outcomes, understand their customers better and to have a competitive advantage. It has a lot of benefits and it has helped organizations to collect, analyze and access data in new ways. For data mining to be effective and relevant in businesses, managers or business owners must have a better understanding of how it works and how to it can be applied to their day to day activities. This paper intends to help managers to understand the fundamentals of data mining and how it can be applied.
Poster
DC Dielectrophoretic Particle-Particle Interactions and Dynamics
Benton ,Matthew University of Central Oklahoma
Hossan ,Mohammad University of Central Oklahoma
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has become one of the most popular mechanisms for label free particle manipulations and transport in microfluidics. When particles suspended in a fluid are subjected to an external electric field, the particles polarize and create local non-uniformities in the electric field. Within a close proximity of each other, this induces a dielectrophoretic force upon all of the involved particles. In order to investigate this effect, we use numerical simulation to model the interactions between particles for various configurations. The numerical model utilizes Maxwell’s stress tensor to obtain the dielectrophoretic particle-particle interaction forces while solving the transient Navier-Stokes equation to determine the hydrodynamic interaction between each of the particles and the fluid containing them. By varying the number of particles as well as the particles’ size, electrical properties and initial orientation, a number of possibilities are considered. Results indicate that particles with similar electrical properties tend to align themselves parallel to the external electric field regardless of sizes. In contrast, particles with differing electrical properties tend to align perpendicular to the electric field irrespective of sizes and orientations. This study explains the effect of size and electrical properties on DEP interactive motions of particles and can be utilized to design microfluidic devices for DEP particle manipulations.
Poster
Decomposing the Total Impact of Multiple Stimuli in an AD from the Perspective of Classical Conditioning
Yoon ,Kanghyun University of Central Oklahoma
hwang ,ahram University of Central Oklahoma
For the design of advertising campaigns, marketers are using classical conditioning theory to create an association between unconditioned and conditioned stimuli. However, the reality is that a set of marketing stimuli—instead of using one stimulus—is used for the pairing purpose. Given that, the goal of this study is to show how to identify the net impact of each stimulus on conditional response using the conjoint approach. Our findings help marketers design effective advertisings.
Poster
Deletion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Transgenic Tobacco Using Site-Specific Recombinases CinH and ParA
Dickey ,Alexia Northeastern State University
Commercially available transgenic plants often contain an antibiotic resistance gene in addition to their novel traits. The antibiotic resistance gene, also known as the selectable marker, is used to screen for transformation events. After this marker is no longer needed, it unnecessarily remains in the plant’s genome. Escape of the resistance genes to the environment has raised consumer concern about GMO safety. This research utilizes two novel recombinases, CinH and ParA under control of a seed-specific promoter to remove the unwanted transgenes from genetically modified tobacco while leaving the novel traits intact. This seed-based system can be a powerful tool in plant biotechnology. Both Codon-Optimized and wild type ParA and CinH were cloned into pCambia2300-Phas1470-Nos respectively. Agrobacterium mediated transformation was used to introduce the four binary vectors, pCinH-GUS, pCinH-OP-GUS, pParA-GUS, and pParA-OP-GUS to Nicotiana tabacum SR1 leaf discs. The Kanamycin resistant transformants were screened on Kanamycin medium (100mg/L) and later transferred to soil. Reporter gene GUS was used to select for plants expressing novel traits. GUS positive plants have been allowed to set seed. Phas, the seed specific promoter will drive recombinase expression. The recombinase will mediate antibiotic-resistance gene excision, leaving the seeds and subsequent generations marker-free.
Poster
Denning and Nesting Sites of Neotoma cinerea by Radio Telemetry
Jordan ,Mary Langston University
The bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea) is a medium-sized rodent found throughout the Pacific Northwest, North Dakota, northern New Mexico and the Sierra Nevada (Carey 1991). Bushy-tailed woodrats are very important animals in the forest food-chain. They are one of the most important species in the diet of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) (Wilson 2013). The Northern Spotted Owl is one of the most studied bird species (Zabel 2003) and in 1990, mainly due to habitat loss, was listed as a federally threatened species (Olson 2004). Although bushy-tailed woodrats serve important ecological roles, there is relatively little information about their life history traits or habitat needs. Recently, studies have begun to increase. Several bushy-tailed woodrats were caught in traps and radio-collared for tracking. Being an aboreal species, it can be assumed that most of the bushy-tailed woodrats’ den locations will be in trees, particularly conifers. Much is to be learned about their dispersal and living patterns. The more known about bushy-tailed woodrats and other small forest prey, the more is known about the Northern Spotted Owl upon which many major forest plan decisions are based on.
Poster
Design and Construction of a Micro Fatigue Tester for Small Animal Models
Collins ,Charles University of Central Oklahoma
Jordan ,Ryan University of Central Oklahoma
Johnson ,Zack University of Central Oklahoma
Olasmis ,Hakan University of Central Oklahoma
Khandaker ,Morshed University of Central Oklahoma
There is currently no commercially available fatigue tester for testing on the micro or nano scale. This type of testing would allow for improvements in nano fiber applications in small models. The models would include an intervertebral disc (IVD) model and rabbit femur Implant model. The IVD model will include a silicone disc with aligned fibers along the edge of the disc and random fiber caps on the top and bottom. The rabbit femur model will use a titanium rod in the center with Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement covering a portion of the rod; this model tests the strength of the boundary with and without the application of aligned nano-fibers. The goal would be to perform a cyclic load on each of these models while simultaneously collecting data about deflection and load. The tester will also perform a static test on both models that will be compared to previous data for calibration.
Poster
Design and Construction of a Portable Tensile and Fatigue Testing Apparatus for Small Animal Models
Jordan ,Ryan University of Central Oklahoma
Khandaker ,Morshed University of Central Oklahoma
There is currently no commercially available fatigue tester for testing on the micro or nano scale or an apparatus that is portable. Current testing apparatuses are not easily moved due to their size and weight. Being portable would allow for the testing to be done in the same location where the model was made reducing the possibility of contamination of the sample. Nano scale testing would allow for improvements in nano fiber applications in small models. The models would include an intervertebral disc (IVD) model and rabbit femur Implant model. The IVD model will include a silicone disc with aligned fibers along the edge of the disc and random fiber caps on the top and bottom. The rabbit femur model will use a titanium rod in the center with Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement covering a portion of the rod; this model tests the strength of the boundary with and without the application of aligned nano-fibers. The goal would be to perform a cyclic load on each of these models while simultaneously collecting data about deflection and load. The tester will also perform a static test on both models that will be compared to previous data for calibration. Currently the tester can generate a sinusoidal waveform while receiving data from a load cell and DVRT.
Poster
Design and Testing of a Biomimetic Flagella Propulsion Beam
Bush ,Kenneth University of Central Oklahoma
Song ,Keren University of Central Oklahoma
Cilia and flagella are organelles that protrude from the surfaces of many cells, and whose architecture is highly conserved from protists to humans. These complex organelles, composed of over 500 dynein proteins, can be either immotile or motile. Cilia and Flagella are hair like structure that propel cells or move materials in airways and other passages. They are composed of nine outer microtubules doublets that surround a central pair of microtubules. The movement is generally characterized by the bending waves along the length of the flagellum so that a propulsive thrust is developed more or less along the length of the flagellum. How these bending waves are created is not completely known. Our goal for this project is to design and test a physical model that mimics flagella/cilia structure and movement. The research and modeling are based off of what is already known about the structure of cilia and research that has been performed by Dr. Gang Xu in his Biomechanics Research Lab. The deliverables are used to accomplish this: (1) Finite element model based testing to better understand and design the structural mechanics of flagella, (2) Design and build a passive biomimetic beam that mimics that mechanics of flagella, (3) Use an electromechanical device to make the beam active.
Poster
Design of a test station for measuring the performance of centrifugal pumps
AlRashdan ,Hamzah University of Central Oklahoma
Topp ,Ira University of Central Oklahoma
MOUSSA ,ABDELLAH University of Central Oklahoma
Nchinda ,Hedrine University of Central Oklahoma
Pumps are mechanical devices that add energy to a fluid as a result of the dynamic interactions between the device and the fluid. The first curved vane centrifugal pump was invented by the British engineer John George Appold in 1851 and since then numerous advances in design and application have been implemented. Today, centrifugal pumps are used in almost any and every sector of industry. Typical pump efficiency range between 60 and 80 %, and small differences in geometrical details can lead to significant changes in the performance of these machines. In this project, we design the experimental setup and instrumentation to automatically produce the pump characteristic and efficiency curves for several test models of centrifugal pumps. The experimental station is equipped with pressure and mass flow rate sensors, valve control regulator and a safety monitoring system that shuts down when critical pressures or flow rates are reached. The station also provides a visual representation of the pump characteristic and efficiency curves, and allows easy install of various impeller, volute, and casing geometries.
Poster
Design reflection in action for novice conceptual modeling
Huang ,I-Lin Langston University
Hsu ,Judy Other
Conceptual modeling is a major part of information system development process. During information system development process, systems analysts often analyze users’ requirements represented in textual descriptions. Then the systems analysts transform their understanding of the users’ requirements into conceptual models. Conceptual modeling introduces the system analysts to a language game that transforms the representation of a given set of information system requirements by natural language into those by the conceptual modeling language. The differences between the two languages have made conceptual modeling a difficult task, especially for novice systems analysts. As a result, conceptual modeling is well-known as an error-prone process. When studying the differences of novice and expert analysts in conceptual modeling, reflection in action is an important skill used by expert analysts to attain deeper understanding of the modeling situation and step out of unproductive blockages. In order to improve novices’ modeling performance, this research proposed a scaffolding environment for novices to reflect on their modeling process and hence they will have opportunities to detect and solve their misconceptions. In this research, we identified the opportunities for novice analysts to reflect, self-question, or self-explanation during conceptual modeling, which will then results in better quality of conceptual models
Poster
Designing a Course on Capital Budgeting: Opportunities, Challenges and Pitfalls
Krishnan ,Sivarama University of Central Oklahoma
Capital budgeting decisions are among the most important part of a finance manager’s responsibilities. This paper describes the author’s attempt at designing and teaching a new course on capital budgeting. The project afforded the author a degree of freedom not to be found in the more common courses that are offered every semester and taught by many of his colleagues. The course presented very interesting opportunities and challenges because of the needed expansion of coverage of topics that the students have already been exposed to and inclusion of new topics that are relevant. An early decision was made not to use a specific textbook, primarily because the available textbooks seemed old and did not quite fit the author’s conceptual framework for the course. The author planned detailed notes as handouts that would be distributed through the course web page. The finance textbook coverage of capital budgeting tended to be heavy on concepts and light on the details needed for successful investment decisions. The author attempted to correct this perceived imbalance. The author’s experience of working as a project engineer in a large industrial firm came in handy in this regard. The major pitfalls in a course like this include a potential overreach and attempting to do more than what can be done well within the confines of a one-semester course. One should be also be careful not to overload the students and exceed their capabilities.
Poster
Designing Tomorrow
Tucker ,Leigh Cameron University
Art is apart of life that is experienced throughout various places. There are no boundaries of what it can be or what it is. Designs created today can have an impact on the future, and there are no limitations that will stop the creativeness that tomorrow holds. Designing and creating are processes that can be used to create many things. The main objective of this presentation is to show the design principles, and allow the visual aspects of art to come alive.
Poster
Detection and Prevalence of Large Plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Various Oklahoma Retail Meats
Fakhr ,Mohamed University of Tulsa
Neyaz ,Leena University of Tulsa
Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of the important foodborne bacterial pathogens causing food poisoning. Studies that discuss the characterization of large plasmids of S. aureus isolated from retail meat are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of plasmids including mega plasmids in S. aureus strains isolated from various Oklahoma retail meats. The alkaline lysis method was used to isolate small to medium size plasmids and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied for the detection of large plasmids. Two hundred and twenty three S. aureus isolates including MRSA (67 beef, 58 chicken, 42 pork, 27 chicken liver, 22 turkey, and 7 chicken gizzard) were subjected to plasmid isolation with alkaline lysis and PFGE. Using alkaline lysis, 218/223 (97%) of the screened S. aureus isolates showed the presence of plasmids ranging in size from 3-60 kb. Using PFGE, 55/223 (38%) of the strains screened showed plasmids ≥ 60 kb the majority of which was not detectable using the alkaline lysis method. The highest prevalence of these large plasmids was in the turkey isolates (59%). PFGE was able to detect plasmids > 200 kb in size in 7 S. aureus strains. In conclusion, S. aureus isolated from retail meats showed a high prevalence rate of plasmids with variable sizes. Also, PFGE can be considered an excellent tool in detecting mega plasmids in S. aureus that are not detectable by alkaline lysis.
Poster
Determinants of house prices in Oklahoma City
Qayyum ,Arif Cameron University
The purpose of this paper is to analyze that how much sales price of houses in Oklahoma City depends on different characteristics of these houses. Based on previous literature we choose the attributes, such as number of bedrooms, bathrooms, garage, fireplace, pool, house size, lot size, and the age of the house. The research also intends to highlight what attribute has the strongest bearing on the sold price of the house.
Poster
Determinants of house prices in Oklahoma City
Bisht ,Rahul Cameron University
The purpose of this paper is to analyze that how much sales price of houses in Oklahoma City depends on different characteristics of these houses. Based on previous literature we choose the attributes, such as number of bedrooms, bathrooms, garage, fireplace, pool, house size, lot size, and the age of the house. The research also intends to highlight what attribute has the strongest bearing on the sold price of the house.
Poster
Determining concentrations of Copper, Iron, and Zinc by standard addition using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
montalvo ,daniel University of Central Oklahoma
Amounts of zine, copper and iron in randomly collected hair samples were investigated. The analysis was based on data collected using the standard addition method in conjunction with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Hair samples were digested with nitric acid appeared to show significantly higher concentratios of zinc and iron (n 30% higher)compared to hair samples digested in nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide. Amount of copper in the hair samples were below limit of detection for the instrument used and hence was not determined.
Poster
Determining an Optimal Media System for Multiple Cell Types Within a Lung Model
Simpson ,Trey Oklahoma State University
Ryan ,Brooklin Oklahoma State University
Falhenkamp ,Heather Oklahoma State University
We have developed a Tissue Equivalent Respiratory Model (TERM), which mimics the in vivo lung, and may be used to understand pulmonary disease mechanisms and the effects of therapeutics. The aim of the current study is to understand the effect of various media systems on the growth and differentiation of primary human lung cells. The media systems tested included defined media systems specially formulated for endothelial and epithelial cells, the defined epithelial cell medium with the addition of endothelial cell growth supplements, and a universal media system of RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin, streptomycin, and L-glutamine solution. The methods included the culture of pulmonary epithelial, fibroblast, and endothelial cells, and the characterization of the seeding efficiency, growth rates, morphology, and viability in multiple culture systems. Our results showed that the epithelial and endothelial cells grew optimally only in their respective, defined culture media; and both failed to survive or showed a dramatically different morphology in any other media system. The fibroblast cells grew in all the tested media systems; however, the cells had the highest growth and viability rates in the endothelial cell media and grew poorly in the epithelial cell media. The results of this study demonstrate the complexities of a co-culture system and have resulted in a new protocol for culturing multiple cell types within the TERM.
Poster
DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF LAND USE CHANGES AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION FOR THE LITTLE WASHITA RIVER EXPERIMENTATION WATERSHED
Skibstead ,Hollie Redlands Community College
In the 1930’s, the United States experienced a period of severe dust storms known as the Dust Bowl, caused by severe drought and lack of proper farming methods. Lack of vegetation combined with isolated periods of intense rainfall caused increased erosion and flooding. As a result of the Flood Control Act of 1936, the Washita River Basin (WRB) was one of eleven pilot watershed projects chosen to construct flood control reservoirs. These reservoirs were implemented to prevent and manage soil erosion and flooding. A total of 45 reservoirs were installed between 1969 and 1982 in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) within the WRB. This study sought to determine the impact of land use changes and climate variability on reservoir sedimentation. The main focus was determining the soil physical properties such as bulk density and soil texture. Sediment cores were collected from ten reservoirs using state-of-the-art coring system. The cores were cut, weighed, and dried to determine the bulk density of each sample. After determining the bulk density, samples were tested in the lab using the hydrometer method to determine the soil texture. Results indicated that variability of bulk density were significantly impacted by land use changes and climate variability for the areas contributing to the respective reservoirs, while the soil textural analysis showed results consistent with previous research and analysis performed for the contributing areas within the LWRE
Poster
Determining the Entropy Generation and Flow Characteristics of Developing Flow in Rectangular Channels
Gillispie ,Aric University of Central Oklahoma
Lemley ,Evan University of Central Oklahoma
Entropy is a thermodynamic quantity that can be thought of as thermal energy that cannot be converted into mechanical work, because of what can be considered as a lack of order. The objective of the current research is to conduct a detailed investigation of the entropy generated in a rectangular channel before the flow has become fully developed. It will serve to better explain how energy is dissipated in laminar flows within rectangular cross sections while the flow is still developing. In order to calculate the entropy generated in the channels, we must perform several experiments and analyses. First, any adjustments to the particle imagery velocimetry, PIV, system will be made to accurately obtain the velocity of the specific fluid used in the experiments. Using the PIV system, a velocity profile will be obtained along various sections to first insure that the flow has not become developed, and second to calculate the velocity of the flow at each section. The volumetric flow rate will also be calculated. Finally, throughout the test region there will be numerous pressure sensors placed to accurately gain the pressure differences between the consecutive test sections. This information is critical in calculating the loss coefficients. Several of these tests will be performed with various fluid viscosities, and Reynolds Numbers so as to generalize the results for any rectangular channel of any size.
Poster
Determining the Topological Connections Between Diamond and Lonsdaleite
Li ,Wenwen University of Central Oklahoma
Fulkerson ,Michael University of Central Oklahoma
Diamond and Lonsdaleite are two different allotropes of carbon that have hexagonal lattices. Their structures have different symmetry characteristics, but the symmetry alone is not able to fully reflect the differences between Diamond and Lonsdaleite. The purpose of this project is to determine the topological differences between the two structures by fundamental group theory and covering spaces. In this project we calculate the deck transformation groups of Diamond and Lonsdaleite.
Poster
Determining the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles using C. elegans.
Holgado ,Andrea Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Gregston ,Jake Southwestern Oklahoma State University
McKisson ,Abby Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Sanchez ,Tony Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Pope ,Carey Oklahoma State University
Kaan ,Kalkan Oklahoma State University
Silver nanoparticles are frequently used as an antimicrobial agent in paints, toys, household chemicals and appliances. Even though these particles are the most widely used nanomaterial, controversy surrounds the analysis of their toxicity. To shed some light in this field, we used the model organism C. elegans and study the effects of silver nanoparticles by determining mortality rates. In contrast to some published work, our finding showed that nematodes exposed for 24 h and 48 h to increasing concentrations of silver nanoparticles washed extensively to remove unbound silver did not show increasing mortality when compared to those exposed to citrate (vehicle solution). Moreover, examinations of mortalitiy rates of animals exposed to silver nitrate or to unwashed silver nanoparticles (contaminated with dissolved silver nitrate) suggested that silver ions were the ultimate toxicant. One hundred percent of nematodes died after 48 h exposure to plates inpregnated with 4 ml of silver nitrate solution or 4 ml of non-washed silver nanoparticles, while little lethality was noted with similar exposures to either citrate or washed nanoparticles. Together, our observations show that C. elegans can be used as an inexpensive in vivo model to test the toxicity of emerging materials. More specifically, these studies of silver nanoparticle point out the importance of avoiding free silver contamination when used in products such as paint, toys, and antimicrobials.
Poster
Developing a Station Rotation Schedule for Vacation Bible School
Paynter ,Bradley University of Central Oklahoma
Ford ,Janice University of Central Oklahoma
Hoffpauir ,Ryan University of Central Oklahoma
Many day camps for children (like Vacation Bible School) are run on a station model. That is, children are divided into groups and activities are divided into stations. The groups of children then move between activity stations on a pre-arranged schedule. This system has several advantages including that regular transitions work well with children’s short attention spans and volunteers only have to deal with small groups of children at a time. The disadvantages to this system are that it may not be the most efficient use of volunteer labor and scheduling by hand can be a complicated endeavor. We model this problem as an Open Shop Problem with unit processing times and modify standard algorithms to work with constraints specified by a customer organization.
Poster
Developing an image processor to extract lipid size information from hepatic steatotic images
Jiang ,Yuhao University of Central Oklahoma
Banjara ,Mahesh University of Central Oklahoma
As the second most common transplantation, liver transplant depends on livers donated from cadaver and living donors. The more lipid content a donor liver has and the bigger the size of lipid vacuole in hepatocyte is, the higher risk of ischemic reperfusion injury the donor liver has after transplantation that risks the patient's life. We propose to use image processing methods to morphologically classify liver tissue of different levels of non-alcoholic steatosis, in terms of the volume concentration and size distribution of lipid vacuole. Specifically, we develop the advanced image processing methods including morphological process and image segmentation to extract the sizing parameters specific to macro-vesicular and micro-vesicular steatosis.
Poster
Developing Educational Gaming to Facilitate Comprehension of Discrete Math Concepts
Dang ,Ryan Cameron University
Educational gaming software has shown its effectiveness in providing powerful learning experiences for high school students. Virtual environments foster real-world application of the knowledge presented in-game. Games function as aids in development of student competency. Currently, evidence beyond anecdotal reportage to support the use of computer games in education is limited. The dominating areas of research in educational gaming exist solely in the disciplines of medical education and business management studies. Our objective is to develop a novel working beta-model concerned with increasing discrete math cognitive skills in college-aged students in an engaging and fun manner. Cameron University’s Computing and Technology Department development team is authoring a novel video game to facilitate learning of discreet math concepts. The subsequent beta-testing and field-testing of this original product serve as anecdotal evidence in support of educational gaming. As of 2015, the current team is developing an animated video game, designed to facilitate learning Set Theory. The team will systematically revise and develop beta-tests of game. Revisions of game determine functionality, interactivity and level of fun. Project development by current Cameron students, professors, and associated facilitators is an ongoing process that will continue within Multimedia Design Department after graduating class leaves.
Poster
Development of a microfluidic immunological assay for the detection and identification of Bluetongue virus and EHDV induced antibodies in serum.
Bowen ,John University of Central Oklahoma
Jarshaw ,Jane University of Central Oklahoma
Tappert ,Mary University of Central Oklahoma
Lavine ,Barry Oklahoma State University
Wilson ,William Other
Brennan ,Robert University of Central Oklahoma
Albahadily ,F. University of Central Oklahoma
div class="participant_names"> Bahavar ,Cody University of Central Oklahoma
This study describes the development and testing of a microfluidic immunological assay that combines lateral flow assay and microfluidic paper-based analytical device designs for the purpose of detecting and identifying antibodies in serum from sheep exposed to Bluetongue Virus and/or EHDV. Initial design research was done using BSA and anti-BSA to mimic the actual target antibody/antigens. The final assay design will use BTV or EHDV proteins as antigen and animal serum as primary antibody, with antigen-antibody binding detected by a fluorophore- or gold nanoparticle-labeled secondary antibody. We here describe the stepwise optimization of antigen binding, antibody flow, and complex detection in a microfluidic system.
Poster
Development of a Novel Tracking Method for Tumor Metastases Using MRI and Molecularly-Targeted Contrast Agents
Doughty ,Austin University of Central Oklahoma
Hasanjee ,Aamr University of Central Oklahoma
Towner ,Rheal Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
Smith ,Nataliya Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
Saunders ,Debra Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
Chen ,Wei University of Central Oklahoma
Laser Immunotherapy (LIT) is a novel cancer treatment modality that focuses on using laser irradiation and an immunoadjuvant to instigate a systemic immune response to treat metastatic cancers. In order to accurately observe, improve, and plan the LIT process, a method to visualize and track tumor metastases is necessary. This study aims to develop this very methodology as a complement to LIT by identifying and analyzing metastases. We plan to accomplish this using contrast-agent assisted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). These contrast agents can be conjugated to antibodies specific to cancer markers, targeting the effect to cancerous tissues in an MRI scan. To begin development, a study was performed using Wistar Furth rats injected with DMBA-4 cancer model to analyze the influence of several types of molecularly-targeted contrast agents and ascertain the most efficacious contrast agent. From our results, we concluded that the Gd-alb-CD44v6 contrast agent was more effective than our other contrast agents. Hereafter, we plan to further this methodology by developing algorithms to computationally analyze the MRI data, enabling us to conduct studies to refine LIT into a more potent treatment.
Poster
Development of a Smartphone App to Collect Maneuvering Data from Pediatric Wheelchairs
King ,Melicent University of Central Oklahoma
Fu ,Jicheng University of Central Oklahoma
The analysis of wheelchair maneuvering data is a critical problem that requires greater understanding, and calls for innovation to benefit users of pediatric wheelchairs in particular. While adult wheelchair models can be fitted with a variety of data collection devices, pediatric wheelchairs are often too small to accommodate the hardware. This project proposes to develop a mobile/cloud computing platform to collect and analyze movement data from pediatric wheelchairs using cutting-edge machine learning techniques. Data will be collected using an Android application installed on the user’s smartphone, eliminating the need to purchase and install dedicated hardware. This application will automatically upload data to the cloud, where it will be stored and processed via the Google App Engine platform. There, advanced machine learning algorithms will be used to draw conclusions about the distance and type of driving maneuvers made by the user, thus reducing the risk of secondary impairments in the development of social, cognitive, and motor skills.
Poster
Development of glucose amperometric biosensor based on self-assembling glucose oxidase on polydiallyldimethlammonium and multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Sandhar ,Baljit Northeastern State University
Abia ,Jude Northeastern State University
In this study, a glucose biosensor was developed using layer-by-layer self-assembly method in which glucose oxidase enzyme along with multi-walled carbon nanotubes were sandwiched by electrostatic attraction between two layers of polydiallyldimethlammonium chloride (PDDA) on a platinum electrode. Results show that the conductivity of the sensor was improved with the addition of the nanotubes. The functionality of the biosensor was tested in a three electrode system in a 0.1M phosphate buffer solution containing glucose. At an optimized applied voltage of 0.6V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode, hydrogen peroxide generated from the enzymatic oxidation of glucose was detected and the resulting amperometric signal used to quantify glucose. The sensor showed a good linear range of 0.08 – 15mM, and a detection limit of 3.5 μM. The biosensor also retained 90% of its initial activity of a few weeks of use.
Poster
Dietary Sugar and Protein Increases Cancer in a Drosophila Model
Patel ,Harsh Northeastern State University
Ahlander ,Joseph Northeastern State University
Yerton ,Jacob Northeastern State University
Dietary restriction may be a viable strategy to reduce cancer incidence. The study of caloric restriction in a Drosophila model of cancer, called eyeful, has shown to be a cancer reducing factor in tumorigenic fruit flies. However, it is not clear whether this effect is due to lack of a specific macronutrient rather than wholesale caloric restriction. In this experiment, we studied the effects of dietary restriction of specific macronutrients on tumor formation in a Drosophila model of cancer. Our experiments revealed that protein and sugar supplemented flies exhibited about a fourfold increase in eye tumors, whereas flies supplemented with fats and starch showed very little change relative to the low calorie control. Overall, these results suggest that general dietary restriction of proteins and carbohydrates may be an effective anti-cancer strategy with a specific emphasis placed on reducing dietary sugars rather than complex carbohydrates.
Poster
Digestive Tract Microbiota Analysis of Sceloporus consobrinus
Mera ,Alejandra Northeastern State University
Paulissen ,Mark Northeastern State University
Cisar ,Cindy Northeastern State University
Recent microbiological studies have revealed the abundance and diversity of microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tracts of animals. The gut microbiota of mammals has been well studied, while there has been little study of lizard gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated the gut microbiota of the prairie lizard, Sceloporus consobrinus, an insectivorous species. Rectal swab samples were collected from eight prairie lizards captured in Cherokee county in northeastern Oklahoma in the spring and fall of 2014. High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal DNA samples was performed by Research and Testing Laboratory (Lubbock, TX). Bacteria from eight different phyla were identified in the samples: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. A high level of variability in bacterial community composition was observed among individuals. Only Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were present in all eight lizard samples, ranging from 8-98% and 0.2-8.6% of total bacteria, respectively. The most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria constituting 47.91± 40.98% of total bacteria, followed by Firmicutes (28.56 ± 24.65%), and Bacteroidetes (21.20 ± 22.81%). The remaining phyla were present in low abundance, on average < 3% of total bacteria. These results provide the first data on S. consobrinus gut bacterial populations and their diversity.
Poster
Direct Numerical Simulation of the Origin of Flow Chaos at Late Boundary Layer Transition over a Flat Plate.
Thapa ,Manoj University of Central Oklahoma
The transition process from laminar to turbulent flow in boundary layers is a basic scientific problem in modern fluid mechanics and has been the subject of study for over a century due to its great importance in various engineering applications. Delaying laminar-turbulent transition definitely reduces the skin friction at the wall and hence reduce fuel consumption in many flows of practical interest. However, designing and optimizing devices for skin-friction reduction requires a fundamental understanding of transition mechanisms and phenomena. This paper is devoted to the investigation of the origin and mechanism of chaotic flow (asymmetric flow) in late boundary layer transition over a flat plate without pressure gradient. After carefully analyzing our recently conducted high order direct numerical simulation (DNS) results, we exhibit an entirely new approach about the origination and evolution process of flow chaos in late boundary layer transition. The direct relation between small scale vortices generation and skin-friction production, the mechanism of boundary-layer thickening are also discussed.
Poster
Direction-Biased Acoustic Metamaterial Waveguide
Kulkarni ,Prateek Oklahoma State University
Manimala ,James Oklahoma State University
Lee ,Barrett Oklahoma State University
Paidimarri ,Vishnu Oklahoma State University
Acoustic Metamaterials (AM) are a class of artificial materials that derive their unique dynamic properties not just from material constituents but more so from engineered configurations. Tailoring their engineered configurations imparts unusual wave manipulation capabilities that bring about novel applications. We demonstrate the feasibility of a passive direction-biased structural waveguide using an AM having sequential arrays of linear and nonlinear hardening-type (NLH) resonators. Simulations show that by choosing the local resonance frequencies of the linear and NLH resonators appropriately, an amplitude-activated direction-bias in the propagation characteristics is achieved depending on whether the incident wave first passes through the linear or NLH resonator arrays. A prototype will be experimentally evaluated to verify the mechanism of shift in the spectrum of the propagated wave to lower frequencies when it passes through the NLH resonator array and the stop-band of the linear resonator array that enables this AM to act as waveguide in one direction and filter in the opposite direction for excitation within a tunable frequency range. An entirely passive direction-biased waveguide for mechanical waves would be a promising step towards a full-fledged mechanical analog of the electronic diode. It has attractive applications for acoustic shielding of sensitive equipment and steering and focusing of mechanical waves in both medical and military devices.
Poster
Distinguishing the Distinguishing Game Number for Graphs
Allen ,Connor Northeastern State University
The distinguishing number for a graph is the minimum number of colors required to color the vertices of a graph so that the only color preserving automorphism that exists is the identity. The game distinguishing number is the minimum number of colors needed so that Alice is always able to provide a distinguishing coloring of the graph in play against her adversary, Bob. It is known that the distinguishing number is less than or equal to the game distinguishing number for any given graph. This creates an interesting question: Can we use the game distinguishing number to provide sharper upper bounds for the distinguishing number? To find out more about game distinguishing numbers for graphs we created a program to play the game over a wide array of graphs. In this game Alice and Bob are presented with a generated graph. They try and decide which vertices, of the uncolored, to color and which color to use on that said vertex that still allows for an eventual distinguishing coloring. Each player gets a turn until all vertices are colored. This is automated to make the best choice possible. We will then examine the results and talk about our findings.
Poster
Distracted Driving Survey
Turner ,Michael Northeastern State University
Ellis ,Katy Northeastern State University
Perrin ,Kelsey Northeastern State University
Melone ,Taylor Northeastern State University
Distracted Driving Survey Northeastern State University Tahlequah Student Chapter of the American Society of Safety Engineers The Northeastern State University Tahlequah Student Chapter of the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) has produced a survey to measure attitudes and behaviors of faculty, staff and students at all universities within Oklahoma. This research follows a survey that was conducted in 2009 by the same student organization. Since 2009, most states have established various laws, regulations and penalties associated with cell phone usage while driving. Additionally, myriad forms of media are used to inform drivers of the dangers associated with cell phone use while driving. Some of the main goals of this survey are to determine the effectiveness of these laws, regulations, and penalties as well as the media messages in terms of altering driver’s attitudes and behavior. The electronic survey will be conducted using Checkbox and will be emailed to all faculty, staff and students at every university in Oklahoma.
Poster
Distribution and Quantity of Iodine in Northwestern Oklahoma Brine Waters
Wickham ,Jason Northwestern State University
Hoffman ,Cori Northwestern State University
Anderson ,Austin Northwestern State University
Edlin ,David Iofina Resources, Inc
In the late 1970's, it was discovered that the brine waters of northwestern Oklahoma contain significant amounts of Iodine (above 60 ppm). However, the exact amounts and distributions of Iodine throughout this brine water formation were unknown. Currently, the majority of the world's supply of Iodine comes from mining Iodate minerals in Chile (~65%), brine water aquifers in NW Oklahoma (~5%) and Japan (~25%), and seaweed extraction. With the growing need for Iodine compounds in the medical, agricultural, and technological fields the demand for Iodine is higher than ever. Thus, Iofina has recruited the aid of Northwestern Oklahoma State University to quantify the Iodine concentration and distribution throughout the brine aquifer, as well as, determine the longevity of these iodine concentrations. Currently, this has resulted in the discovery of new sites within the aquifer that contain concentrations above 300 ppm and show that the iodine levels are currently steady within about a 5 ppm fluctuation.
Poster
Distribution of Conditions in Students Attending the Oklahoma School for the Blind
Peter ,Kyle Northeastern State University
Ford ,Phillip Northeastern State University
Lewerenz ,David Northeastern State University
Introduction: This study evaluates the distribution of causes of visual impairment in students at the Oklahoma School of the Blind. This was a unique opportunity to compare our findings with a similar study performed 26 years previously. Methods: Diagnoses from records of 93 students at the Oklahoma School of the Blind were acquired from a review of their medical records. A list of the most common conditions was compiled. These results were compared with other studies previously performed with special attention to a 1988 study performed at the same location. Results: Optic nerve hypoplasia was the most common diagnosis for subjects in our study. Retinopathy of prematurity was second most common, and was twice as prevalent as in 1988. The third most common diagnosis was cortical visual impairment, which was not reported in 1988. Students in 2014 were, on average, two years older than in the 1988 study and about 54 percent of students had best corrected visual acuity of worse than 20/200 in both studies. Discussion: Our finding of a significant increase in the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity is supported by other studies. Increased survival of premature infants is likely the cause of the increased prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity. It is likely that both optic nerve hypoplasia and cortical visual impairment have increased in prevalence, but we cannot state this for certain because of the way conditions were categorized in the 1988 study.
Poster
Do Business Conditions Affect High-Leverage and Low-Leverage Trade Firms Equally?
Kaya ,Halil Northeastern State University
OBJECTIVE We examine the impact of business conditions on high-leverage and low-leverage U.S. trade firms’ profitability and liquidity measures during the 2000-2005 period. HYPOTHESIS We expect high-leverage trade firms to be more sensitive to changes in business conditions. METHODOLOGY We use Wilcoxon tests for our comparisons. RESULTS High-leverage retailers are more sensitive to changes in business conditions. On the other hand, wholesalers’ leverage levels do not alter how their profitability values are affected by business conditions. Therefore, for wholesalers, there is no “leverage” effect on profitability. In terms of liquidity, I find that leverage is an important factor for wholesalers, but not for retailers. While favorable business conditions affect high-leverage wholesalers’ liquidity values positively, the impact on low-leverage wholesalers’ liquidity values is negative.
Poster
Do Physical Activity Levels Effect Academic Performance? Dr. Melissa Powers, Dr. Ed Cunliff and Olivia Curtis
Curtis ,Olivia University of Central Oklahoma
Purpose: Do students believe there is a connection with activity and grade? Methods: In the spring of 2014 the Healthy Life Skills class at the University of Central Oklahoma participated in the NCHA survey. We looked for the answers of: student class, if the student met physical activity guidelines (PAG), if the student agreed or disagreed with a connection between physical activity and performance, and GPA of their previous semester. Results: Students were more likely to be active later in their academic career and 50% of students met the PAG. There was no connection between class and agreement level; however, more than 50% of each class agreed or strongly agreed (SA). Of GPA, 75% of students who strongly disagreed (SD) with the statement had a 3.0 or below and 70% of the students above a 3.0 SA. Over 60% of the students who SA with the statement met the PAG and 60% of students who SD did not meet the guidelines. Conclusion: The majority of the students who participated in the survey do see that there is a connection between physical activity and school performance. It did not seem to matter what year the student was in their agreement level to the statement. Although, more students with a better GPA agreed with the statement it could indicate that the lower GPA students do not think about it. More of the students who met the PAG agreed with the statement, proposing that the students who are active do see a connection with their academic performance and activity levels.
Poster
Do Physical Activity Levels Effect Academic Performance? Dr. Melissa Powers, Dr. Ed Cunliff and Olivia Curtis
Curtis ,Olivia University of Central Oklahoma
Curtis ,Olivia University of Central Oklahoma
Purpose: Do students believe there is a connection with activity and grade? Methods: In the spring of 2014 the Healthy Life Skills class at the University of Central Oklahoma participated in the NCHA survey. We looked for the answers of: student class, if the student met physical activity guidelines (PAG), if the student agreed or disagreed with a connection between physical activity and performance, and GPA of their previous semester. Results: Students were more likely to be active later in their academic career and 50% of students met the PAG. There was no connection between class and agreement level; however, more than 50% of each class agreed or strongly agreed (SA). Of GPA, 75% of students who strongly disagreed (SD) with the statement had a 3.0 or below and 70% of the students above a 3.0 SA. Over 60% of the students who SA with the statement met the PAG and 60% of students who SD did not meet the guidelines. Conclusion: The majority of the students who participated in the survey do see that there is a connection between physical activity and school performance. It did not seem to matter what year the student was in their agreement level to the statement. Although, more students with a better GPA agreed with the statement it could indicate that the lower GPA students do not think about it. More of the students who met the PAG agreed with the statement, proposing that the students who are active do see a connection with their academic performance and activity levels.
Poster
Do pre-cancerous keratinocytes up-regulate alpha smooth muscle actin in response to TGF-beta?
Webb ,Jessica University of Central Oklahoma
Taleghani ,Zayn University of Central Oklahoma
Vaughan ,Melville University of Central Oklahoma
There is evidence that myofibroblast presence in tumor stroma leads to poor prognosis. Mechanical tension enhances differentiation of myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts are distinguished from fibroblasts by the assembly of α-sm actin filaments. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is the best-known inducer of α-sm actin and is correlated with increased contractility. Precancerous keratinocytes lead to two types of carcinomas. In vitro carcinomas can form through a pathway which involves the up-regulation of the H-ras protein. Ker-CT-Ras demonstrate an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), meaning the cells begin to demonstrate fibroblast form and function. Fibroblasts generate tension in the dermis during wound healing. So far, Ker-CT-Ras has shown an ability to generate tension in a dermal equivalent with an increased effect in the presence of TGF-β as well as a reduction of this ability when dosed with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Grinnell’s stress-relaxation collagen matrix model provided the necessary microenvironment for myofibroblast formation. The model was originally used to investigate properties of fibroblasts, but we have appropriately extended its use to Ker-CT-Ras. Previously, we gathered comparative data on the Ker-CT-Ras matrices to the tension-generating ability of fibroblast matrices (DP-147-H-Tert). Now, we will present preliminary Western blot data examining the production of α-sm actin in Ker-CT-Ras collagen matrices.
Poster
Do Tail Displays by Juvenile Collared Lizards Function to Distract Prey?
Braun ,Cody University of Central Oklahoma
Baird ,Troy University of Central Oklahoma
Sit-and-wait predators use stealth to approach their prey close enough to strike. Some snakes give conspicuous tail displays that divert the attention of prey away from the predator’s head. Our preliminary field observations on foraging collared lizards suggested that they may give tail displays when stalking arthropod prey. We conducted field trials involving introduction of tethered grasshoppers to free-ranging juvenile collared lizards to test the hypothesis that tail displays function to distract prey. Juvenile collared lizards performed two types of tail displays while stalking prey. Curl displays involved holding the tail in a stiff arch with the distal end pointed anteriorly. Sinusoidal displays involved deliberate lateral undulation as the tail was raised. Lizards performed tail displays more frequently, and for a greater proportion of trials when they were stalking prey than when not stalking prey. Moreover, the proportion of time spent displaying before their first strikes on tethered prey was twice that after the element of surprise was lost following the first strike. Our results support the hypothesis that tail displays given while stalking distract prey allowing juvenile collared lizards to approach more closely before striking. To our knowledge, our data are the first evidence that lizards give displays that function to distract their prey.
Poster
Doing is believing: Increasing student buy-in for introductory statistics
Woods ,Kristin Southwestern Oklahoma State University
The teaching of statistics is limited by numerous challenges that are not easily overcome with traditional pedagogical approaches. While many statistics courses teach the mathematics or application of methodology, few convey the necessary skills of approaching a scientific problem from a statistical perspective. In this way, the “tools” that students are commonly provided, often do not serve them well given real world challenges or convey the same “rich, complicated context, and decision-making issues present in the experience of real application” (Nolan & Temple Lang, 2009). Using a flipped-classroom approach with online lectures and in-class work on individual projects, students learn introductory statistics by performing original research using real datasets. The learning materials and teaching strategies were designed to be structured enough to allow students to consistently move forward with their research projects, yet broad enough to encourage students to creatively and independently explore their questions by actively driving the decisions involved in inquiry. Students learn how to pose a research question, prepare data for analysis, and answer their question using archival data and SAS. This poster will discuss the pre-post survey results of student interest and knowledge in statistics and pre-post test results from the ARTIST that evaluates statistical literacy, statistical reasoning, and statistical thinking (delMas, Garfield, Ooms, &
Poster
Drawing the Narrative from Within: Using a Meditative Psychological Evaluation to Facilitate Image Creation in the Illustration Studio
Johnson ,Amy University of Central Oklahoma
Webb ,Keith University of Central Oklahoma
Inspired by the idea of symbolism and association from Carl Jung, the project titled A Walk Through the Forest asks sophomore and junior illustration students to visualize, journal and produce a black and white mixed media image. The objective of this project is to demonstrate to the student that under the same conditions, each possesses uniqueness, of which, only they are capable of rendering their solution and that the outcomes are endless. Under the instructor’s direction, seven stations were visited during the imagined walk and each station contained an object or symbol of importance. The content of the environment was the creative responsibility of the student and each participant was instructed to look, listen, hear, taste and touch during their meditative journey. All traveling illustrators recorded their experience with as much detail and proceeded with thumbnail, rough and comp phases towards their final solution. Through the pictorial representation of these imagined events, students created rich introspective stories containing a diversity of emotions, memories, and narrative outcomes. Many of these solutions became the foundation for expanded short stories or illustrated series later in upper division coursework. The presentation will include examples from a body of student work spanning thirteen years.
Poster
E
Economic differences between Germany and US: how does it affect the use of different types of energy.
Vieira ,Ingrid University of Central Oklahoma
Patrick ,Michael University of Central Oklahoma
Germany was, in 2012, the largest energy consumer in Europe and the eighth largest energy consumer in the world. US is the largest energy consumer in the world. However, Germany and U.S.’s uses of alternative energies are quite different as Germany is the number one country in usage of alternative energies and US is the seventh. Accordingly to EIA, 11% of all the energy used in Germany comes from renewable resources, while US has only 2.7% of energy coming from renewable sources of energy. We intend to research on the energy policies in both countries to understand the use of alternative energies. We also intend to study other factors that may or may not influence energy sectors of each country, which include environmental agency policies, countries current energy reserves, public opinions, and also the country’s energy production and consumption. Our study is expected to help us to better understand the policies behind the energy mix and future directions in each country’s energy development and consumption.
Poster
Edutainment: Tangential Learning in Video Games
Johnson ,Katherine Cameron University
Objective: To highlight and promote the use of video games as a medium for learning, via tangential learning. Thesis Statement: Video games [including those for entertainment] are full of educational, real-world value as well. Video games can be used as a medium for education for all age groups via tangential learning. Methodology: Surveys, interviews, hands-on research, and academic research. Findings: My hypothesis is true; video games [even those – and I’d even say especially those for entertainment purposes] are incredible teaching tools, via tangential learning, due to game developers taking inspiration from real-world things; history, literature, science, mythology, etymology, religion, and so much more.
Poster
Effect of blue-blocking spectacle lens coatings on subjective visual performance
Manes ,Jason Northeastern State University
Williams ,Wyatt Northeastern State University
McKee ,Alan Northeastern State University
We compared blue-blocking spectacle lens coatings to broad-spectrum anti-reflective coatings to assess the effect on gross subjective visual perception, reading speed when viewing an LED display, glare perception, and visual comfort. We fitted 29 pre-presbyopic subjects in three pairs of spectacles, each with a different lens coating. Two pairs were coated with a blue-blocking treatment (Hoya Recharge and Essilor Provencia) and another control pair was coated with a standard anti-reflective coating (Hoya EX3). For each treatment, we asked subjects to state whether they thought the lens had blue-blocking properties, measured reading speed on an LED display, then surveyed visual comfort, perception of glare, and likelihood to wear the lenses habitually. We found that subjects were able to determine whether lenses had blue-blocking coatings based on gross visual perception. There was no statistically significant effect on reading speed, visual comfort or perception of glare. Subjects reported that they were more likely to wear EX3 habitually than Provencia. We found that while subjects are able to determine that they are wearing spectacle lenses with blue-blocking coatings, the difference in visual perception does not statistically affect reading speed, visual comfort, perception of glare, or likelihood to wear the lenses.
Poster
Effect of electrospin material on the fracture strength of Ti/PMMA interfaces
Riahinezhad ,shahram University of Central Oklahoma
Rutter ,Andrew University of Central Oklahoma
The goal of this research is to increase mechanical interlock between titanium (Ti) and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) cement by improving the surface properties of implant using electrospin nanofiber. To achieve the goal, the study will determine the effect of electrospinning polymer fiber adhesion on titanium and the effect of electrospinning fiber material architecture (fiber diameter and distance between fibers) on Ti/PMMA interfaces. An uncoated cylindrical model was tested under static structural loading. During this study, the fiber material viscosity of PCL-Acetone, PMMA-Acetone-PCL, and PCL-Acetic acid was measured. This study compared the bounding strength of two electrospun fiber coated Ti/PMMA interfaces under static load (the strength load between titanium rods with cement, and titanium rods with fibers and cement). Qualitative adhesion tests showed that PCL-PMMA-Acetone solution had greater stickiness compared to PCL-Acetone. Experimental study found significant increase of pull out static strength for fiber coated implant compare to uncoated implant. In future, the effect of electrospun fiber material on the architecture on Ti and compare the bounding strength of two electrospun fiber coated Ti/PMMA interfaces under static load will be found. In addition, the stiffness on fracture strength (PCL-Acetone and PCL-Acetone-PMMA) will be found.
Poster
EFFECT OF FIBER ARCHITECTURE ON THE FRACTURE STENGTH OF IMPLANT/BIO-MATERIAL INTERDFACES
Li ,Yanling University of Central Oklahoma
Khandaker ,Morshed University of Oklahoma
Ti and Ti-based alloys are widely used as implants for hard tissue repair. However, the optimal surface properties of an ideal metal implant have not yet been achieved. The goal of this study is to improve the bio-mechanical performances of Ti implant. It is hypothesized that deposition of fiber can increase mechanical interlock of Ti surface that can enhance in vitro mechanical integration of Ti/cement or Ti/bone interfaces. The research objectives were to (1) test the fracture strength of Ti-cement with one round, two rounds and five rounds of PCL fiber under static load to determine the stiffness effect of fiber on the Ti/PMMA cement interface; (2) test the fracture strength of Ti-cement with PCL fiber and PCL-PMMA fiber under static load to determine the topography effect of fiber on the Ti/PMMA cement interface; (3) test the fracture strength of Ti-fiber-cement with and without heating up Ti before fiber under static load to determine the thickness effect of fiber on the Ti/PMMA cement interface. PCL and PCL-PMMA fibers were produced by electrospinning. The result showed one round of PCL fiber has higher fracture strength than two rounds and five rounds. With PMMA added into the fiber solution, the fracture strength of Ti-fiber-cement increased. Heating up the Ti implant to 50℃ before coating PCL fiber can increase the fracture strength of Ti-cement interface. However, heating up Ti implant before PCL-PMMA fiber doesn’t help improve the quality of Ti-cement i
Poster
Effect of Mining Byproducts on Mammalian Cell Viability: A Study of the Tar Creek Superfund Site
Sloan ,Dusti Tulsa Community College
Bates ,Eric Tulsa Community College
Bleichner ,Jeffrey Tulsa Community College
DeLeon ,Alex Tulsa Community College
Ekesi ,Nnamdi Tulsa Community College
Noble ,Tyler Tulsa Community College
Torres ,Alejandro Tulsa Community College
Whinery ,Nicol Tulsa Community College
Whinery ,Nicol Tulsa Community College
The Tar Creek Superfund site spans Northeastern Oklahoma, Southeastern Kansas, and Southwestern Missouri. Mining began in the 1700s and lasted until 1970. Contaminants from the mining process, primarily lead and zinc, are still present in the soil, surface water, and ground water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether contaminants from the Tar Creek Superfund Site were detrimental to mammalian cells grown in vitro. Water samples were collected from different areas of the site and tested for chemical contaminants using a water quality kit. Additionally, the effect of the water samples on mammalian cell viability was evaluated by utilizing the water samples to create growth media for a mammalian cell line (CHOK-1). The cells were seeded in 96-well tissue culture plates and allowed to adhere for 48 hours. Media was made using control water, mine site well water, downstream “mixed” water, and main inlet (from the mine) water and was added to specified wells in the culture plate. The cells were then incubated in their respective media for 5 days. An MTT viability assay was utilized to assess the viability of cells grown in different media types. Water quality testing did not reveal abnormal levels of contaminants in any of the test sites. Results from the MTT assay indicate that there was significant loss of viability in cells grown in media prepared from the NE Inlet and Well Site.
Poster
Effect of Profanity on Perception of Pain in Those Being Bullied
Stevens ,Christopher Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Burgess ,Stephen Southwestern Oklahoma State University
The National Educational Association estimates that every 7 minutes a child is a victim of bullying and 85% of the time there is no student or adult intervention. One factor that may affect whether someone intervenes is the evaluation of the experienced during bulling. Perception of pain in others is affected by several psychological, behavioral and contextual factors (Sullivan et al., 2006). The communication model of pain proposes that the sender’s (the person thought to be experiencing pain), pain behavior, the receiver’s sensitivity to features of the senders’ behavior and the receiver’s attitudes and beliefs may affect the perception of pain in others (Craig, 1998). In the present study we explored differences in perceived pain in others between males and females. Participants were 70 primarily Caucasian freshmen college students (mean age = 19.2). Participants completed a series of scenarios designed to portray a variety of bullying types (e.g., cyber, physical, emotional) and severities. The scenarios were extensively piloted to identify those that represented a range of scores on these factors. The scenarios varied by type of bullying (physical or emotional emphasis), gender of person being bullied, and age of the person being bullied. No significant differences in ratings of perceived pain experienced during being bullied based on gender of rater were observed. There were also no significant interactions between gender of rater and t
Poster
Effects of Altered Protein Phosphatase 5 (PP5) in Cancerous and Non-Cancerous Cells
Cuevas ,Kathryn Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Golden ,Teresa Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Serine/threonine Phosphatase 5 (PP5) is an enzyme that has a role in the processing of signals received by cells. It has been shown that overexpression of PP5 increases the growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7), increasing cancer cell survival. Overexpression of PP5 in neuronal cells has been observed to reduce the severity of Alzheimer’s disease yet result in cell death in healthy human cells. To further understand these differences, we compared various catalytic PP5 mutants to fully functional PP5 expression in HF-12 human fibroblast cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells using lipofectamine-based transfection inclusive of the PLUS reagent (Life Technologies) to initiate expression from normal or mutated PP5-EGFP constructs. We also used SYTOX Orange and Calcein Blue dyes on transfected breast cancer cells to observe correlations between mutated and non-mutated PP5-EGFP constructs. At various intervals, cells were observed using fluorescent microscopy under transmittance 4x/10x and 20x/40x, and fluorescent protein channels GFP, RFP and DAPI to detect fluorescence from transfected and dyed cells. HF cells transfected with PP5-EGFP and mutations varied in response. Control HF cells without extra PP5 exhibited health while fluorescing HF cells with PP5 and mutants were observed most commonly as dying cells, correlating with previous lab data. Overexpression of PP5 in healthy normal cells results in cell death. Studies with MCF-7 and comparisons to HF-12 are in progress.
Poster
Effects of Fluoxetine on Corticosterone-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells
Wu ,Ning Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Holbert ,Baylee Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Reagan ,Sarah Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Newsome ,Jonathan Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and life-threatening mental disorder over the world. Although the exact pathological mechanism of MDD has not been identified, some studies demonstrated that cellular mitochondrial defects might play a role in cell dysfunction or even death, which could relate to MDD’s cognitive incapability and motor slowness. Some antidepressants such as amitriptyline and tranylcypromine can reduce such pathological effects. However, the mechanisms of such pharmaceutical effects are still unclear. This study investigated the cellular effects of Fluoxetine, a major serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, by using corticosterone-induced neurotoxic PC12 cells. The results showed that Fluoxetine could effectively protect cells from toxic environment by significantly reducing the numbers of cell conformational changes and cell death comparing to that of control group. The study provided the evidence that Fluoxetine might be not only a SSRI, but also a cytoprotective agent.
Poster
Effects of Large-Scale Fire on Nesting of Scissor-tailed Flycatchers in the Wichita Mountains
Richards ,Hannah Cameron University
Landoll ,Diane University of Oklahoma
Husak ,Michael Cameron University
Scissor-tailed Flycatchers are conspicuous Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds of the southern Great Plains. Often considered savannah specialists, they nest in a variety of open habitats. We searched for nesting Scissor-tailed Flycatchers at the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge in Comanche County, Oklahoma from April through July during the years of 2008 - 2014. All nests had their location recorded with a handheld GPS, and were checked every 2-3 days to monitor their status. In 2011, fires burned a significant portion of both grasslands and oak woodlands on the refuge. We used ArcGIS to compare the abundance, distribution, and density of Scissor-tailed Flycatchers before and after these fires. Scissor-tailed Flycatchers expanded their distribution and increased abundance and density in years after wide-spread fires. Increases are likely due to a decrease in tree density in woodlands and a decrease in grass/forb height in grasslands. Frequency of nest success also increased after fires, likely due to a decrease in predator cover and a decrease in predator abundance.
Poster
Effects of Gender Norms and Heterosexism on Adoptions and Disgust
Stratmoen ,Evelyn University of Central Oklahoma
Hancock ,Thomas University of Central Oklahoma
This study investigated how priming gender norms and heterosexism levels predicted homosexual discrimination in adoption cases along with evoking implicit disgust. Participants were primed with either pictures of gender normative activities, gender non-normative activities, or neutral nature scenes. It was found that priming participants did not affect adoption choices, contradicting previous findings.
Poster
Effects of Laser Immunotherapy on Hormone Secretion in the Pancreas Following Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer
Halterman ,Erica University of Central Oklahoma
Laser immunotherapy has been shown to help treat and destroy tumors and metastasis in both breast and skin cancer and is now being applied to pancreatic cancer as well; however, it has not been tested as treatment of pancreatic cancer and the effects it will have are unknown. Hormones are produced within the pancreas and secreted by the endocrine gland that are vital to cell productivity and life. I am proposing a study to investigate and observe the effects that laser immunotherapy has on the hormone levels produced in the pancreas, specifically insulin, and whether or not treatment will decrease the production of these hormones both during and after treatment. By monitoring the productivity of the pancreas during and after treatment, it can be determined whether the treatment is able to cure the cancer while leaving the pancreas to continue its role in the body unharmed.
Poster
Effects of Personal Experiences, Victim/Perpetrator Appearance and Myth Acceptance on Perceptions of Sexual Assault
Riggin ,Brittany University of Central Oklahoma
Baker ,Melissa University of Central Oklahoma
Youll ,Lorry University of Central Oklahoma
Hancock ,Thomas University of Central Oklahoma
Sexual violence perpetrated against women continues to plague women in the U.S. and around the world. The purpose of this research is to combine previous studies regarding victim blaming, rape myth acceptance and victim/perpetrator empathy in a more comprehensive way by examining the effects of rape myth acceptance as well as perpetrator and victim appearance on likability, believability, guilt, and empathy ratings for both the male perpetrator of sexual assault and the female victim. It is hypothesized that victim and perpetrator appearance, degree of rape myth acceptance, empathy felt toward perpetrators and victims of sexual assault, unacknowledged rape perpetrator/victim status and endorsement of ambivalent sexism will have a significant relationship with regard to an individual’s tendency toward victim blaming. Results from this comprehensive study will make it possible to draw clearer conclusions of mediators in perceptions of rape cases.
Poster
Effects of Prescribed Fire and Forest Dynamics at an Urban Cross Timbers Forest in Central Oklahoma, USA
Esqueda ,Carmen University of Central Oklahoma
King ,Chad University of Central Oklahoma
Understanding effects of prescribed fire is essential to the development of forest management practices. In 2011, the Oklahoma Forestry Service began a prescribed fire regime for forest fragments at Lake Stanley Draper located in southeastern Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Lake Stanley Draper lies within the Cross Timbers ecoregion and is surrounded by urban landscape. One goal of this project is to obtain pre- and post-burn plant species composition for one designated burn unit using permanent fixed-plots (0.01 ha). Pre-burn data has revealed post oak (Quercus stellata Wangehn.) and blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica Munchh.) as the dominant overstory tree species. Including post and blackjack oak, nine other tree species in the understory and fifteen species at ground level have been identified. Post-burn data will be collected three times following prescribed burning to determine fire effects on residing plant species. This study is important for foresters managing the regime at Lake Stanley Draper by evaluating burn effectiveness. Effects of prescribed fire at this site will also benefit the scientific community because these results have yet to be determined for urban forest fragments of the Cross Timbers.
Poster
Effects of pyocin production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Jones ,Dillon Oklahoma State University
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited genetic disorder that results in an imbalance of chloride and sodium ions across apical cell membranes in the digestive system and the lungs. The result is thick mucus secretions that clog the lungs and leads to life threatening chronic infections by pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is quite prevalent as it is recovered from nearly 60% of all CF infections and contributes significantly towards morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic treatment rarely clears the bacterial populations from the lungs of CF patients due to increased antibiotic resistance and P. aeruginosa’s ability to produce biofilms. The difficulties encountered in treating patients with P. aeruginosa infections has increased interest in alternatives to traditional antibiotics and has inspired investigators to search for novel therapeutics. One such alternative includes antibacterial proteins called pyocins, which are produced by P. aeruginosa and could be adapted to target other P. aeruginosa. Pyocins are potent toxins with a narrow killing range in comparison to antibiotics. The aim of the proposed project is to evaluate the effects of pyocin production by P. aeruginosa in a Drosophila melanogaster infection model. D. melanogaster was infected individually and with mixed P. aeruginosa cultures consisting of pyocin producing P. aeruginosa and other CF isolates. The survival of D. melanogaster was monitored for 14 days. Mixed infections exhibi
Poster
Effects of Sugar Mixtures on Feeding Preferences of Field-Collected Fruit Flies (Drosophila melanogaster)
Huffman ,Jessica Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Dantzler-Kyer ,Maryanne Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Aracena ,Jimena Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, show preferences between various types of mono- and disaccharides. Our purpose was to test their ability to discriminate between pairs of sugars while freely foraging on a patch of food. Three different sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) were tested in combination pairs. A fructose-glucose mixture was used to determine if the flies preferred sucrose to its monosaccharide components. We also tested the effect of an unacceptable sugar (lactose) on the preference for sucrose. The flies were deprived of food for 20 hours and tested undisturbed for one hour in groups of 50 flies in a small arena containing one patch of 24 wells of sugar solution. The solutions were dyed red (12 wells) or blue (12 wells), which later were visible through the abdominal walls and allowed for easy scoring of preferences. The flies preferred sucrose to the fructose-glucose mixture. Lactose increased the preference for sucrose. Flies with purple abdomens (having fed on both sugars tested) were more common when both sugar solutions were acceptable, showing that the flies foraged on more than one resource on a patch and that foraging increased in patches consisting of higher quality resources.
Poster
Effects of Varying Organic Loadings on Bio-Sand Filter Performance
Saenz ,Adrian Oklahoma State University
Autry ,Tyler Oklahoma State University
Vo ,Kevin Oklahoma State University
Shepherd ,Eli Oklahoma State University
With the introduction of bio-sand filters to developing communities, large populations of people have gained the ability to steadily supply clean water for their families. Bio-sand filters work by using physical straining and biological absorption to capture harmful bacteria from dirty water sources, allowing potable water to pass through the filter media. The challenges of bio-sand filters are that the original filter design cannot handle high concentration of organic material, thus the filter applications are limited. The purpose of this research is to calculate the theoretical maximum and minimum concentration of organic material that a typical bio-sand filter can process. During this experiment, six bench scale cylindrical bio-sand filters were created and loaded with three different organic concentrations. The results of the experiment showed that in every group, bio-sand filters steadily reduce the coliform counts over a time period of two to three weeks, until eventually converging to an absolute minima coliform count. These results clearly show that there is a lower limit to the amount of coliform that a filter can prevent from entering the human body and that at high Total Organic Carbon (TOC) loadings, removal of coliform bacteria is significantly more when compared to lower TOC loadings.
Poster
Efficacy of Anti-Fatigue Single Vision Lenses
Ngo ,Erica Northeastern State University
DeRosier ,Dr. Wesley Northeastern State University
Dill ,Dr. Mallorre Northeastern State University
Purpose. Evaluate the efficacy of the new Hoya Sync™ 5 lens to relieve symptoms of asthenopia and to improve vergence and accommodative posture under visually stressful, sustained, near point tasks. Methods. We administered the Conlon Visual Discomfort Survey to 30 optometry students to collect subjective complaints of asthenopia. Using a Saladin card, we measured the subjects’ fixation disparity prior to fitting them in a Hoya Sync™ 5 lens. After four days of continued lens wear, fixation disparity was re-measured through the reading segment of the lens and the Conlon Survey re-administered. Subjects were given a logging sheet to monitor duration and activity with wear. Results. We found the Sync™ 5 has a statistically significant effect on reducing occurrence of near symptoms of diplopia, aching, and soreness after four days of continued use. There was a moderate positive relation between number of hours of usage while performing near tasks and reduction in subjective symptoms. However, we found no statistically relevant changes in horizontal and vertical fixation disparity. Conclusion. We found that the Hoya Sync™ 5 provides improvement in symptoms of asthenopia as experienced by subjects. However, objective measurements of fixation disparity in this study were not statistically related to lens usage. Key Words: anti-fatigue lenses, asthenopia, fixation disparity, accommodation, Hoya Sync™ 5
Poster
Eighteenth Century Neoclassicism and the Development of Ballet
Pasternack ,Robyn University of Central Oklahoma
The Neoclassical Movement of the Eighteenth Century had a significant influence on the development of ballet technique. It was during this time that ballet shifted from a baroque-based dance divertissement in opera to an independent performing art. The purpose of this research is to analyze the technical transformations that took place particularly when Neoclassicism was at its height. Neoclassical art of this time became a conduit for the progression of ballet because it focused on rigorous standards and classical simplicity. To assimilate these ideals ballet had to change which lead to an increased need for technical exploration. The dance vocabulary expanded into expressive movement that demanded greater physical prowess and precision. It was also during this period that dancers began to experiment with dancing on pointe. As a result of these changes, ballet gained a new respect within the art community and progressed into the stylized dance as it is known today.
Poster
Electrochemical Properties of Graphene Absorption
Bowen ,John University of Central Oklahoma
Zang ,Yushi University of Central Oklahoma
Albahadily ,F. University of Central Oklahoma
Reduced graphene oxide was prepared and formed into a specially constructed form with electrodes on either end. Conductance and current were observed as phthalate esters were adsorbed onto the surface.
Poster
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Kaltenbach ,Carrie Northwestern State University
Stewart ,Katherine Northwestern State University
Karr ,Patrick Northwestern Oklahoma State University
Electroconvulsive Therapy or ECT has been very controversial over the years. This is mostly due to the media portrayals of how Electroconvulsive Therapy is administered. However, despite what the majority of the public perceives, ECT is a safe and effective treatment. ECT is one of the oldest forms of treatment for major depression and mania. It is used after pharmacological treatment has failed. ECT is used continuously along with other forms of treatment for patients. ECT does have side effects such as memory loss, however, most of this memory loss is short term. It is comparable to general anesthesia after surgery. The effectiveness of ECT on the depressed, manic, and suicidal is high. The benefit of ECT outweigh the side effects of ECT in these type of patients due to the seriousness of their mental condition. If patients are given information, understand ECT, and have consented to treatment their opinions of ECT are positive.
Poster
Electromyography of Microexpressions and Mimicry in Relationship to Psychopathy
Durning ,Kiersten University of Central Oklahoma
Mather ,Robert University of Central Oklahoma
This research is directed toward a better understanding of emotions being shown through Micro-Expressions, comparing an individual’s ability to “hide” their emotions comparing low and high psychopathy participants. Measuring the participants’ facial movements in reaction to the picture both when inhibiting emotion and not. Micro-expressions may be socially determined with an individual mimicking another’s emotional facial expression. This study will test if pictures displaying facial expressions would be causation for more muscle movement, measured with electromyography.
Poster
Endogamy in Roman-Egpyt: If It Was Incestuous, Why Morals Allowed It, and What Factors Contributed to It
Sorrell ,Morgan University of Central Oklahoma
This paper lays out a comprehensive overview of endogamy in Roman-Egypt, including how the matter was viewed from a moral standpoint and what factors specific to the time period of the first through third centuries within Roman-Egypt contributed to its widespread use. First, the paper addresses whether these marriages occurred frequently enough to warrant merit and if they involved genetic siblings, whether full or half. This is accomplished by analyzing primary sources, including letters between spouses and Roman census reports of Egypt at this time. The paper then widens its scope to examine how incest and endogamy were viewed in ancient Egypt before Roman conquest and other contemporary cultures, including those of Rome, Greece, and Iran. Finally, the unique social, ethnic, and economy situations of third century Roman-Egypt are taken into account and shown to be contributing factors to the acceptance of endogamy.
Poster
Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Dupuytren’s Myofibroblast Phenotype in a Two-Dimensional Culture
Pantoja ,Joana University of Central Oklahoma
Gainer ,Sonnie University of Central Oklahoma
Vaughan ,Melville University of Central Oklahoma
Dupuytren’s contracture is a hand condition that pulls one’s fingers to a bent position due to the excessive tissue that forms under the skin. This is treated through surgery but recurrence is very likely, so most of the time patients have to go through surgery several times. Myofibroblasts have an effect on wound healing and excessive scarring in patients with Dupuytren’s contracture and other diseases. Antioxidants are thought to interfere with myofibroblast differentiation. EGCG (green tea extract) is an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant we predicted may inhibit myofibroblast growth. In this experiment, a coverslip staining technique was used to test this prediction. The results showed that adding EGCG to cells does inhibit the percentage of myofibroblasts in a population of fibroblasts derived from Dupuytren’s contracture. Our concurrent studies are testing whether the contractile function of cells is also inhibited by this treatment. These results may help us understand the cell biology of Dupuytren’s contracture and lead to new treatments.
Poster
Establishing a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration for Aqueous Extractions From Raw Fresh Garlic
Jackson ,Heather Rogers State University
Water borne illnesses continue to be a major problem for more than one third of the human population. In areas of the world where access to safe water is questionable, access to modern medicine is also problematic. Garlic has been used medicinally for millennia with increasing study into the active compounds. Previous studies have suggested sulfur-based allicin, a protease which forms when raw garlic is crushed or cut, is the chemical of interest. Two bulbs (125.23g) of organic garlic were chopped and washed with sterile water, yielding 9 mL of liquid. This garlic stock was serially diluted with Mueller-Hinton Broth and inoculated with Escherichia coli. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of garlic was 83.9 mg/mL. Although the consumption of raw garlic in solid form may deliver this dosage within the 4g maximum daily tolerance for humans, it took more than 4g of garlic to reach the MBC with water extraction. The possibility of hypersensitivity reactions in the skin due to garlic exposure during handling makes this model inadvisable as an acceptable substitute for modern medications.
Poster
Establishment and Validation of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model
Wu ,Ning Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Wyrick ,Heather Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Sharp ,Patrick Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Gunter ,Stephanie Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Khoury ,Danielle Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects many people around world. Although there have been a large number of experiments tested dealing with animal depression model, only a small few can be credited as useful MDD research tools. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model to facilitate future studies in MDD mechanisms and antidepressant drug development. The pure breed mouse strain was employed for this study. The mice were treated by 9 different stimulations with one randomly picked stimulation per day and no same type of stimulation in continuous days. After 5 weeks treatment, the mice were tested by a series experiments to validate their CUMS status. The results showed that CUMS mice demonstrated weight loss, voluntary movement reduction, sucrose solution intake reduction, and swimming immobility time increasing. In addition, CUMS mice showed significant reductions of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) in brain prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions comparing to that in normal control animal group. The results suggested that a successful mouse CUMS model could be established through 5 week continuous treatment. The CUMS model showed the similar biochemical changes in MDD patients.
Poster
Estimates on Minimal Perfect Order Subset Groups
Ghosh ,Shanta University of Central Oklahoma
Fulkerson ,Michael University of Central Oklahoma
In this research we explore a certain class of finite groups, called perfect order subset groups. A group is said to have perfect order subsets (POS) if the number of elements of any given order divides the order of the group. The study of these groups involves both number theory and abstract algebra. These groups were first defined and investigated by Carrie Finch and Lenny Jones. We explore here both abelian and nonabelian POS groups, and we find a size estimate on minimal POS groups whose order is not divisible by 5.
Poster
Evaluate Fiber Coated Hip Implant by Using Fatigue Setup
Johnson ,Zack University of Central Oklahoma
Khandaker ,Morshed University of Central Oklahoma
When it comes to implants, recovery time and failure can be a significant problem. It is important to know how much stress can be applied to a titanium-cement interface. The main application of this knowledge is for titanium implants, and how the cement will hold when a cyclic load is applied. A cyclic load simulates the action of a person walking or moving in an everyday setting. The goal is to evaluate the interface between a nano-fiber coated titanium implant and the bone cement, using a fatigue setup. The nano-fibers will be applied to the surface of the implant using an electrospinning process. The results are anticipated to show that the fiber coated titanium implant is able to withstand a cyclic load better than a non-coated implant. Static tensile tests were performed. The tensile load that the titanium-cement interface broke; was around 27 ± 2.69 N. This will be used for the pre load for fatigue testing Titanium implants with and without fibers will be tested to determine fatigue life. The results could possibly be applied to increase the strength of hip implants and to shorten the recovery time for implants.
Poster
Evaluating Genetic Diversity and Structure of a Mediterranean House Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) Invasion at the University of Central Oklahoma
Fenwick ,Allyson University of Central Oklahoma
Kimmel ,Laura University of Central Oklahoma
Matheny ,Audrey University of Central Oklahoma
Exotic species are excellent models for understanding ecological and evolutionary processes because they spread and adapt to new habitats across short periods of time that can be directly observed. At UCO, Mediterranean house geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) were repeatedly introduced to Howell Hall from 1963 to 1965 and 1985 to 1997. In contrast to most invaders that expand quickly over short geographic areas, this species has only spread to 20 buildings over 18–52 years. Our hypothesis, based on previous work on this species in other regions, is that each building hosts a genetically isolated population of geckos and that populations will show an overall pattern of decreasing genetic diversity with increasing geographic distance from the original site of introduction. To date we have collected over 100 individuals from ten buildings across campus. We are optimizing amplification of microsatellites; genotyping these extremely variable loci should help us analyze genetic diversity and genetic structure over short time periods and restricted geographic ranges. Our results will help inform studies of invasion genetics and of evolution over very short geographic distances.
Poster
Evaluating the Impact of Healthy Vending Machines at the University of Central Oklahoma
Ghafil ,Jalal University of Central Oklahoma
Holmes Ph. D., R.D., L.D. ,Dr. Tawni University of Central Oklahoma
Due to the growing obesity epidemic in Oklahoma, college students need to be aware of what they choose as food options in order to help prevent weight gain and all of the negative implications associated with it. The availability of vending machines on the campus of the University of Central Oklahoma is very present, but the machines with healthy snack options are limited. Last year, the Healthy Campus Initiative resulted in two healthy machines being placed in two separate buildings on campus. The purpose of this project is to discover the difference in nutrient densities between snacks in the traditional versus healthy vending machines. Snacks in both types of vending machines were examined for fat, calories, sugar, sodium, and fiber. Results showed that all but one of the snacks in the health machine are considered reduced calorie items, but that the overwhelming majority of those in the traditional machine are not reduced calorie items. By analyzing the nutrients in the typical vending machine’s snack and drink options and comparing them to the snacks and drinks in the healthy vending machines, it should be evident that the health benefits associated with the standard snacks and drinks will be lesser than the healthier options.
Poster
Evaluation of The Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamon Oil Nanoemulsions Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Kotturi ,Hari University of Central Oklahoma
Craig ,Cole University of Central Oklahoma
Vital ,Wanderley University of Central Oklahoma
Almeida ,Matheus University of Central Oklahoma
Barros ,Maine University of Central Oklahoma
Bhargava ,Kanika University of Central Oklahoma
MRSA has emerged as epidemic crisis in clinical, veterinary medicine and food safety worldwide. The presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon oil has proven to be a powerful antioxidant as well as a powerful antimicrobial agent against an array of microorganisms and their biofilms. These properties provide us with a natural alternative compared to today’s standard antimicrobial agents. However, its application is limited due to high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and insolubility in water. One of the strategies in dealing with such hydrophobic compounds is by dispersing them in emulsion droplets. Nanoemulsions of cinnamon oil were prepared via ultrasonication using 10% v/v of oil and surfactant Tween 80 in DI water. Essential oil emulsions prepared by this optimized method exhibited average particle size of 212.92 nm. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of cinnamon oil nanoemulsions against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA strain ATCC 43300. Antimicrobial activity was investigated using the Broth Microdilution Assay and the Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion test. Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion exhibited MBC of 0.078% v/v and zone of inhibition (mm) of 14.5. Antimicrobial nanoemulsion of cinnamon oil offer alternatives to control MRSA in hospital, community and food processing settings. Future studies should explore the antibiofilm effect of cinnamon oil nanoemulsions against MRSA.
Poster
Evaluation of the Long Term Viscoelastic Properties of a Silicone Gel
Barnes ,Mikasa University of Central Oklahoma
Khandaker ,Morshed University of Central Oklahoma
The goal of this research is to determine whether the biomechanical performances of the intervertebral disc (IVD) after a nucleotomy can be mimicked with the use of a silicone gel replacement. We hypothesized that a silicone sample with a 1:1 base to cross-linker ratio may serve best as a replacement. To test this ratio, we evaluated the fatigue viscoelastic properties (creep, oscillation, recovery, and compression) of a silicone gel formation and determined the in vitro performance of the silicone using a cadaver IVD model under several loading conditions. The oscillation tests were evaluated on shear stress values varying from 0-50Pa with a fixed frequency of 1Hz to a controlled stress of 1.25MPa at a varying frequency from 1-100 radians per second. Bovine specimens were also prepared for use of comparison with various new materials in order to validate our results. Stiffness of intact and implanted IVD under the loading conditions of flexion, compression, bending, and rotation has been measured to evaluate the amount of restoration due to the silicone replacement. These results were then compared to the natural bovine specimens that were carefully prepared throughout the semester. The two materials’ results correlate strongly, further suggesting that the 1:1 silicone may be an excellent choice.Our results are being used to develop a model to evaluate the usefulness of the implants used for the treatment of degenerated IVDs.
Poster
Evaluation of the Physicochemical Properties of a Novel Antimalarial Drug Lead, Cyclen Bisquinoline
Hossain ,Mohammad Southwestern Oklahoma State University
shrestha ,anjuli Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Rudraraju ,Apoorva Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Saluja ,Hardeep Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Khan ,M.O. Faruk Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Rouf ,A.S.S. University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate physicochemical properties of a novel antimalarial drug lead, 4,10-bis (7-chloroquinoline)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (free base; FB) and its hydrochloride salt. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was employed to determine and quantify the energy of phase transition and conformational changes. Equilibrium solubility and stability of both FB and its salt were carried out in different mediums, and samples were analyzed using RP-HPLC. pKa values were calculated by both pH-metric and UV-metric methods. The log P value of the compound was determined by RP-HPLC from the best fit calibration curve of log P vs. log k values of the reference standards. The FB is a white polymorphic crystalline powder; the polymorphs melt at 166, 178, 195, and 234ºC, respectively. The salt is off-white powder that showed a broad endotherm in DSC analysis suggesting it to be amorphous. Both forms were stable in a wide range of conditions (acid, base, water, light and heat) except oxidation. Three pKa values, 5.9, 6.6 and 8.7, were obtained for the compound. It has a log P value of 5.14. The application of standard experimental protocol revealed that the compound has at least four different crystalline polymorphs. It is highly hydrophobic; however, salt formation improved its water solubility by approx. 370-fold. All these properties would be useful in implementing the modern quality by design approaches for further development of the drug lead.
Poster
Examining Food Insecurity and Indigenous Student Populations
Melton ,Cody Northeastern State University
There is a paucity of research when it comes to food insecurity in students attending college, and even more so in regards to specific populations, such American Indian college students. The USDA has published instruments that have been proven effective in measuring food security on college campuses and in American Indian Populations. The purpose of this study is to examine a medium sized, rural institution with a large American Indian population comprising at least 20% of the student body. Students will be surveyed using the USDA’s food security survey module, which will be modified to include demographic questions. The results of these survey’s will be analyzed to see if what, if any correlates exist in between American Indian students and food insecurity. The results of the surveys will also be matched against the national population of American Indians to observe how the student rates of food insecurity compare.
Poster
Examining Polarimetric Characteristics of Electronic Interference in Weather Radar Data
Phan ,Thong East Central University
Meteorologists have been able to examine the atmosphere using weather radars to look at what kinds of precipitation have been occurring for many decades. With the recent upgrade to dual-polarization radars (dual-pol) for the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 1998 Doppler), meteorologists can now examine the atmosphere with dual-polarization products. These products are: Velocity (V), Reflectivity (Z), Differential Phase on Propagation (PhiDP), Correlation Coefficient (RhoHV), Differential Reflectivity (Zdr), and Spectrum Width (SPW). Though the products are very useful in determining what type of precipitation are in the atmosphere, how large the precipitation event is, and how severe it can be, it picks up many non-meteorological echoes.Electronic interference is a type of non-meteorological echo that has high reflectivityvalues and is mistakenly forecasted as precipitation by automated systems. This study looks at the reflectivity, differential reflectivity, and correlation coefficient of electronic interference and precipitation to find objective criteria to distinguish a difference between them. The findings are meant to aid in the currentquality control algorithm to be more efficient for operational use.
Poster
Examining the relationship between reporting quality and journal prestige in PTSD Neuroimaging research
Vassar ,Matt Oklahoma State University
Carr ,Branden Oklahoma State University
Tran-Pham ,Anh Tulsa Community College
Reporting quality has received increased attention in recent years due to concerns related to the validity of scientific evidence as well as the proliferation of meta-analysis studies in medicine. To address this issue, standardized reporting frameworks have been adopted for the reporting of randomized controlled trials (e.g.,CONSORT), meta-analyses (e.g., PRISMA, MOOSE), and other research designs. Due to the unique features of neuroimaging studies, current frameworks are not applicable. We recently developed a quality scale to evaluate neuroimaging studies. For the present study, we located 66 neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder. These studies were evaluated using the quality scale and assigned a numeric rating. Next, the impact factor - a proxy measure for journal prestige - was retrieved for each journal in which these articles were published. A Pearson correlation coefficient will be used to evaluate the relationship between journal prestige and reporting quality.
Poster
Examining the Social Dynamics of Sexual Intent and Commitment Perception II
Brewer ,Amelia University of Central Oklahoma
Rupp ,Gabriel University of Central Oklahoma
The aim of this study was to explore Error Management Theory (Haselton & Buss, 2000), replicating previous studies that examined perceived interest and commitment in men and women. In the current study, we employed a modified version of the instruments, using neutral terminology in order to include a broader demographic in terms of sexual orientation. We used the Bem Sex Role Inventory Scale of masculinity/femininity (BSRI) (Bem, 1978) to examine how these characteristics affect responses. This replication differs from our first study in that we used a wider range of recruitment tools through social media to gain a larger and more diverse sample size. The hypothesis for the current study was that women tend to under-perceive commitment and men tend to over-perceive sexual interest regardless of sexual orientation. Participants filled out an online survey with questions concerning potential relationship scenarios. The expected outcome is a gender difference on sexual intent between self-report ratings and perception of partner ratings, based on results from our previous study. Implications concerning sexual orientation and gender schema theory will be discussed.
Poster
Exhibiting the Political Cartoon
Horton ,Amanda University of Central Oklahoma
Washburn ,Sam University of Central Oklahoma
The University of Central Oklahoma decided to create a traveling exhibit out of a collection of political cartoons that had been donated to the university. In this study researchers charged with the development of educational materials to accompany the exhibit decided to conduct a survey in order to determine the needs of the traveling exhibit. The survey was conducted at a soft opening where viewers were asked a series of questions regarding their knowledge of the content of the collection as well as additional information that they would like to see. The results were compiled by the researchers and assessed for the use of the creation of materials.
Poster
Exhibiting the Political Cartoon
Ravikumar ,Rukmini University of Central Oklahoma
Washburn ,Sam University of Central Oklahoma
gee ,spencer University of Central Oklahoma
The University of Central Oklahoma decided to create a traveling exhibit out of a collection of political cartoons that had been donated to the university. In this study researchers charged with the development of educational materials to accompany the exhibit decided to conduct a survey in order to determine the needs of the traveling exhibit. The survey was conducted at a soft opening where viewers were asked a series of questions regarding their knowledge of the content of the collection as well as additional information that they would like to see. The results were compiled by the researchers and assessed for the use of the creation of materials.
Poster
Experiments of Air-flow in Damaged Human Trachea for Surgical Planning
Armstrong ,Grant University of Central Oklahoma
Currently there are no standardized tools for visualizing stenosis repair before the surgery is attempted. The overall goal of this project is to create a standardized procedure that will allow surgeons to predict the results of a trachea surgery before the surgery is attempted. The goal of this research is to verify the simulation results that have been obtained by constructing a physical test system. A computational tool has been developed that takes MRI and CT scans of a damaged trachea and simulates airflow through the trachea that will allow for the prediction of surgeries on damaged tracheas. An experimental system has been designed and constructed that will experimentally verify these computer simulations. Experimental models have been designed in Solidworks® that will replicate a trachea. One model simulates a trachea with no stenosis and the other replicates a trachea with a stenosis. A system has been designed and constructed to deliver air at constant speed and pressure through the trachea models. The pressure drops and flow rates obtained from the system will be compared to the simulations that have already been run.
Poster
Explication of the Bile Salt Resistance Gene Locus in Escherichia coli
Bidlack ,James University of Central Oklahoma
Satchell ,Angeline University of Central Oklahoma
Walling ,Jennifer University of Central Oklahoma
Molecular investigations are being pursued to isolate, clone, and sequence yciM and yciS genes that appear to be responsible for bile salt resistance / sensitivity in Escherichia coli. We are using E. coli strains BW25113, JW1271, JW1272, JC3272F, and JC3272I to amplify target DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then gel electrophoresis to obtain DNA fragments. Our plan is to use the amplified DNA for sequencing and then compare these sequences among strains to identify the exact mutation that leads to bile salt sensitivity. Our team has been successful at amplifying target DNA in some strains of the E. coli. The next steps will be to successfully amplify all strains of E. coli, sequence the DNA, and make a comparative analysis of wild type and mutant strains of E. coli.
Poster
Exploration of undergraduate psychology majors’ involvement in research: A pilot study
Spering ,Cynthia Northeastern State University
Keller-Dupree ,Elizabeth Northeastern State University
According to guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association, scientific inquiry and critical thinking skills are critical to the undergraduate psychology major. Students develop these skills in courses on Statistics, Research Methods, and other core courses in their program of study; however, students who participate in additional research and critical thinking projects outside of regular courses are able to further develop those skills. This exploratory pilot study was conducted at a regional teaching university in order to better understand our psychology majors' thoughts, beliefs, and feelings about the research process and the prospect of engaging in research at our institution. It was hypothesized that research-related coursework and plans to apply to research-related graduate programs would be positively correlated to scores on the Research Beliefs Questionnaire (RBQ). Higher scores on the RBQ were associated with having taken Experimental Psychology. A data-driven thematic coding procedure identified that students who were not currently involved in research described two main themes for not participating: a) a lack of time and b) a lack of information/opportunities. Understanding our students’ perceptions about research is critical in our ongoing efforts to improve the research presence in our department and our psychology major overall. In this poster, our future plans for amelioration as well as general tips gleaned from this process are discuss
Poster
Exploration of undergraduate psychology majors’ involvement in research: A pilot study
Keller-Dupree ,Elizabeth Northeastern State University
Wigington ,Amber Northeastern State University
According to guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association, scientific inquiry and critical thinking skills are critical to the undergraduate psychology major. Students develop these skills in courses on Statistics, Research Methods, and other core courses in their program of study; however, students who participate in additional research and critical thinking projects outside of regular courses are able to further develop those skills. This exploratory pilot study was conducted at a regional teaching university in order to better understand our psychology majors' thoughts, beliefs, and feelings about the research process and the prospect of engaging in research at our institution. It was hypothesized that research-related coursework and plans to apply to research-related graduate programs would be positively correlated to scores on the Research Beliefs Questionnaire (RBQ). Higher scores on the RBQ were associated with having taken Experimental Psychology. A data-driven thematic coding procedure identified that students who were not currently involved in research described two main themes for not participating: a) a lack of time and b) a lack of information/opportunities. Understanding our students’ perceptions about research is critical in our ongoing efforts to improve the research presence in our department and our psychology major overall. In this poster, our future plans for amelioration as well as general tips gleaned from this process are discuss
Poster
Exploration of undergraduate psychology majors’ involvement in research: A pilot study
Baker-Oglesbee ,Alissa Northeastern State University
Wigington ,Amber Northeastern State University
According to guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association, scientific inquiry and critical thinking skills are critical to the undergraduate psychology major. Students develop these skills in courses on Statistics, Research Methods, and other core courses in their program of study; however, students who participate in additional research and critical thinking projects outside of regular courses are able to further develop those skills. This exploratory pilot study was conducted at a regional teaching university in order to better understand our psychology majors' thoughts, beliefs, and feelings about the research process and the prospect of engaging in research at our institution. It was hypothesized that research-related coursework and plans to apply to research-related graduate programs would be positively correlated to scores on the Research Beliefs Questionnaire (RBQ). Higher scores on the RBQ were associated with having taken Experimental Psychology. A data-driven thematic coding procedure identified that students who were not currently involved in research described two main themes for not participating: a) a lack of time and b) a lack of information/opportunities. Understanding our students’ perceptions about research is critical in our ongoing efforts to improve the research presence in our department and our psychology major overall. In this poster, our future plans for amelioration as well as general tips gleaned from this process are discuss
Poster
Exploring the Dialectics in African American Female Perceptions of Healthy Foods
Sims ,Jeanetta University of Central Oklahoma
Dialectics are the tensions navigated in relationships (e.g., love/hate, joy/anger). Through 30 interviews with African American females, this project explores dialectics from a racio-ethnic and gendered perspective, which has not yet been employed to discern the health perceptions of minority women. Identification of the tensions associated with African American women’s perceptions of “healthy” and “unhealthy” foods will extend the contextual area of relational dialectics theory and improve health education among African American women.
Poster
Exploring the Dialectics in African American Female Perceptions of Healthy Foods
Shuff ,Jalea University of Central Oklahoma
Dialectics are the tensions navigated in relationships (e.g., love/hate, joy/anger). Through 30 interviews with African American females, this project explores dialectics from a racio-ethnic and gendered perspective, which has not yet been employed to discern the health perceptions of minority women. Identification of the tensions associated with African American women’s perceptions of “healthy” and “unhealthy” foods will extend the contextual area of relational dialectics theory and improve health education among African American women.
Poster
Exploring the Effects of two Different Labyrinth Experiences in University Females
Burnett ,Kaitlyn University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of two different labyrinth experiences with University of Central Oklahoma sorority students. The null hypothesis for this research study was that the two different types of labyrinth experiences would produce equivalent effects. Participants were randomly divided into either the group walking the outdoor, paved campus labyrinth, or the group experiencing the 18-inch handheld, wooden labyrinth. Each participant completed a post-questionnaire that included a Likert scale to describe how one felt after, versus before, experiencing the labyrinth. Some of the qualities assessed in the questionnaire included feeling relaxed, anxious, stressed, quiet, reflective, and more. The resulting data showed no statistically significant difference (α=0.05) between the two experiences (walking versus the finger labyrinth). Despite these findings, the data portrayed that 50% of the walking group reporting feeling “much more” peaceful after their experience, where only 25% of the finger labyrinth group reported the same. This study may contribute to academic improvements at the university level by reducing stress and providing insights to the benefits of experiencing the campus labyrinth opportunities.
Poster
Exploring the Persuasive Impact of CSR Campaigns on Mothers
Sims ,Jeanetta University of Central Oklahoma
Sims ,Atoya University of Central Oklahoma
Neese ,Sarah University of Central Oklahoma
Neese ,Ashley University of Central Oklahoma
In corporate social responsibility (CSR) campaigns, social and environmental concerns are incorporated into company practices to benefit the company or the company’s products. Using a 3 x 3 factorial design with 360 participants, this research examines the effectiveness of CSR campaigns and various message media on mothers’ perceptions and purchase intentions. Understanding the persuasive impact of CSR campaigns on mothers extends marketing and persuasion literature among this demographic and improves the implementation of marketing strategy.
Poster
Exploring the Persuasive Impact of Stealth Marketing Campaigns on Mothers’ Parenting
Sims ,Jeanetta University of Central Oklahoma
Neese ,Sarah University of Central Oklahoma
Neese ,Ashley University of Central Oklahoma
Sims ,Atoya University of Central Oklahoma
Stealth marketing campaigns involve front group activities where third-parties send messages on behalf of companies in order to benefit the company or the company’s products. Using a 4 x 4 factorial design with 360 participants, this research examines the effectiveness of stealth marketing campaigns and various media on mothers’ perceptions and purchase intentions. Understanding the impact of stealth campaigns on consumers, specifically mothers, can provide insight on how best to thwart under-handed stealth activity in order to protect consumers and safeguard organizations.
Poster
Exploring the Role of Microbial Alkaline Phosphatase on Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Levels in Stream Water.
Hyde ,Deborah Northeastern State University
This study examines the role played by the enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (AP) which is excreted by microbes found in stream water and sediment beds. Since the levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) are connected with water quality, the ability to quantify the effect of microbial transformations between forms of phosphorus is useful to researchers and environmental managers. This study accesses samples of stream water above, at and below the sediment surface, comparing the levels of SRP and AP activity. Four sites were chosen in the Illinois River watershed in Oklahoma from which to sample at the prescribed depths.
Poster
F
Factors Affecting Student Loan Debt at a Mid-Sized Four-Year University
Sweeney ,Sophia Northeastern State University
Hurt ,Kari Northeastern State University
The student loan default rate in the United States is at an all-time high. Defaulted student loans can have long-term negative impacts on the borrower and the university. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors of the sample for defaulting on their student loans and to determine the relationship between the students’ anticipated earnings after graduation and their student loan debt. A researcher-developed survey was used to collect data from undergraduate and graduate students at a mid-sized, regional, four-year university in the mid-western United States. The results revealed that the students at this university have the following characteristics of borrowers who are more likely to default on their student loans: married (48%), with dependents (60%), 21% of respondents are between the ages of 23 and 27, and first generation college students (56%). A two-tailed dependent t-test was revealed non-significant differences between students’ estimated earnings after graduation and Oklahoma’s average earnings for the same job. A Pearson product-moment correlation revealed a non-significant weak positive correlation between students’ estimated earning potential and the student loan debt incurred. The results of this research may help financial aid officers help students make informed choices about their student loan debt.
Poster
Fascinating Properties of 153
Pinkstaff ,Adrienne Northeastern State University
The number 153 has many unusual properties. This project explores the properties of 153 with a focus on its narcissistic character. A proof is presented for the number 153 being the eventual sum of the cubes of digits of numbers divisible by three after a given number of cycles.
Poster
FATIGUE and MEDICAL ERRORS
ford ,darrell University of Central Oklahoma
Prado ,Taylor University of Central Oklahoma
Keating ,Shawn University of Central Oklahoma
This paper examines the relationship between fatigue and errors made by medical professionals. We initially describe fatigue and its effect on judgment and decision making. We then survey the occurrences of fatigue-related medical errors to determine whether fatigue is significantly contributing to the number of medical errors. Finally, we explore possible processes that might be employed to reduce or eliminate fatigue-related medical errors.
Poster
Felix Culpa in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: Why Gawain and his Troth Were Always Meant to be Broken
Sorrell ,Morgan University of Central Oklahoma
This paper analyzes the difference between “play” and “game” in the trials of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. In this paper, “play” will refer to the mock fights the knights of Arthur's court engage in, while “game” refers to an orchestrated series of tests that Gawain must overcome. Questions about this poem often debated by scholars are if Gawain sinned by keeping the girdle, if his confession that excluded said “sin” counted, and if he could have theoretically won by giving up the girdle. The purpose of this paper however, is to prove that these questions are a moot point because the games that Gawain took on were designed to cause his failure. Thus, the conclusion is that Gawain never could have succeeded, as the moral lesson of the poem is felix culpa—a fall with a grander design in order to teach humility to both Gawain and the reader.
Poster
Finite Element Analysis of a Human Lumbar Vertebra
Hodges ,Kyle University of Central Oklahoma
Khandaker ,Morshed University of Central Oklahoma
Degenerative disc disease is a chronic condition affecting millions of people around the world. Due to genetics or traumatic injuries, the outer layer of the two-part intervertebral disc (IVD), known as the annulus fibrosus (AF), is damaged and becomes scarred, causing it to lose its structural integrity, leading to the degeneration of the inner layer of the IVD, or the nucleus pulposus (NP). As the degeneration continues, water content is lost from the gelatinous NP, thus diminishing the shock absorption properties of a healthy NP. While prior operative solutions were limited to disc fusion (replacing the defective IVD with bone to eliminate rubbing of two vertebrae), modern approaches are looking at replacing the defective disc with a prosthesis. This aims to maintain the natural and complex motion of the spine while maintaining natural stress distributions. Due to complex geometries and 6 degrees of freedom: compression (up/down), translation (left/right), and rotation in either direction. Implementing finite element analysis (FEA) software on modeled intact lumbar vertebrae opens the door into further understanding of the stresses occurring while offering a digital platform for design and virtual implementation of proposed artificial disc replacements. By using the FEA program ANSYS, the results under compression load were closer than that of prior attempts at UCO.
Poster
FISCHER ESTERIFICATION BY MICROWAVE IRRADIATION USING VARIOUS ALCOHOLS (OR CHEMISTRY DOESN’T HAVE TO STINK)
Cheng ,Jessica Northeastern State University
Pilcher ,Spence Northeastern State University
In today’s world of instant coffee, instant meals, and instant messaging, undergraduate students prefer not to have to wait long periods of time for an organic reaction to take place. Heating with microwaves is rapidly becoming more commonplace due to dramatically reduced reaction times and higher product yields. Many experiments that are commonly performed in the organic II laboratory course require heating times of one hour. One such reaction is the Fischer esterification where a carboxylic acid is heated with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst producing an ester. In the past, the organic chemistry lab at NSU performed a Fischer esterification by heating benzoic acid with excess methanol producing methyl benzoate with an average yield of 53%. In this work, a procedure was developed using microwave irradiation as the heat source in which glacial acetic acid was heated with 15 different alcohols separately resulting in a variety of different products. Each product was obtained after a reaction time of only 5 minutes heating at 120°C. Yields for the products ranged from 32%-79%. The developed procedure will be introduced in the organic II laboratory curriculum at NSU for the first time during the Spring 2015 semester. Students will be assigned an alcohol at the start of the laboratory period, will perform the reaction, calculate the percent yield and compare to other reactions that were performed in class, and then try and identify the odor of
Poster
Flamingos and Climate Change: A Tale of Two Species
Tran ,Huyen University of Central Oklahoma
Jones ,Austin University of Central Oklahoma
Bigger ,Jerimiah University of Central Oklahoma
Butler ,Chris University of Central Oklahoma
From 1850 to 2010 the average temperature globally rose by approximately 1°C. This change in temperature has modified the distribution, phenology and interactions of numerous organisms. However, the potential effects of climate change on many species are not well understood. For example, there have been no studies about how climate change may affect the distribution of flamingoes. For our project, we investigated how climate change may affect the distribution of American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) and Chilean Flamingoes (P. chilensis). American Flamingos breed in the Caribbean and northern South America. Chilean Flamingos breed near the central Pacific coast of South America. We downloaded location data for these two species from ORNIS and eBird. We then used Maxent models to analyze at their current distribution and to determine which ecogeographical variables affected their range. The Maxent models showed good agreement with the current ranges of the Chilean and American Flamingos. Under the various climate change scenarios examined, American Flamingoes were forecast to expand north into Florida by the 2070s. In contrast, a slight decline in the extent of the range of the Chilean Flamingo is predicted. These models show that tropical species may vary in their response to climate change.
Poster
Floral and Faunal Survey in a Post-Oak – Blackjack Oak Forest and Tallgrass Prairie-Savanna Ecosystem
Williams ,Ryan Tulsa Community College
Swanson ,Mark Tulsa Community College
Tulsa Community College – Southeast Campus, preserves 5-6 hectares of land, consisting of post-oak – blackjack oak forest, fragmented tallgrass prairie-savanna, and bottomland vegetation types. In order to assist conservation efforts, this study provides the first documentation of floral and faunal species present in the area. Additionally, we studied associations between faunal species and vegetation types, predicting that specific fauna would be found more often in either forest or prairie-savanna due to resources and habitat structure. Baited camera traps and fortuitous encounters were utilized to detect fauna. Faunal species richness was comparable in the forest and prairie-savanna habitats, and 36 species, including 10 mammal, 17 bird, 2 amphibian, and 7 reptile species, were identified in the area as a whole. Also, 93 vascular plant species were identified via non-random sampling, with 79 genera, and 33 families represented; 48 forbs, 15 graminoids, and 30 woody species were represented. Animal activity, based on the number of captures, and moon phases were compared, and showed that overall animal activity fluctuated with different phases. Activity decreased most during full moon and waning crescent phases. The combined results may be used to support and encourage conservation efforts for the preserve.
Poster
Follower Reactions to Dark Leadership
Dodson ,Paige University of Central Oklahoma
McKee ,Dr. Victoria University of Central Oklahoma
Research regarding the ‘Dark Triad’ has increased in popularity over the past decade. This study investigates the relationship between follower’s emotional intelligence and the desire for managers to portray dark leadership traits with a focus on psychopathy. Data will be collected using Qualtrics from university students, from the College of Business at a mid sized metropolitan university. Emotional intelligence will be measured using Wong’s Emotion Intelligence Scale, and the desire of leaders having psychopathic traits will be measured by the Hare-P Scan developed by Robert D. Hare and Hugues F. Hervé. Participants will start by taking the emotional intelligence survey, which will determine if their level of emotional intelligence is high or low. In addition, participants will complete a survey that asks them to rate their desire for managers to have certain psychopathic traits based on a 1 to 5 scale. Currently, data is being collected and analyzed to provide evidence on the relationship between follower’s emotional intelligence and the desire for their managers to possess psychopathic leadership traits.
Poster
Food Safety Knowledge among Undergraduate College Students: A Questionnaire-based Survey
George ,Shaina University of Central Oklahoma
Bhargava ,Kanika University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this study is to assess food safety knowledge of various undergraduate students on the University of Central Oklahoma campus.Each student was given a 10-question survey that included an assortment of questions about food safety. After the survey was taken, students were given an answer sheet that gave a detailed explanation of each question. There were also educational handouts for each student who took the survey.Food safety education is an important topic that needs to be educated to all sexes, ages, and majors. The findings concluded that females, Caucasians, mid twenties, and nutrition majors are more educated about this topic. A need for relevant and motivating food safety education exists in other groups.
Poster
Footstrike and Flexibility of Collegiate Cross-Country Runners
Fike ,Evan University of Central Oklahoma
Footstrike and Flexibility of College Cross-Country Runners Long distance runners and flexibility are often, without evidence, put together and people often assume that runners are flexible. The hypothesis for this study is that forefoot striking participants are more flexible in the Hip, knee, ankle and hamstring than the heel striking participants. 25 male and female runners from the Oklahoma Christian cross-country team will be recruited for this study. After recruitment the participants will sign an informed consent and then answer a demographic questionnaire. The participants will then perform a treadmill test using the F-scan Tekscan system with sensor insoles placed in their shoes while running to determine footstrike of the runners. The runners will run at four different speeds for length of one minute in each stage. Using a remote, at the 30 second mark of each stage the foot strike will record for 10 seconds to determine footstrike for that stage. Footstrike will be determined by what part of the foot strikes the ground first. After the treadmill test, the runners will perform a sit and reach test to gain their hamstring flexibility. With goniometers to assess hip joint flexibility, runners flexibility will also be tested in the knee for knee extension and flexion and ankle flexibility for dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. A 2x2 ANOVA will be performed. Independent variables for this study are footstrike and sex, and the dependent variable is flexibility.
Poster
Forging the small in a hot box
Johnson ,Jordan University of Central Oklahoma
Xu ,Gang University of Central Oklahoma
This project was to design and assemble a microforge system to process micropipette tips. Micropipettes with 1-10 micron tip diameter are commonly used in cellular and molecular biophysics studies to manipulate single cells or other small objects. The desired micropipette tips require not only precise diameters but also flat smooth openings. Therefore, the rough tips of those micropipettes made by the commercial puller need to be further processed before being used in experiments. In this study, we designed and custom made a microforge system around a basic dissecting microscope. Our design implemented a specialized circuit to control the heating of a small glass bead through a piece of platinum wire. Flow of melted glass into the micropipette tip can be precisely controlled by heating to reach the desired diameter inside of the pipette. After heating was stopped to solidify the glass inside, the pipette would be moved away from the glass bead, during which the micropipette tip would break right at the stopped flow front due to stress concentration. Most of times a nicely flat and smooth tip with desired diameter was obtained. This system allows custom forging of individual pipettes for specific experimental needs.
Poster
Fortification of Yogurt with Chickpea Flour Enhance Overall Quality of Yogurt
Chen ,Xi University of Central Oklahoma
Kumalasari ,Meity University of Central Oklahoma
Bhargava ,Kanika University of Central Oklahoma
Yogurt is well known for its health promoting properties. Chickpea flour has been suggested to increase the growth of probiotic bacteria during yogurt production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of raw chickpea flour on the overall quality of yogurt and anticipate inventing a new protein rich yogurt product. 2% low-fat milk was supplemented with 1%- 5% (w/v) raw chickpea flour, inoculated with a yogurt culture (Danisco YO-MIX 883 LYO 500 DCU), fermented (8 hours) and stored at 4 ºC. Moisture content, total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and microbial counts were measured over a 21-day storage period. The results demonstrated that chickpea flour increased the Total Soluble Solids from 7.6 to 9.0 degree Brix. On the contrary, the moisture content slightly decreased from 88.83% to 88.08%. Additionally, overall average pH decreased (from4.2 to 3.8) and the TTA (from 0.78% to 1.18%) increased toward to the end of storage. Furthermore, the number of probiotic bacteria significantly enhanced from 1.6×108 CFU /ml to 8×108 CFU /ml with the addition of chickpea flour (5%, w/v) at the initial day. It even maintain the microbial counts from 4×108 CFU /ml to 3.5×108 CFU /ml with the concentration of 2% chickpea flour during the 21-day storage. The results indicated that milk supplementations with chickpea flour offer an alternative as a new product and provide better quality yogurt product.
Poster
Fracking: A Danger from Underneath
Kirchubel ,Joy Tulsa Community College
In the last couple of years, Oklahoma has been experiencing an increase in earthquakes. Not only has frequency increased but the severity of these earthquakes has increased as well. Earthquake preparedness has never been a staple of the Sooner state. Whether the cause is artificial or man-made, the implications will be significant. The paper covers the specific causes of the earthquakes in Oklahoma. Fracking or hydraulic fracturing appears to be the main cause of earthquakes in the Sooner state. Much research has been done to determine the cause of these earthquakes. The paper will be examining various scientific studies. Fracking was found to indirectly cause these earthquakes through the use of wastewater wells. The wastewater is a mixture of water and various chemicals that make it non-potable. Deep wells are drilled and the wastewater mixture is injected deep under the earth. These wastewater wells eventually result in the earthquakes and cause pollution to the water table. The use of these wells opens up concerns about water usage, groundwater safety, chemical disposal, and state regulations. Other states have implemented strict wastewater well guidelines and have resulted in fewer earthquakes. Currently in Oklahoma, there are no regulations on where the wells are located nor is there any regulation on what chemicals are in the wastewater. Fracking companies are on an honor system to divulge the chemical composition of wastewater.
Poster
Framing “Fracking:” The News Media’s Coverage of the Controversial Issue of Hydraulic Fracturing.
Graham ,Melissa University of Central Oklahoma
Landers ,Sarah University of Central Oklahoma
It seems like everyone has an opinion on “fracking”, the nick name created for the process used by oil and natural gas companies technically termed Hydraulic Fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing, which was first introduced in 1947 and mixed with horizontal drilling in the 1980’s, is a process by which Oil and Natural Gas companies extract shale gas from deep within sedimentary rock by pumping water mixed with sand and chemicals into the rock through an L shaped borehole(Everley, 2014). The water puts enough pressure on the rock to fracture it, allowing the natural gas to escape. After the fracturing process is complete the untreatable waste water is injected into deep disposal wells. This research uses framing and agenda setting theories to investigate how the news media cover the controversial issue of hydraulic fracturing. Understanding how this issue is communicated by the news media could assist in understanding the media’s influence on public participation and opinion. To analyze frames associated with the issue of hydraulic fracturing, qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify dominant frames found in newspapers in Oklahoma, a state known to have a multitude of companies that practice hydraulic fracturing. Since the media play a role in shaping public opinion, the results from this study will be of particular interest to oil and gas companies who desire an accurate picture of the process and the environment and health concerns associate
Poster
From Content to Form: Death in Top Grossing Children's Animations
Wright Smith ,Linda Cameron University
In Dec, 2014, the British Medical Journal 2014 published (16 December 2014) the results of research conducted by medical professors in Canada and England entitled “Cartoons Kill: casualties in animated recreational theater in an objective observational new study of kids’ introduction to loss of life.” They compared 45 of the top grossing G or PG rated children’s animated films from the United States to the two highest rated United States adult movies for each year (90) to measure how long it took from the start of the film to the first incident of an important character’s death. Anthropomorphized characters were excluded from the research. Their results show that very young children are being exposed to death of a significant character within 1:13:08 to 1:25:22 minutes of film time. Half the adult movies and two thirds of the children's animated movies had death scenes of important characters. The authors discuss the psychological effects that result from this kind of exposure at such a young age. This poster visualizes the forms of deaths identified in the research and the psychological effect on young children.
Poster
From VC to Draft Dodgers: The Vietnam War Teaching and Traveling Trunk
Moore ,Amanda University of Central Oklahoma
Why do many students show little interest in modern American history; how can we change that? Traveling trunks provide an innovative way to engage students learning history. I have created one of the only trunks for instructors to use to teach about the Vietnam War. In addition to coverings key battles during this “conflict”, the artifacts teach the history from a cultural standpoint on both sides of the war. It breaks down the negative cultural view on the Vietnamese people and the issues on the American home front with political stances. The trunk will create an exciting and new experience for students to learn more about this modern part of history. It includes timelines, primary resource documents, and objects from the Laboratory of History Museum at the University of Central Oklahoma, and it incorporates fun activities to get the students involved with hands-on learning. The lesson plans are formatted for different grade levels, typically for the high school and college audience. Beyond the school systems, the trunk can be used to help educate the community on the subject matter. These activities are meant to encourage the audience to think critically and to appreciate primary documents and sources. The Vietnam War traveling trunk is a new method for history teachers and museums to reach out to their students and to change the face of learning in an innovative way.
Poster
Functional Analysis of Major Depressive Disorder Related Human Genes
Wu ,Ning Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Bourne ,Hannah Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Stanglin ,Madison Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Floyd ,Ashley Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Bonilla ,Maria Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder that affects about 10% of the population worldwide. The disease has been the leading cause of disability in recent decade, and is potentially fatal to some patients who may commit of suicide eventually. Previous studies have confirmed that MDD is a multi-gene involved disease, which shows the wide variants in both clinical manifestations and genetic variations. This retrospective study is to explore the types, genome locations, and functions of current reported MDD related human genes to investigate the potential mechanisms of MDD’s multi-system phenomenon. The study found total 147 expressed genes that related to MDD, which include the genes involved in cellular structure formation and function, cellular enzymatic activities, and signal transduction pathways. Among them, multiple organs/tissues are also involved, which include genes expressed in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, eyes, and endocrine system. The finding of this study suggested that MDD patients might have multiple gene expression level changes, and therefore, might have the functional changes of multiple organs/tissues and systems. That may explain why most MDD patients always complain for multiple systemic symptoms, but do not demonstrate any structural abnormality in clinical examinations.
Poster
Fundamentalism Drives IQ Differences between Theists and Non-Theists
Lack ,Caleb University of Central Oklahoma
Schrantz ,Kathryn University of Central Oklahoma
Huskey ,Alisa University of Central Oklahoma
Conclusions drawn from research on the relationship of religiosity and intelligence are limited because methodology in studies of this potential relationship is incredibly variable. There has been very little consistency in the measures used to assess religious variables across studies. There is also little consistency across studies in how intelligence is typically assessed or even defined. Based on a review of literature, it was predicted that high levels of religious fundamentalism would be related to lower levels of intelligence. It was also predicted that there would be no relationship between general religiosity and intelligence once religious fundamentalism was taken into account. A total of 84 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.58 years (SD = 3.98) participated in the study. WASI-II mean verbal IQ was 102.74, mean performance IQ was 101.15, and mean full-scale IQ was 102.26 for the total sample. Correlational analyses showed significant relationships between higher FSIQ and lower overall strength of religious faith (r = -.342, p < .001), lower religious fundamentalism (r = -.313, p = .004), higher certainty of non-existence of god (r = .317, p = .003) and lower sense of personal specialness (r = -.324, p = .003). To examine the relative strengths of these different aspects of, regression analyses were performed and showed that when fundamentalist beliefs are accounted for, general religiosity did not significantly predict IQ score.
Poster
G
Gaining HTC Resources in an Indifferent Environment
Paynter ,Bradley University of Central Oklahoma
Beadle ,Cory University of Central Oklahoma
Boland ,Matthew University of Central Oklahoma
Burdine ,Jake University of Central Oklahoma
Michela ,Jordan University of Central Oklahoma
Riederer ,Alanna University of Central Oklahoma
Smith ,Robert University of Central Oklahoma
There are many researchers across the country working at primarily teaching universities. These researchers usually have limited access to high-performance computing (HPC) resources. In these cases, high-throughput computing (HTC) solutions such as HTCondor are attractive as they require significantly less infrastructure cost. Unfortunately, implementation of this resource can meet major resistance from university IT departments worried about the cluster increasing their workload, and from users worried about the impact on their ability to use their desktop computers. In this poster we present a solution using virtual machines that shows promise in providing HTC resources in a way that minimizes IT maintenance needs and user impact.
Poster
Gamification and Union in Discrete Math
Chatman ,David Cameron University
Xiong ,Han Cameron University
Birch ,Kaitlynn Cameron University
Dang ,Ryan Cameron University
Drissi ,Jawad Cameron University
Faghihi ,Usef Cameron University
It has always been a characteristic of higher-level mathematics to have a steep learning curve. If a student doesn’t like the challenge of mathematics to begin with, the student won’t be willing to dive into it. Why is this? I believe it is the fear of the unknown. Average students cannot see themselves in a situation in which they will ever need to use the higher-level mathematics. Research studies have shown that games can help people learn mathematical concepts such as the quadratic formula [1]. We have been working on a project that will add the fun of playing video games to learning set theory, a concept taught in discrete math. During the presentation, I will discuss the approach we have been taking to create a game that we will use to help teach union, an entry-level concept in set theory. First, I will discuss the process of planning and making a storyboard that will serve as a blueprint for developing the game. Here, I will talk about how we have collaborated as Multimedia Design students and Computer Science students while trying to complete this project. Also, I will explain the elements of multimedia design that were valuable throughout developing and creating the aesthetic of the game. Once the game is completed, we expect to test the game with the help of discrete math students in fall of 2015. We hope we can later build upon this game to include more and more concepts other than set set theory in the area of discrete math.
Poster
Gamification of Algebra Concepts
Chatman ,David Cameron University
Austion ,Kenneth Cameron University
Gautier ,Nicholas Cameron University
Gholson ,Justin Cameron University
Gholson ,Jeffery Cameron University
Dill ,Robert Cameron University
Aguilar ,Don Cameron University
Faghihi ,Usef Cameron University
Many non-mathematics majors struggle when it comes to understanding and solving mathematical problems. Many approaches have been tried, but students often find them boring and are unwilling to use them. It has been shown that games can help people better learn mathematical concepts such as the quadratic formula [1]. Over the past few months, with the collaboration of a team from the Multimedia Department and computer science majors at Cameron University, we have been developing a game students can use to learn how to solve a quadratic equation. In this presentation, I will discuss the steps we used to plan the game, such as using storyboards to plan out the game’s aesthetic, theme, and gameplay functionality. The storyboard consisted of the characters that we’ve called “minions,”attached to which are numbers corresponding with the numerical coefficients in the quadratic formula. The minions compete against each other in order to get into a spot on a warship. The user needs to click on the minions marked with the wrong numbers to prevent them from getting on the ship while only allowing the minions marked with the right numbers to get into the boat. In this presentation, we will show how a user can play a game and learn how to solve a quadratic formula.
Poster
Gamifying Discreet Math With Programming
Schlumbohm ,Douglas Cameron University
Xiong ,Han Cameron University
Gaming environments have been used to teach mathematical topics such as addition and division in a fun manner. This is called “gamification” However, when it comes to college level mathematical concepts such as the use of the quadratic formula, there are very few software that explain these concepts in a fun, or gamified way. We are currently developing a video game using the Unity 4 developing environment to teach the subject of sets from the study of discreet math in a fun way thus gamifying the subject. We are taking 3d models, 2d sprites, and animations that our multimedia teammates have created and are breathing life into them using the c# programming language. We are using these c# scripts to move these models, perform calculations, and display the results of players’ interactions with the game. Through playing this game that is powered by c# coding, players will actually have fun while learning the concepts of the intersection and union of sets.
Poster
Gamifying Mathematical Concepts—Intersection
Harrigan ,Trevor Cameron University
Rutter ,Andrew Cameron University
Austion ,Kenneth Cameron University
Crosby ,Brock Cameron University
Schlumbohm ,Douglas Cameron University
Drissi ,Jawad Cameron University
Faghihi ,Usef Cameron University
Intersection is a mathematical concept which instructors have attempted to explain to students in many ways. There exist several online resources which attempt to teach intersection in ways which will engage the learner. To our knowledge there are no readily available e-learning software programs which teach this concept in enjoyable ways. Research has shown that learners exhibit improved performance when mathematical concepts are presented in methods that those learners find inviting. The development team is in the process of engineering an e-learning software suite that will teach mathematical concepts such as set operations (e.g., union, intersection, complement, difference) and Cartesian products in ways that will be fun for the learner. In this presentation, all of the aforementioned concepts will be demonstrated using gamification techniques.
Poster
Gender Differences in the Immediate Perception of Violent Scenarios
Everson ,Adam University of Central Oklahoma
Baker ,Melissa University of Central Oklahoma
This study investigates how differences in the gender of the aggressor and time given to respond influences immediate judgments of and reactions to viewing a violent situation. When given a generous amount of time to respond to a situation, one may provide a strategic response based on social learning of behavior inhibit, views of traditional gender roles and false re-imaginings of the event. This study, then, investigates the immediate perceptions of a violent situation not influenced by these controlled cognitive processes. Upon viewing videos depicting an actor aggressing toward the camera, participants will be asked to provide an immediate response regarding their aggressive feelings toward the actor. It is expected that male participants will generally rate situations as less violent but will have elevated levels of aggression following the viewing of a violent situation. This aggressive response from males will not be amplified in the face of an aggressor violating normal gender roles (e.g., a woman aggressing physically) as this should be the product of more controlled social processes that would not have time to influence responses given the immediate response deadline. This study hopes to extend the current knowledge on gender-based differences in the perception of and reactions to a violent situation, allowing for a more thorough understanding of how individuals, particularly eyewitnesses, can vary in their understanding of the same violent situation.
Poster
Golden Rice: Genetically Modified Crop That Could Benefit Vitamin A Deficient Populations in Developing Countries
Clark ,Brian Northeastern State University
Paper review: Genetically modified (GM) crops have the potential to alleviate nutritional deficits in developing nations that subsist on a staple cereal and have few dietary sources of micronutrients. The modification of crops and their associated traits has been conducted by humans for many generations through selective breeding, but with the employment of GM technology it has become possible to convey traits that could not otherwise be introduced into a species as native plants do not contain the variability for these genes. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a problem that affects millions of people and can lead to blindness as well as death. The development of Golden Rice offers a solution to reduce the pervasiveness of VAD by creating a strain that incorporates biosynthetic pathways for beta-carotene, the precursor of vitamin A. Since the first publication on Golden Rice in 2000, the micronutrient content has increased to meet dietary requirements and has been shown as a sound source of vitamin A especially for those in the most rural settings that cannot receive supplementation or fortification of vitamin A.
Poster
Grammar Knowledge and Response to Instructional Methodology in SLP Curriculum
Stovall ,Lyndee University of Central Oklahoma
Sealey-Holtz ,Linda University of Central Oklahoma
Humphries ,Michael University of Central Oklahoma
Stovall ,Lyndee University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this study was to document the current grammar knowledge of students across the speech-language pathology (SLP) curriculum and investigate the effect of the online instructional methodology of segmenting to aid in information processing. Accordingly, segmenting online content by ‘chunking’ information is thought to increase learning. Therefore, the hypothesis was that those students who were randomly assigned to the online instructional group given information using the segmenting principle would evidence increased performance on post-instruction surveys compared to pre-instruction surveys. Participants were students enrolled in junior, senior, and first-year graduate level SLP courses. The first year graduate students in SLP completed grammar knowledge surveys both pre- online instruction and post-instruction. Findings included cross-sectional data from surveys completed by all students and pre-instruction surveys by 1st year graduates. Data was compared by instructional level. Findings also included comparative data. The first year graduate students were randomly assigned to one of two online instructional groups: segmented or a non-segmented. Results from the pre and post surveys were compared by group.
Poster
Green Tea Extract antioxidant inhibits tension generation by Dupuytren’s disease myofibroblasts
Spencer ,Chelsea University of Central Oklahoma
Vaughan ,Melville University of Central Oklahoma
Dupuytren’s Disease is a deforming disorder of the palmar fascia due to myofibroblast contraction. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a chemical extracted from Green Tea. Antioxidants such as EGCG have been shown to inhibit myofibroblast-like cells. I hypothesize that EGCG will suppress the myofibroblasts phenotype and contraction of Dupuytren’s Disease fibroblasts. To test this, I grew fibroblasts on coverslips to study cellular structure and in collagen lattices to study contraction ability. In order to mimic in vivo environments, I added TGF-β to promote myofibroblast formation. To reverse TGF-β effects, a dose response curve of EGCG was added to TGF-β treated cells. EGCG inhibited collagen lattice contraction in a dose dependent fashion. It seems that EGCG reduced the number of cells stained with Immunofluorescence staining procedure, and previous studies have shown that contraction is reduced when fewer cells are present. This study suggests that myofibroblasts can be reduced by the addition of EGCG, thus providing a possible treatment for Dupuytren’s Disease.
Poster
Guidelines for Small Businesses: How to Select a Cloud Service Provider
Shrestha ,Sajana University of Central Oklahoma
With increasing publicity and hype for Cloud Computing, there is increasing demand for a wide range of Cloud services. Thus, the number and variety of Cloud services and service providers are abundant. This has created plenty of confusion for small business owners who lack information system expertise but must sift through the huge pool of cloud vendors and their services. To help owner’s determine what provider and service is right for their small business, this research provides guidelines for selecting the best cloud solution in terms of reliability, affordability and security for their business. As a part of this research, various small businesses were interviewed in order to understand their knowledge as well as their perception of Cloud service and providers. Similarly, various cloud service providers in Oklahoma as well as online were analyzed according to important business criteria for small businesses such as ease-of-use, encryption, and ownership of cloud data. These guidelines will help the small business community to comprehend essential elements when agreeing to a Service Level or Licensing Agreement with any cloud provider.
Poster
H
Hand Location Effects Object Recognition Times
Taylor ,Thomas University of Central Oklahoma
Vanhoy ,Mickie University of Oklahoma
Huang ,Shanshan University of Central Oklahoma
Hand position relative to visible objects may facilitate object perception times, possibly because objects near hands are likely to be important. Research has described the effects of having hands visible or occluded on response time and accuracy in a dual haptic-visual task using regressions and linear modeling to attempt explanations. Instead of forcing regression lines onto nonlinear data to fit decomposable models, I am using ideas from complexity theory to describe my thesis data. I am interested in coordinated systematic behavior over sustained tasks, so I am using a visual-motor task that requires participants to maintain a pattern of computer mouse movement whilst identifying letters briefly presented in the visual periphery. My Python program presents letters R and L at two randomized locations and collects mouse data at six moments per trial. The adaptive stimuli onset asynchronies (SOAs) are the temporal units of interest; they constitute a strophic time series that SPSS cannot accommodate so I am using R to perform Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA), Continuous Wavelet Transforms (CWT), and Wavelet Transform Modulus Maximus (WTMM). The multifractal fractal analyses afford detecting stable interactions and their associated correlations.
Poster
Healthy Mouth, Healthy Heart
Mewherter ,Angela Northwestern Oklahoma State University
Shearer ,Lori Northwestern State University
Martinez Scobell ,Lauren Northwestern Oklahoma College Univeristy
Daniel ,Abigail Northwestern Oklahoma State University
Do patients that receive prophylactic antibiotics before a dental procedure have a decreased risk of developing infective endocarditis compared to patients that do not receive prophylactic antibiotics before a dental procedure? The prophylactic use of antibiotics has been highly recommended for dental procedures for many years. Since the American Heart Association updated their guidelines, the use of antibiotics prior to a dental procedure has greatly declined. Currently, it is recommended that patients only receive these antibiotics if they have a history of heart disease, congenital heart defects, heart transplant, past diagnosis of infective endocarditis, prosthetic valve or valve repair. The American Heart Association is changing the focus from prophylactic use of antibiotics to improved oral health overall. Antibiotics often have some negative side effects related to them as well as our bodies built immunity to these medications. The treatment regimen is often not followed as it should be, therefore, they are not as effective. The over use of antibiotic can decrease the effectiveness of the medication when it is needed for an infection. This research aims to show the use of prophylactic antibiotics prior to dental procedures is not always a necessity.
Poster
Helping Students Learn Through Analogies and Examples in Business Statistics Course
Burdina ,Mariya University of Central Oklahoma
Hsu ,Kuang-Chung Hsu University of Central Oklahoma
Jog ,Chintamani University of Central Oklahoma
Metz ,Neil University of Central Oklahoma
Mrchkovska ,Nela University of Central Oklahoma
The project is aimed at helping students learn principles of business statistics by providing experiences that actively involve students in the learning process. According to the generative theory of learning, people learn better when they can relate new material to their prior experiences. We propose to improve student learning outcomes by assigning students to generate analogies or examples that relate to students’ personal experiences when learning business statistics concepts. In order to investigate whether or not student-generated analogies and examples improve the learning process, we conduct an experiment in which one group of students is assigned to generate the analogies and examples and the other group of students is assigned to review analogies generated by instructor or other students. We further compare the exam scores of students in each of these groups. The participants of the poster session will be introduced to the analogies as an assessment tool, learn about its benefits and possible downsides, and learn practical strategies for using analogies in the evaluation of student knowledge. Preliminary results of the project should reveal if there are significant differences in students’ learning outcomes between two groups.
Poster
Hide Your Wife: Domestic Violence in the National Football Leage
Price ,Ron Cameron University
Professional athletes face constant judgment as they reign in the spotlight of their game. They must be machines on the field, destroying anyone who comes in between them and victory; leaders and role models off the field. Required to be leaders, as well as effective communicators, professional athletes face similar challenges in corporations. By using correct and effective apologia strategies, Roger Goodell, the Commissioner of the National Football League and Ray Rice, Baltimore Ravens running back, were able to demonstrate, appropriately, how to handle accusation and defense. Being able to communicate effectively the strategies of this case will not only improve the image of the NFL, but will allow these two men to be seen as leaders. This research will evaluate a leader and an athlete on opposite sides of the same situation, in the same organization, in terms of the accusations directed at them as well as their apologetic strategies. The effectiveness of their responses will be evaluated by the paradigms utilized by Halford Ross Ryan and B.L. Ware and Wil A. Linkugel in published articles in the Quarterly Journal of Speech.
Poster
High School and College Student Engagement: A Threshold for Exploring Opportunities Using the Labyrinth
Rudebock ,Diane University of Central Oklahoma
Labyrinth designs used as moving mediations provide unique experiences for students to become engaged in research, and labyrinths can also be utilized for service learning with the community. The University of Central Oklahoma in Edmond, Oklahoma is the first public university to install a permanent labyrinth on campus. Labyrinths can be experienced individually or with groups, and provide unique learning opportunities, whether the focus is leadership or health and wellness.
Poster
How can Cameron University Made Recycling More Convenient and Accessible to Students and Faculty?
Binnings ,Corrine Cameron University
Though academic enrichment is the main focus of most universities and colleges, there should be a focus on molding students into more rounded and responsible citizens. A part of this molding should involve fostering and encouraging an awareness of environmental issues. A simple and effective way to get students actively involved and learning more about their social and environmental responsibility is to start a recycling program on the college. To promote student participation in such an initiative, this study explores how Cameron University can make recycling more accessible to students and faculty and how students and faculty will respond to a more extensive recycling program. Through on-site observation, interviews and surveys done on Cameron University campus, and the assessment of the success of similar programs at other universities, we found that students and faculty had a positive response to the idea and expressed a willingness to support a recycling program that would make recycling more convenient and accessible. Based on research findings, a specific solution for promoting the program was created: With the aid of an annual Recycling Poster Competition, students can become active participants in the program and will learn more about recycling as they work on their posters. These very posters will be displayed on campus to make fellow students and faculty more aware of the program and its impact on environment.
Poster
How Fatherly Involvement Relates to Teenage Pregnancy and Perception of Sexual Behaviors
Schroeder ,Alexis Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Woods ,Kristin Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Lack of father investment or the absence of the father does relate to how early adolescents start to get involved in sexual activities and how early adolescent pregnancies happen (Mendle, Van Hulle, Brooks-gunn, Emery, Harden, Turkheimer, D’Onofrio, Rodgers, Lahey, 2009). Today, there are around 820,000 teen pregnancies happening each year, with 80 percent of those unintended (Familyfirstaid, 2015). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fatherly involvement and pregnancies in adolescents. The sample was drawn from the first wave of the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included adolescents in seventh through twelfth grade. Chi-square analyses and bivariate graphs were used to examine the relationship between adolescent pregnancies and time spent with their father. The results suggest that there is a statistically significant relationship between how involved the father is in the female adolescents’ life with how adolescents perceive risky sexual behaviors from an early age. In conclusion, those that had an absent father or a less involved father were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors and get pregnant at an early age. The findings of this research coincide with the results of previous research, which taken together suggests that female adolescents with a strong relationship with their biological father are less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors at an early age.
Poster
How Marker-Free Transgenic Plants Can Help Reduce the Concerns of Consumers
Fischer ,Hayley Northeastern State University
How Marker-Free Transgenic Plants Can Help Reduce the Concerns of Consumers Hayley Fischer Mentor Dr. Kevin Wang Natural Science Department, Northeastern State University at Broken Arrow 3100 East New Orleans Street, Broken Arrow, Ok 74014 Selectable marker genes are commonly used for the transformation of plants. A selectable marker is a gene with an expression that allows it to correctly identify the cells that have been transformed with the marker gene in order to produce higher quality plants. Transgenetics are used most frequently in plants to add in foreign DNA for resistance to herbicides and to genetically modify them. Normally, selectable marker genes are either antibiotic or herbicide resistant. Unfortunately, many consumers are concerned about human health if we were to ingest the plants that have the genes still intact in them. Biologists have developed numerous different strategies such as: co-transformation, screenable markers, site-specific recombination, transposition and homologous recombination in which a marker gene is eliminated from a chloroplast or nuclear genome after the selection process has occurred. This strategy is called marker-free transgenic plants. A marker-free transgenic plant means the production of transgenic plants without selectable antibiotic or herbicide resistance markers, but instead promotes regeneration after transformation.
Poster
How Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm and Planktonic Secreted Products Affect Myofibroblast Differentiation
Brennan ,Robert University of Central Oklahoma
Hall ,Preston University of Central Oklahoma
Komeni ,Alain University of Central Oklahoma
Vaughan ,Melville University of Central Oklahoma
Wounds often become chronic by staying in the inflammatory stage of the healing process for an excessive time periods. The ability of fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts is key for the normal progression of wound healing. Recent experimental evidence has shown that products secreted by planktonic S. aureus and S. aureus biofilms differentially affect viability and inflammatory cytokine production by human fibroblasts, along with human keratinocytes. Our goal was to determine whether media conditioned by S. aureus affected myofibroblast differentiation by utilizing immunostaining techniques. We grew normal human fibroblasts on coverslips in media containing 1ng/ml TGF-β plus or minus 100 µL/ml of the planktonic S. aureus secretions or the S. aureus biofilm secretions; these were compared to media-only control. We found that products secreted by S. aureus, especially planktonic S. aureus, significantly decreased myofibroblast differentiation in three separate experiments which suggests that wound healing won’t progress to the myofibroblast phase if the cells are being inhibited. Bacterial biofilms are currently difficult to treat, so being able to promote myofibroblasts may aid the healing of chronic wounds. These findings should also spark future studies related to wound healing.
Poster
How v. Hallito: A Content Analysis of Native Americans Portrayed in Political Cartoons
Postoak ,Tiffany East Central University
The research conducted in this paper was to see how Native Americans are portrayed in political cartoons in the mainstream media. About 50 cartoons were found in the Cagle archive using specific search terms related to Native American issues. The cartoons were analyzed using content analysis. The data demonstrate that most of the time stereotypes are used in cartoons of Native Americans, Native are portrayed as very passive political actors, and that many recent cartoons relate to the issue of using terms like “Redskins” as a sports mascot.
Poster
Hoya's Recharge Blue-light Blocking Lens Treatment: Potential Effects on Color Vision
Kosin ,Jane Northeastern State University
Nguyen ,Thien Northeastern State University
Purpose. This study aims to evaluate if Recharge, a blue-light blocking lens treatment by Hoya Vision Care, affects color vision. Methods. The subjects wore a random pair of plano glasses with either Hoya’s standard anti-reflective coating or with Hoya’s Recharge EX3 anti-reflective coating. After wearing the lenses for 5 minutes, the subjects performed a computerized color vision test while being timed. The color vision test involved rearranging colored plates in the order of the color spectrum. The subjects performed the test two times for each pair of spectacles for a total of four times. The subjects also completed a short printed survey at the end of the study. Results. Of the 30 participants recruited, 24 completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the Hoya’s standard anti-reflective coating and Hoya’s Recharge EX3 anti-reflective coating (P = .735). There were also no statistically significant differences in the time it took to complete the 4 rows while wearing Hoya’s Recharge EX3 (P = .205). Conclusion. There was no significant difference in color perception and the ability to differentiate colors between the two anti-reflective lenses used in the study.
Poster
Hume and Smith on the Original Contract
DeBolt ,Darian University of Central Oklahoma
In this paper, I compare and contrast the arguments of David Hume and Adam Smith on the original contract. Hume's essay "Of the Original Contract" was first published in 1748 in a small collection entitled "Three Essays, Moral and Political." Adam Smith's views were first articulated in his "Lectures on Jurisprudence, Report of 1762-3." A more polished version of those views appeared in Smith's "Lecture on Jurisprudence, Report dated 1766." Hume does not allude to any particular theorist, but Smith mentions John Locke. I conclude that Smith's arguments against the original contract are derivative from Hume. This is not surprising given that David Hume was Adam Smith's mentor and friend.
Poster
I
Identification and Characterization of the Bile Salt Sensitivity Mechanism in Escherichia coli
Bidlack ,James University of Central Oklahoma
Lyon ,Maximilian University of Central Oklahoma
Our previous research has linked the genes yciS and yciM in Escherichia coli to bile salt sensitivity. In this research project we have attempted to isolate and sequence these loci in order to characterize the genes responsible for this phenotype from five strains of bacterium with different genotypes in these regions. One strain is the original strain that demonstrated sensitivity, the second is a resistant sister strain, two are sensitive knock-out mutants, and the last is the parent strain to the others. Our objective was to be accomplished by amplifying the select regions using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the selected region to produce high quantities of the DNA in question. The product of these reactions would then be sent to an offsite center for sequencing. The sequences attained from the strains on E. coli used in this project would then be compared to the wild type to determine the exact mechanism for the sensitivity observed. Further research will focus on determining if this sensitivity is transferable to other bacterium and if so, which phenotype is dominant. This will be accomplished by transforming a plasmid to contain either the resistant or sensitive gene and inserting it into bacteria with the opposite phenotype. A change in phenotype will indicate which of the two phenotypes is dominant.
Poster
Identifying the enzyme involved in hypotaurine to taurine biosynthesis
Grove ,Roxanna University of Central Oklahoma
Taurine is the most abundant amino acid-derived molecule in the cell and is a product of cysteine metabolism. It is ubiquitous in animal tissues, but more concentrated in the brain, liver, retina, and adipose cells. It is essential for many biological processes, such as neonatal development, though its exact role is unclear. The nature of the biological reaction of the reactant hypotaurine to the product taurine is still unknown. The goal of this project is to identify the gene product that performs this biochemical reaction. Gene co-expression analysis of liver cell mRNAs has revealed several potential candidate genes. The candidate proteins will be expressed and tested for catalysis of hypotaurine to taurine using HPLC and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) as a colorimetric derivatizing reagent.
Poster
Identifying the enzyme involved in hypotaurine to taurine biosynthesis
Karpowicz ,Steven University of Central Oklahoma
Taurine is the most abundant amino acid-derived molecule in the cell and is a product of cysteine metabolism. It is ubiquitous in animal tissues, but more concentrated in the brain, liver, retina, and adipose cells. It is essential for many biological processes, such as neonatal development, though its exact role is unclear. The nature of the biological reaction of the reactant hypotaurine to the product taurine is still unknown. The goal of this project is to identify the gene product that performs this biochemical reaction. Gene co-expression analysis of liver cell mRNAs has revealed several potential candidate genes. The candidate proteins will be expressed and tested for catalysis of hypotaurine to taurine using HPLC and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) as a colorimetric derivatizing reagent.
Poster
Immigration, Ethnicity, and Community Formation in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area
Everly ,Clarissa University of Oklahoma
Watkins ,Kane University of Central Oklahoma
Brym ,Michelle University of Central Oklahoma
Two important shifts in the settlement patterns of immigrants to the United States have occurred over the past few decades: the immigrant populations are increasingly of Latin America, Asian, and Sub-Saharan African origins. The destinations of these groups are expanding in the rapidly growing urban areas of the South, Southwest, and Great Plains regions. Oklahoma City (OKC) has experienced significant overall growth in the 21st century, including growth due to international immigration. Our research seeks to understand how Oklahoma City’s immigrant populations, through the spatial configurations of the ethnic communities they support, have become part of the city’s changing landscape. To identify the types of ethnic communities present in the OKC metropolitan area, our study first maps the residential patterns of the foreign-born populations using data from the U.S. Census American Community Survey. The discovered settlement patterns are compared to the location distribution of places that serve immigrant communities: worship offering non-English services and ethnic grocery stores. The research explores human agency by interviewing ethnic business owners on their reasoning for establishing their company within the city. Our findings support the idea that ethnic communities in new destination cities like Oklahoma City are not separate, but these ethnic clusters constitutes for multiethnic neighborhoods and ethnoscapes throughout OKC.
Poster
Immobilization of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) in a Microfluidic Substrate
Teigland ,Tucker University of Central Oklahoma
Allen ,Jennie University of Central Oklahoma
Smith ,Regina University of Central Oklahoma
Omena ,Thiago University of Central Oklahoma
Hossan ,Mohammad University of Central Oklahoma
Karpowicz ,Steven University of Central Oklahoma
Immobilization of proteins on a microfluidic device is critical for on-chip detection and signal amplification for low abundant biomolecules. The concentration of cardiac biomarker protein troponin I (cTnI) is extremely low in serum which prevents its detection in microchip device. In this project, we present an O2 plasma assisted cTnI immobilization method to complement isotachophoretic concentration and detection of cTnI. Reactive ion etching (RIE) was used to treat the PMMA surface using oxygen plasma to increase surface area. This caused the surface to become hydrophilic, which aided in selective absorption of proteins. The anti-cTnI monoclonal anti-body (mAb) sample was applied manually in the detection site and allowed to incubate for approximately 1 h. After incubation, the surface was washed with PBST followed by nanopure water. After drying, the immobilization of antibodies was verified by respective fluorescent cTnI isoforms under a microscope. The image analysis was done using imageJ software to quantify the increase of cTnI concentration due to antibody amplification by measuring intensity. Currently the project is in progress and we are anticipating a hundred fold increase in cTnI concentration. This immobilization method will be integrated with the on-chip isotachophoresis for development of microfluidic immunoassay for diagnosis of myocardial infraction (MI).
Poster
Impact Behaviors of First-time and Developmental Students
Soderstrom ,Kristal Northeastern State University
Wilkinson ,Erik Northeastern State University
As many in Higher Education already know, first to second year retention rates are a major issue on many campuses across the nation. This is often because first year students have to navigate a myriad of issues that can impact their retention from year one to two. However, first generation students and those needing remediation face an even higher risk of not being retained after the first year. Using data obtained from the MAP-Works Early Alert system through surveys taken by first year students during their University Strategies course, this study looked at five out-of-classroom factors that could impact the retention of these students; social media usage, study hours, campus involvement, on/off campus living, and choosing a major. The presenters will discuss some of the interventions taken by staff at the Student Academic Success Center at Northeastern State University to address these issues with students, and the success the program has had in helping retain these students.
Poster
Implementing 21st Century Skills Using Technology in the K-12 Classroom
Talkington ,Anna Talkington East Central University
This research is directed toward exploring how effectively 21st Century Skills or ISTE “Students Skills”, as defined by the ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education), are being incorporated into classroom curriculum, lesson-planning, and teaching real world application of the skills. Our study examines three main research questions: Which 21st Century Skills are being implemented? What is the technology self-efficacy level of practicing teachers? What specific technological tools are being used? Part of this project was developing a survey using Google Docs. The link to the survey was sent out via e-mail to cooperating educators who are currently working or have worked in conjunction with the East Central University Department of Education Office of Field Experiences and Student Teaching. The results of our survey suggested that the ISTE global and financial literacy student skills are possibly the skills being implemented least. Technologies that were commonly used were Smart Boards, Computers/ Laptops, IPads/tablets. Additionally, teachers struggled most with solving hardware/software issues, using productivity tools, and using media to collaborate.
Poster
Implementing User Authentication in an Android Application
Qian ,Gang University of Central Oklahoma
Gravchikov ,Stan University of Central Oklahoma
This presentation introduces our implementation of a user authentication subsystem in an Android mobile application. The user authentication subsystem was used to identify the user of an Android app when it communicates with the Web and database servers. We cover the use of data encryption/decryption along with signature verification for Android app development. We also discuss Android storage mechanisms that support data storage and security.
Poster
Implications of Climate Change and Emerging Parasitic Disease in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta)
Bliss ,Kristen University of Central Oklahoma
Elliott ,Yoselin University of Central Oklahoma
Parasites may regulate free-living host populations; these interactions often affect the management and limit the recovery efforts of endangered species across many taxa. Mitigating the effects of anthropogenic climate change and preserving biodiversity has become the highest priority of many monitoring and management agencies. Changes in host distribution and abundance could affect parasite assemblages and life history strategies; moreover, environmental stressors such as pollutants and rising temperatures may negatively impact host immunity. The vital relationship between parasites and disease prevalence is complex and often poorly understood; few studies have tracked infectious diseases in marine systems. The Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is a species of concern in coastal and marine ecosystems; this species is often used as an indicator of environmental quality and health. Seasonal migration patterns among C. caretta present an opportunity to track parasite assemblages across a wide geographic distribution. Our research will specifically target the diversity and prevalence of Helminth parasites found within C. caretta at varying latitudes to quantify any significant seasonal or spatial differences. Fecal samples will be obtained and analyzed using light microscopy and compared with published Helminth parasite analyses to determine whether individuals at higher latitudes are less susceptible to parasitism than those subsisting seasonally at lower latitudes.
Poster
Importance of family support to building hope among a sample of adolescent females
Brown ,Vanessa University of Oklahoma
Brunk ,Kara University of Oklahoma
Bragg ,Jedediah University of Oklahoma
Hope for a better future is a cognitive set that predicts multiple well-being outcomes such as life satisfaction, self-worth, and meaningfulness of life. Moreover, theory suggests supportive families play an important role in instilling hope within individuals. Yet, to our knowledge no research exists that tests the importance of family support to the development of hope. We tested among adolescent females (N=557) a path model of family support as a causal variable for building hope that leads to greater life satisfaction. The path analysis proved statistically significant, a result consistent with the theory that family support is an important causal variable for building hope. These results have important implications for both individuals and family therapies, as they suggest the perception by individuals that their families provide support is an important causal variable in the development of hope leading to life satisfaction.
Poster
Improving Game Systems Design Through the Use of Object Oriented Design Patterns
Darling ,Joel University of Central Oklahoma
Sung ,Hong University of Central Oklahoma
Developing a video game is a complex undertaking which requires tens of thousands of lines of code, with each block requiring extensive unit testing and at times refactoring in order to create a sufficiently complex game. The use of design patterns can simplify this process, giving developers a system by which they can compartmentalize and map-out this process. Four design patterns are used in facilitating the development of a small 2d video game. These patterns are: 1) State Pattern – For use in the implementation of the player animation and game states. 2) Observer Pattern – For use in detecting game events such as item collection as well as collision. 3) Visitor Pattern – For use in collision detection, updating and rendering objects to the level. 4) Command Pattern – For use in programming the response of user input. To test the implementation of these patterns and their usefulness, A game was refactored which was previously created using three other design patterns to facilitate rapid prototyping. While implementing the above 4 patterns, it was discovered that there are situations where implementing design patterns on what seems to be a similar problem results in adding unnecessary time or space complexity to the program. Two of these examples are covered as well as suggested implementations of both of these examples.
Poster
Improving the Hydraulic Efficiency of Centrifugal Pumps through Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Design optimization
Lin ,Yunhao University of Central Oklahoma
MOUSSA ,ABDELLAH University of Central Oklahoma
Grubb ,Tyler University of Central Oklahoma
The design and optimization of turbo machine impellers such as those in pumps and turbines is a highly complicated task due to the complex three-dimensional shape of the impeller blades and surrounding devices. Small differences in geometry can lead to significant changes in the performance of these machines. We report here an efficient numerical technique that automatically optimizes the geometry of these blades for maximum performance. The technique combines, mathematical modeling of the impeller blades using non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS), Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with Geometry Parameterizations in turbulent flow simulation and a novel optimization techniques a probability density and multiple restarts.
Poster
In vitro tests to evaluate PCL fiber effect on titanium-bone scaffold interfaces Joshua Cody Knight, Fariha Sultana, Mika Barnes, Melville B. Vaughan, Morshed Khandaker
Knight ,Joshua University of Central Oklahoma
The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the osseointegration on the bonding strength, σt, between titanium (Ti) and bone scaffold due to collagen (CG) and collagen- polycaprolactone (PCL) (CG/PCL) fiber coatings on Ti. A beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) disc (9.5 mm diameter × 1.6 mm thickness) was used as bone scaffold. Cells were cultured on the top of Ti, Ti/CG, Ti/CG/PCL and β-TCP surfaces for 14 days. β-TCP were placed on top of Ti/CG and Ti/CG/PCL specimen in a custom made acrylic well to make the coupled β-TCP- Ti/CG and β-TCP-Ti/CG/PCL specimen, respectively. Cell culturing was conducted on the coupled samples for 2 months, followed by tensile measurements on each of the constructs. The coupled samples were glued on the holders in the Evex tensile test stage. Tension tests were conducted at strain rate 0.001 mm/sec to determine the σt values of the samples. No bonding occurred between Ti and β-TCP whereas Ti/ β-TCP samples with CG and CG-PCL showed noticeable bonding strength, σt, though the differences of σt between those samples were not significant. This result suggested that both CG and CG-PCL can improve the bonding of Ti/bone.
Poster
In Vivo Interactions of Mcm10 and S Phase Checkpoint Proteins Analyzed Using FRET
Riggs ,Shaina Northeastern State University
Cameron ,Joseph Northeastern State University
Cell cycle checkpoint proteins delay DNA replication to allow for repair of damaged DNA or allow for apoptotic processes. Cancerous cells bypass these checkpoint mechanisms. A greater understanding of these checkpoint mechanisms could provide possible targets in anti-cancer therapies. Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) has been previously found to be involved in DNA damage signaling with the 9-1-1 clamp during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Using yeast two hybrid techniques, our lab has found that Mcm10 interacts with Mrc1 and the C-terminus of Pol2 which is the catalytic subunit of Polymerase epsilon (Pol ε). Mrc1, Pol ε, and DNA polymerase B 11 (Dpb11) are essential for cell viability and work in a complex to signal for S phase checkpoint. The goal of our project is to observe if Mcm10 is part of this signaling complex. To pursue this goal, we will be using FRET to study these interactions. We will create double-tagged strains of Mcm10-YFP with Mrc1-CFP/ Pol2-CFP/ Dpb11-CFP/ Dpb2- CFP by homologous recombination. These strains will be sequenced to confirm the correct integration of the fluorescent tags on the genome. We wish to extend these studies to cells exposed to DNA damaging conditions. We hypothesize that Mcm10 will closely interact with Pol2, Mrc1, and Dpb11 during S phase and DNA damage, and serve as a component of the checkpoint control pathway .
Poster
Indigenous Peoples and Bees
Bhatta ,Chet University of Kansas
Gonzalez ,Victor Other Institution
Greer ,Stephanie University of Kansas
Besides being the most important pollinators of wild and cultivated plants, bees are also deeply ingrained in the cultural history of many societies. Archaeological and anthropological records indicate that bees were, and remain, an integral part of the traditional knowledge of many indigenous peoples around the world, including that of ancient civilizations such as the Egyptian and Maya. Here we summarize the ethnobiological studies on native bees worldwide. The information available on the nomenclature, classification, and use of native bees demonstrate the importance of incorporating traditional or indigenous knowledge in scientific studies of bee diversity.
Poster
Indoor Multiple Sound Source Tracking Using Refined TDOA Measurements
Sun ,Longji Oklahoma State University
Cheng ,Qi Oklahoma State University
Sound source tracking has numerous applications, including speaker localization, video conferencing, and smart home design. Time differences of arrival (TDOAs) of sound signals are usually used as the measurements for tracking. In our work, the multiple sound source tracking problem is formulated into a state estimation problem, where the state of one source includes both its coordinates and velocities in a two-dimension space. Since the TDOAs are nonlinear functions of the states, the traditional Kalman filter is not suitable. Instead, the particle filter is used to approximate the posterior distribution of source states using the “particles”. The random finite theory is used to deal with the measurement association issue in multiple source tracking. Obtaining accurate TDOA measurements in indoor environments is challenging due to the presence of multiple sources and reverberations. To get more accurate TDOAs and thus reduce the gap between the measurement model and the measurements, a new approach is adopted. Preliminary TDOAs are estimated at selected time frequency data points, and a TDOA histogram is formed. The final TDOAs are obtained by determining the values corresponding to the peaks of the resulted TDOA histogram. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Poster
Induction of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Noninvasive Laser Irradiation and Immunologically Modified Carbon Nanotubes using Mammary Tumor Model in Rats
Hasanjee ,Aamr University of Central Oklahoma
Bahavar ,Cody University of Central Oklahoma
Halterman ,Erica University of Central Oklahoma
West ,Connor University of Central Oklahoma
Doughty ,Austin University of Central Oklahoma
Zhou ,Feifan University of Central Oklahoma
Chen ,Wei University of Central Oklahoma
Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is evolving as a new method for treating metastatic cancer. LIT is capable of reducing primary tumors and launching effective systemic anti-tumor responses. Using a targeted treatment approach along with a novel immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC), LIT is able to induce an anti-tumor immune response to highly aggressive metastatic cancers. In this study, Noninvasive Laser Immunotherapy (NLIT) was selected to be the primary treatment method. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were used in the treatment regimen to enhance the thermal effect of NLIT on tumors. SWNTs were conjugated to GC to create an immunologically modified carbon nanotube (SWNT-GC). To determine how different laser irradiation durations, 5 minutes or 10 minutes, would affect the treatment outcome, a series of experiments were performed. Rats were injected with DMBA-4 cells, an aggressive, metastatic cancer line. The group of rats that received 10 minutes of noninvasive laser treatment with SWNT-GC (laser+SWNT-GC) had a 50% survival rate, without primary or metastatic tumors. The group treated for 5 minutes with laser+SWNT-GC had no survivors. Thus, we concluded that NLIT treatment using SWNT-GC for 10 minutes is more effective at reducing tumor size and inducing long-term anti-tumor immunity than NLIT-SWNT-GC treatment for 5 minutes. This study provides a means of improvement of NLIT for future studies.
Poster
InfantSEE Utilization by NSUOCO Optometrists
Bolejack ,Mikaela Northeastern State University
Hubka ,Karli Northeastern State University
Proctor ,Alissa Northeastern State University
The InfantSEE program has had a decrease in both the number of providers and the number of exams performed each year since it launch in 2005. We created a survey to evaluate the utilization of this program by Northeastern State University Oklahoma College of Optometry (NSUOCO) graduates to discover the reason for the decrease in exams performed. We created a survey using Survey Monkey. The survey contained ten questions that evaluated participants InfantSEE provider status, number of years practicing optometry, number of InfantSEE exams done per year, InfantSEE marketing strategies, how participants obtained education and training necessary to do infant eye exams, reasons for not participating in the program and if they felt comfortable being an InfantSEE provider. The survey was emailed out through Survey Monkey to graduates of NSUOCO. Survey Monkey collected the data and we analyzed it via regression analysis. Fifty percent of participants were registered InfantSEE providers, while the other half of participants reported that they were not. The majority of providers performed less than five InfantSEE exams per year. Regression analysis showed a strong correlation between the more ways the providers market the program the more exams they perform each year. We found that there is a relationship between marketing and the number of InfantSEE exams performed. We conclude that if more marketing is done for the program, more InfantSEE exams will be completed each year.
Poster
Influence of climate on radial growth of blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica, Munchh.) in the central Cross Timbers, Oklahoma.
Cheek ,Justin University of Central Oklahoma
King ,Chad University of Central Oklahoma
Plant species at the edge of their contemporary habitat distributions are more affected by changes in climate. As such, climate change has the potential of altering plant species distributions. Blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica, Munchh.) is at its western distribution limit in central Oklahoma and is historically a dominant tree species of Cross Timbers forests. However, very little is known about what factors (temperature, precipitation, PDSI) have the greatest effect on its growth. This study’s objective was to assess the correlation of climate variables on radial growth in Q. marilandica. Increment cores (n=49) were collected from Q. marilandica in three forest stands in central Oklahoma and were used to run climate analysis to determine effects on radial growth. Data analysis suggest significant positive correlation between annual radial growth and monthly precipitation (October, January, May) and significant negative correlation between annual radial growth and temperature (June, July). Analysis also suggest available moisture (average monthly PDSI) has a significant effect on radial growth (r>0.40, p<0.05). These results suggest that declines in precipitation due to climate change in central Oklahoma could affect Q. marilandica populations at their current distribution limits. With a shift to an even greater arid climate in the region, Q. marilandica could face potential declines in forest stands causing a shift of species composition in south-central forests.
Poster
Insight into the Inhibition of metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacillus anthracis
Watie ,Joshua Northeastern State University
Kim ,Sung-Kun Northeastern State University
Whenever bacteria develop a resistance to antibiotics, it is important to find a way to bypass or negate the bacteria’s resistance. In this research, the bacteria Bacillus anthracis, causing anthrax, has developed a metallo-beta-lactamase (Bla2), which destroys the beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems. In order to resolve this issue, two newly synthesized compounds, compound 4 and compound 7, have been used to see if they can inhibit Bla2. Our previous results showed that the compound 7 has its ability to inhibit Bla2 effectively. To understand the interaction between the compound and Bla2, molecular docking programs were used - AutoDock 4 and AutoDock Vina. The molecular dockings were examined and compared to determine which of the results would be best to explain how the compound binds to Bla2. From these results, we confirmed that compound 7 binds to the active site of the enzyme. This observation is consistent with the experimental results.
Poster
Inspiring simplicity
Horton ,Amanda University of Central Oklahoma
Walter Gropius, the instructors at the Bauhaus, and the work done by Jan Tschichold for the New Typography had powerful, and lasting impact on the history of design. The innovations of these movements and the individuals that led them inspired people like Otto Neurath and Otl Aicher to create rules and order for their designs. Neurath revolutionized Information Graphics following World War I with his development of the Isotype, while Aicher was involved in the creation of the iconic pictograms for the 1972 Munich Olympic games. Information graphics are defined as visual designs that present facts with usually as little decorative or nonessential material as possible and in as legible and compact manner as possible, (Drucker & McVarish, 2013) and the implication is that in these designs the content is both accurate and unbiased (Wildbur & Burke, 1998). The influence of both the Bauhaus and the New Typography led these innovators of information design to produce designs that were extremely legible, accurate and unbiased, which became the ultimate goal of this type of design. This paper will look into the philosophies from the Bauhaus and the New Typography that led to the successful design of and standards set by Neurath and Aicher, and ask the question are designers still inspired by these rules and standards today?
Poster
Interpreting Time Series: A Novel Approach to Data Processing
Massengill ,Jeremy University of Central Oklahoma
Laverty ,Sean University of Central Oklahoma
Stone ,Paul University of Central Oklahoma
The ability to discern between information-bearing patterns (signals) and random patterns that distract from the information (noise) is invaluable to ecological and climatological sciences. An important factor in climate change studies is the ability to detect significant changes in the structure or function of the environment. Tracking and interpretation of temperature time series can be used to gauge the severities of climate change. Historically, generalized linear models (GLM) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model provided a means of forecasting from time series. We have developed a novel computational method for the analysis of temperature time series and prediction of hydroperiod. Using data obtained from temperature data loggers set in temporary aquatic environments we can predict the presence/absence of water using the temperature time series. Our method combines Newton’s Law of Cooling with modern statistical processes to detect significant differences between comparable temperature time series. We used mathematical modeling of the temperature tracking exhibited by the data logger with respect to the environment (ambient air or liquid water) to process data and assess statistical significance. The computational method for evaluating time series developed in this study is not limited to aquatic habitat availability but also can be useful in climate change detection, tree ring analysis, animal behavior studies and signal detection/process
Poster
Interstate Law Enforcement Aid
Hampton ,Holly University of Central Oklahoma
Terrell ,Leslie University of Central Oklahoma
Ralstin ,Austin University of Central Oklahoma
The graduate students in UCO's Crime and Intelligence Analysis master's program were asked to conduct research for members of the Association of State Criminal Investigative Agencies (ASCIA) regarding interstate mutual aid. Students examined current state laws in regard to providing mutual aid across jurisdiction lines and from that research develop model legislation that can be considered for introduction in the respective state legislatures to achieve a consistent nationwide solution.
Poster
Inventory Database
Harrington ,Patrick Northeastern State University
Hassan ,Salim Northeastern State University
In order for a business to survive and grow, they have to be able to record and maintain their stock and inventory. Not being able to do so would result in poor customer service and ultimately, the failing of the business. The best and most efficient way to manage inventory and stock, especially as the business grows, is through a database. The purpose of this project is to provide a means of storing and managing the inventory and stock a business would need and use. The database would also need to be able to grow in order to accommodate the growth of the business.
Poster
Investigating Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Recovery
Moore ,John Northeastern State University
Buckholtz ,Jody Northeastern State University
This project seeks to characterize the effect of chemical hydrolysis of cellulose on the solvent, 1-Methyl-3-Octylimidazolium Chloride, by proton NMR. Additionally, data for recovered dry mass of cellulose and fermentable sugar concentration in the hydrolysis solution were also collected. While discoloration of the solvent was seen, there were no changes in structure detected. A total of 3 hydrolysis reactions were carried out in series and then replicated several times. There was an average of 12% loss of cellulose per reaction.
Poster
Investigation of Rickettsia rickettsii infections in Northeastern Oklahoma Dogs
Ruskoski ,Sallie Northeastern State University
Clark ,Adam Northeastern State University
Kirk ,Dianne Northeastern State University
The bacteria Rickettsia rickettsia is responsible for causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in infected mammals. The American dog tick, Rocky Mountain wood tick, and Brown dog tick are the primary hosts and transfers the bacterium to a secondary host, such as dogs, during feeding. The purpose of this study was to investigate exposure to R. ricketsii in Northeast Oklahoma dogs currently exhibiting tick-borne disease symptoms, such as fever, lethargy, anorexia, and depression. Blood was collected from 26 dogs exhibiting tick-borne disease symptoms between September and December 2014 at a local veterinary hospital. Sera were tested for antibodies to R. rickettsii using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IgG) assay. EDTA-treated whole blood was obtained from all animals that tested positive for the antibody and end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to confirm the presence of the organism. Antibody testing revealed that 17 (65%) dogs had positive titers to R. rickettsii. Positive samples were evaluated by PCR to confirm the presence of Rickettsia spp. However, only 11 (65%) samples tested positive for the Rickettsia spp. spotted fever group ompA gene. These data conclude that while symptomatic dogs may test positive for antibodies to R. rickettsii, it doesn’t necessary mean that they are currently infected with rickettsial bacteria.
Poster
IS Security Strategy When Using the Cloud for Small Businesses
Al Moutaa ,Mohamed University of Central Oklahoma
IS security is an essential part of small businesses. Using cloud computing for data storage and backup might be the best approach for businesses in Oklahoma. Small businesses have a big impact in the U.S. economy, consisting of approximately 50% of the working population. They are three fundamental models that cloud computing providers offer: infrastructure as service, platform as a service, and software as service. Also, there are three main delivery models: the private cloud where the business has exclusive use of an isolated cloud, the public cloud which is a shared-service environment accessible to any customer, and hybrid cloud which combine the public and the private cloud. It is important for small businesses to be aware of the security aspect of using cloud computing and have an IS strategy when using it. Small businesses have become easy targets for cyber attackers due to their lackadaisical protections. Ninety per cent of small and medium sized businesses in the U.S. do not use data protection for company and customer information and fewer than half secured their company email to prevent phishing scams. There are more than just phishing scams that challenge their security. There is also malware, wireless internet vulnerabilities, online fraud, compromised websites, spear phishing, unauthorized access, and cloud computing risks. The purpose of this research project is to determine the security aspect that small business face and to explore security rec
Poster
Is the Company’s Social Media Usage Related to its Financial Performance?
Samaraweera ,Manoshi University of Central Oklahoma
Wang ,Zihao University of Central Oklahoma
Many companies are increasingly using social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn, however, whether the use of these outlets actually improves the performance of the company is a question that lacks empirical evidence. In this study, we monitor the social media activity of a sample of 82 large public companies, on the aforementioned three social media platforms, over several quarters, to ascertain whether social media usage is related to the financial performance of the company. We also examine which social media outlet(s) have (does not have) a significant effect. We use Hierarchical Linear Modeling to analyze the data. Results will be presented at the research day.
Poster
Is the Health Care Bill Healthy for Physical Therapy?
Payne ,Rachel University of Central Oklahoma
With a new national health care system in place, many industries in the medical field will experience rapid and unexpected changes. These changes that occur in one sector will also have an impact on others, making it important to be aware of the evolution. This paper focuses specifically on the field of physical therapy, a crucial service of rehabilitation, pain management, preventative care, and maintaining overall health. This paper will show how supply and demand for the industry will be affected, breaking down factors that will contribute to the increases and decreases in the supply and demand for the market. These factors include everything from new regulations placed directly on physical therapy to the indirect affects of other industries changing. Through critical analysis of the past trends in the physical therapy business and the new Affordable Care Act, this paper will discuss the future of physical therapy in a new and changing health care environment.
Poster
Isolation Of Antipodal Cells and Gene Expression Analysis In Rice
Hall ,Rashad Langston University
Abernathy ,Jasmene Langston University
The embryo sack of a rice plant contains 7 cells all vital for the plants reproduction. The central cell, egg cell, senergent cells, and the antipodal cells. We know the function and purpose of all of these cells except the Antipodal cells. The objective for our research is to gain a better understanding of these cells. We believe the cells may play a similar roll in rice as the vegetative cell does in pollen. RT-PCR and antipodal isolation were the main techniques we used to conduct our research. My results did not match my hypothesis due to the primes I chose to use during RT-PCR. We still don’t fully know the function of Antipodal cells.
Poster
K
Kamama Community Garden: Research, Community Service, and Cultural Awareness
Rubidoux ,Laurelyn Tulsa Community College
Tulsa Community College West Campus established the Kamama Community Garden in early spring semester 2014. The objectives of the Garden are to provide research, community service, and cultural awareness for students and the Tulsa community. As a work study / research student, my research and community service experiences are instrumental in the establishment and maintenance of the Garden. This long-term and collaborative project is an extension of the beautification of the West Campus and urban ecology movement in Tulsa.
Poster
Kingdom Saga
Hogue ,Debra University of Central Oklahoma
Zachery ,Shira University of Central Oklahoma
The popularity of mobile gaming has increased in the recent years due to the advancement of mobile device technology. Therefore it felt necessary to follow suit by developing a game for mobile devices. Kingdom Saga was developed for the Android operating system using Eclipse with the Android Software Developing Kit. This game ties the interactive story of an RPG, role-playing game, game application with four mini-games: Tic-Tac-Toe, Blackjack, Memory, and Galaga. Each of these four mini-games offer an unlockable “design pattern” which will aid the player with defeating the final boss in the RPG part of the game. This project demonstrates the creation of an Android game application with the use of the Java programming language.
Poster
L
Language Policy and Usage in Inner Mongolia
Xiao ,Xiao University of Central Oklahoma
While China is growing into a more open economy in the recent decade, Inner Mongolia, an minority autonomous region located in north China, has been exposing itself in a more diversified environment. Therefore, language policy and usage are also changing to help young people to face upcoming challenges. The research will explore such changes to illustrate how the whole society respond to this situation in Hohhot, Capital city of Inner Mongolia, China.
Poster
Lanthionine ketimine is a neurotrophic agent that promotes axonal elongation and autophagy.
Holgado ,Andrea Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Jansing ,Elizabeth Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Rodriguez ,Ashley Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Van ,Lyly Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs), are cytoskeletal adaptor molecules involved in a variety of normal cellular functions including alteration of cell shape and cell communication. CRMP2s have also been associated with pathological disorders and neurological diseases. For instance, CRMP2 protein collects in cytoskeletal tangles in Alzheimer’s disease, which may contribute to neural degeneration in this disorder. In other examples, differences in CRMP2 expression have been documented in some subsets of patients suffering paranoid schizophrenia. Lastly, the anticonvulsive drug lacosamide (VimPat) was found to act by binding to CRMP2, which unmasked the pharmacological importance of CRMP2-binding in epilepsy.Thus, based on these observations, we hypothesize that CRMP2 plays a central role in neuronal connectivity and may represent a critical junction linking neural brain function with neural pathologies. Moreover, we reasoned that if we target CRMP2 therapeutically, we may reverse or slow-down onsets of many neurodegenerative disorders.To this end, we began a study focused on the in vivo effects of lanthionine ketimine (LK), a natural brain metabolite and neurotrophic agent, in C. elegans. Work from our group shows that LK partially rescues CRMP2 hypomorph mutants while activating a recycling mechanism called autophagy. These data provide evidence for in vivo function of LK and reveal new opportunities for therapy development when CRMP2 functionality is compro
Poster
Laser Bees: The Future of Planetary Defense
Releford ,Darion Northeastern State University
Laser bees are tiny spacecraft designed to deflect asteroids that threaten the earth. They are small and travel in a swarm. Each craft is equipped with a high-powered laser that is used to vaporize part of the asteroid. Laser bees will alter the course of dangerous asteroids causing them to miss the Earth. There are various groups, led by the Planetary Society, working together to develop laser bees. They test the technology and techniques needed to make the swarm efficient.
Poster
Law School Marketing and Deceptive Advertising
Ludlum ,Marty University of Central Oklahoma
Barger Johnson ,Jennifer University of Central Oklahoma
Law schools aggressively compete for students. With the heightened economic pressures, schools have resorted to some less than admirable tactics to gain new students. This paper examines some of the abuses in law school marketing and proposes some modest changes to all law schools to recruit with integrity.
Poster
Learning Environment Research: Empowering Teachers and Learners as Change Agents
Harris ,Linda University of Central Oklahoma
Decades of learning environment research have demonstrated students’ perceptions of their classroom environments can influence a variety of developmental outcomes (Fraser, 2012). Based on a correlational study, this poster presents learning environment research as a rich avenue for engaging educators in action research that can allow teachers to create adaptive classrooms. With student perception feedback in hand, teachers are empowered to partner with their students to implement changes that can yield improved outcomes. At all times, teachers remain in control of their own class data and likewise, plan their own interventions. This action research approach acknowledges the capability and necessity of classroom teachers to engage in meaningful research to bring about positive change in partnership with their students. Serving as a model for action research, this study asked, “What is the relationship between students' person-environment fit (PE fit) and their academic performance in writing?” As a result of this poster presentation, attendees can envision a process by which they begin or expand the process of action research by seeking students’ input while adaptations are still possible. In this way, action research can be introduced and/or expanded in classrooms across the state. Reference Fraser, B. J. (2012). Classroom environment (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Poster
Learning Styles: Determining their effects in Programming Classes
Serna ,Misael University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this research is to analyze differences in performance due to the learning styles of students in beginning programming classes. We will analyze lecture-based programming courses and hands-on programming courses. We will administer a survey which will include a set of programming problems. We will then analyze the results by comparing the student's performance and the students learning styles. As a result we can gain a more complete understanding of the effect of teaching methodology and learning styles on performance. To collect my data I will select 4 beginning programming classes from the University of Central Oklahoma. Two of these classes will be taught using hands-on experience and the other two through lecture methods. Data will be gathered from participants by handing out surveys which will contain a set of demographic data and programming problems. We will be answering these research questions. To what degree does the teaching methodology affect student performance? To what degree does the learning style affect student performance? The first research question will be answered through a t-test with teaching methodology as the independent variable and student performance as the dependent variable. The second research question will also be answered through a t-test, with learning style preference as the independent variable and student performance. Correlations between dependent measures will be examined.
Poster
Leonardo da Vinci's Contributions to Art and Science: An Influence of Anatomy Throughout the Ages
Sorrell ,Morgan University of Central Oklahoma
This paper analyses Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to art and science within the Renaissance time period, before his Notebooks were rediscovered and published in the eighteenth century. The paper draws connections between da Vinci's anatomical studies and his artwork to show how the two influenced each other to great some of the greatest masterpieces of the Renaissance. In addition, his studies in both art and science were able to influence his contemporaries of the sixteenth century through his Treatise on Painting. The Treatise itself and the writings of aforementioned contemporaries were examined to prove that although the bulk of da Vinci's work remained unpublished until the eighteenth century, he still had a profound effect on the scientific thought of the Renaissance.
Poster
Litterfall Accumulation and Composition: from the Ecotone into Primary Forest at Las Cruces, Costa Rica
James ,Morgan Langston University
Edge effects can alter forested ecosystems due to changes in light, wind, and soil moisture that occur when forests become fragmented. Litterfall dynamics are affected by edge effects due to phenological responses of plants and animals to the altered abiotic factors. We predict that there will be a difference in litterfall biomass from the edge to the interior of a primary forest. In this study we placed 10 50x50 cm baskets on a 100 meter transect at the ecotone of a secondary and primary forest. We placed litterfall baskets at 0 meters, 30 meters, and 100 meters into primary forest. Litterfall was collected once a week over a 3 week sampling period, sorted into 5 categories to get individual biomass of leaves, reproductive parts, woody, mosses, and miscellaneous. There was no difference in litterfall biomass from the ecotone into the primary forest. However, litterfall complexity was greater 100m into primary forest compared to either 0 or 30m into primary forest. Greater litterfall complexity could provide more niches to support greater arthropod diversity and this may affect decomposition and nutrient cycling.
Poster
Long-Term Pharmacological Management in Adults with Acute Coronary Syndrome
Zornes ,Robin Northwestern State University
Song ,Tiffany Other
Dual antiplatelet therapy comprised of Aspirin and Clopidogrel has been used as a mainstay in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the recurrence rate of ACS events remains higher than desired, prompting interest in and research into newer medications that target thrombosis. Direct factor Xa inhibitors, orally administered anticoagulant medications, are one of the many new therapy modalities that are being investigated for widespread use. These medications directly inhibit the action of factor Xa, a major protein in the coagulation cascade. Since anticoagulants in general target a different aspect of thrombosis than antiplatelets (such as Aspirin and Clopidogrel), their incorporation into traditional dual antiplatelet therapy has gained interest. In this study, the recurrence rate of ACS events was analyzed in adults taking a daily traditional dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of Aspirin and Clopidogrel compared to adults taking a daily dual antiplatelet therapy with the addition of Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor. The cohort of adult ACS patients who were administered daily doses of Rivaroxaban added to dual antiplatelet therapy were found to have decreased rates of recurring coronary events and overall mortality.
Poster
Low cost systhesis and analysis of graphene and the effect of adsorption of organic compounds with structure.
Bowen ,John University of Central Oklahoma
Chapman ,Tye University of Central Oklahoma
Magiera ,Kelsie University of Central Oklahoma
Jackson ,Keith University of Central Oklahoma
McIntyre ,Evan University of Central Oklahoma
Lavine ,Barry Oklahoma State University
A low-cost synthesis of graphene, derived from the Hummers and Offeman method was developed. A commercial grade graphite lubricant was exfoliated with concentrated acid, oxidized by permanganate to produce graphene oxide (GO) This was then reduced using hydrazine hydrate to produce graphene. Products were analyzed using Raman Spectroscopy and SEM. Both species were used to observe the effect of structure of various organic species on absorption in water. The adsorption was analyzed by difference using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.
Poster
M
Making Products Scarce The Right Way: The Moderating Effect Of The Source Of Scarcity And Brand Identity On Consumers’ Valuation
Walker ,Kenneth University of Central Oklahoma
Tran ,Thanh University of Central Oklahoma
This project explores how scarcity enhances consumers’ perceived value for the product. There are two hypotheses: the first investigates the moderating effect of the type of scarcity (i.e., which is created by limiting the quantity vs. distribution of the product) on the perceived value. The second hypothesis study the moderating effect of the type of brand (i.e., popular vs. private brands) on the perceived value. The finding provides important implications for marketers in designing effective promotion strategies by using scarcity.
Poster
Malware in the Retail Industry
Anderson ,Steven University of Tulsa
In recent years there have been multiple large-scale data breaches that involved the leaking of credit card and other personal information. The majority of these data breaches were caused by malware infecting Point of Sale (POS) machines. After the malware infects a POS machine, it attempts to spread to other POS machines on the network. It then continually scrapes the computers RAM (memory), looking for credit card information. When a credit card is swiped, the data is stored in the RAM, found by the malware, and submitted by the malware to a command & control (C&C) server. Once there, the person responsible for the malware gains access to it. This poster uses the Home Depot data breach to represent research performed into BlackPOS, its technical aspects, and the prevention of its use.
Poster
Management Software for Preschools & Childcare Facilities
Harrington ,Patrick Northeastern State University
Goines ,Bobby Northeastern State University
Preschool and childcare facilities are required to maintain safe practices within their buildings based on standards established by the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (OKDHS). The use of software can help reduce the amount of paperwork involved to insure these safety standards. At the time of this project, there was no software designed to coordinate childcare providers and OKDHS in order to manage the requirements. The purpose of this project is to provide a means of storing the information required by OKDHS from childcare facilities in a database and create the necessary reports based on the stored information.
Poster
Marker Free Transgenic Plants for a Healthier and Safer America
Fisher ,Andrew Northeastern State University
Marker Free transgenic plants are in high demand and should be made readily available, unfortunately we are lagging behind. Why should we be forced to consume hazardous foods against our wills and do so unknowingly? Marker genes are used in order to change the genes of plants so they will be resistant to antibiotics and herbicides; these are called genetically modified organisms, GMO. These GMO’s can be passed on to the consumer, known as a horizontal transfer, and can interfere with medications and other necessities. This also allows extremely harmful toxins, such as Roundup, to be used on food products that we all eat. For this reason and many more the need for marker free transgenic plants has grown exponentially. In a poll, 91% of those in which were polled wanted GMOs labeled (2012 Mellman Group poll) and 53% of consumers would not buy GMOs (CBS/New York Times poll). Transgenic marker free plants are plants in which are not genetically altered so they do not contain the resistance genes and will not interfere with medications or contain harmful herbicides. In this review, multiple ways of producing plants without GMOs will be discussed.
Poster
Marketing Sports & Diversity Simultaneously: Exploring the Presence of Corporate Spin in Recent Diversity Sports Franchise Scandals
Sims ,Jeanetta University of Central Oklahoma
Dickerson ,Taylor University of Central Oklahoma
Recent scandals involving public scrutiny of executives in sports franchises have culminated in the need to better understand diversity issues in sports franchises. A recent franchise response has been the practice of hiring a Chief Diversity Officer. Whether the franchise truly needed a Chief Diversity Officer or whether the new hire was only the result of “marketing” diversity to clean up a mess is up for debate This research shares an overview of the specific cases (e.g., Atlanta Hawks GM, LA Clippers owner, etc.) of inappropriate actions by executives or corporate officers associated with sports franchises and examines public perception, media coverage, and organizational responses. Findings, based on information gathered, will probe the presence of corporate spin and offer insight on when and why sports franchises might hire Chief Diversity Officers or choose to diversify ownership, management, and/or coaching staffs.
Poster
Martian Greenhouse Design for eXploration HABitat
Kibble ,Geoffrey Oklahoma State University
Long duration, manned space missions to Mars create many challenges for the industry, and logistics of sustainability present some of the most significant questions. Mars’ pattern of orbit brings it closest to Earth once every two years, and this is the optimal time to send payload on the two to three hundred day journey. Because of the lengthy gap between optimal launching times, designs for terrestrial missions to Mars must provide storage capable of holding two years’ worth of supplies or include the ability to self-sustain. Fresh grown foods are essential for sustainability, and without sustainability, manned missions to Mars will continue to be science fiction. Regular frequent shipping is implausible for replenishing supplies on Mars; even the amount of fuel required to send this large payload during the optimal time poses a problem. This cost alone raises questions about the feasibility of such missions. In order to successfully place a station on the Martian surface, the mission design must include a means for producing food, thereby creating some degree of self-sustainability. Oklahoma State University is investigating various methods for producing food on the Martian surface as part of the 2015 eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge sponsored by NASA and the National Space Grant Foundation. Our team is analyzing possible designs in search of the most feasible and useful concepts and will produce a full-scale model to prove their viabil
Poster
Mass Communication Class Research Survey
Hallock ,Georgiana East Central University
Mass Communication Research Analysis Prepared by: Georgiana Hallock Written by: Georgiana Hallock December 4, 2014 The Mass Communication Research Survey began November 19, 2014 and was concluded November 30, 2014. Out of the 125 Mass Communication majors, 23 people completed the survey. All 23 people responded via a “web link.” Of the 12 days that the survey was open, Friday, November 21 was the day with the most responses, totaling 7. And the days with the least amount of responses were Wednesday, November 19 and Sunday, November 30. Totaling 1 response on both days. The survey was developed with the website Survey Monkey and was created with ECU’s Mass Communication students education in mind. As of now there is no research class offered at ECU for Mass Communication majors and/or minors. By conducting this online survey, the survey team was hoping to find out how interested the students are in adding a research class as a required elective. The link to the survey was posted on several social media sites along with the information about the survey and the Informed Consent. The survey, survey information and Informed Consent were also sent out via email to many of the Mass Communication majors and minors by their advisor. Question One: What is your gender? Question one had one of the highest answer rates with no skips. 74 percent of people who took the survey were female and 26 percent of people who took the survey were male.
Poster
Mathematical Observations of Ventral Horn Cells in Xenopus Laevis
Myers ,Brittany University of Central Oklahoma
Ford ,Lance University of Central Oklahoma
The number of cells that live in the ventral horn region of the Xenopus Laevis have been recorded in a paper by M.C. Prestige. The cells can be observed as living and degenerating cells. One leg was amputated at different stages and for each amputation the number of cells in the ventral horn were recorded. In our research, we used the data to model the behavior of cells in the ventral horn using age-structured partial differential equations. We use this model to study the behavior of cells in the ventral horn.
Poster
Mathis Electronic Store
Alrifai ,Rad Northeastern State University
Mathis ,Tyler Northeastern State University
This website lets customers check a store’s inventory online to see if it sells the item(s) they’re looking for. The store hosts a database that holds a list of its inventory, registered users, and orders to be processed. The store can add and remove inventory as they see fit, as well as, edit the details of an item and list if it is available. The customer can access the site, add any items they want to their cart, and purchase them online. When the customer pays for their items, an order form is created listing the bought items. This project was developed in C#, HTML and SQL Server 2012.
Poster
Mcm10 and Polymerase Epsilon: Communication in Maintaining Genome Stability
Parrish ,Justin Northeastern State University
Fultz ,Brandy Northeastern State University
Rutter ,Andrew Northeastern State University
Das-bradoo ,Sapna Northeastern State University
Tinervia ,Daniel Northeastern State University
Minichromosome maintenance 10 (Mcm10) and DNA polymerase epsilon (Polε) are essential replication proteins. Mutations in each one has been shown to cause genome instability, a hallmark of cancer cells. Mcm10 is required to facilitate both replication initiation and elongation. Polε is present during initiation in the preloading complex and is critical for replicating the leading strand DNA during elongation. It is a unique polymerase due to its role also in the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. Polε is made up of four subunits: Dbp2, Dpb3, Dpb4, and Pol2. Pol2 is the catalytic subunit of Polε. Results from our lab show a strong interaction between Mcm10 and Pol2, the catalytic subunit of Polε. Our project attempts to determine the significance of this interaction which may be involved in checkpoint activation. We plan to synchronize yeast cells in different phases of the cell cycle and study the Mcm10:Polinteraction by co-immunoprecipitation during normal replication. The ultimate goal is to study this interaction under replicative stress and DNA damage conditions, which will give us insight into how mutations in these proteins cause genomic instability. Subsequently, a better understanding of their interactions will provide a possible target for cancer screening and treatment.
Poster
Measuring Media Use for the City of Muskogee Campaign
Eversole ,Dana Northeastern State University
Eversole ,Dana Northeastern State University
The city of Muskogee’s mayor requested that we design a survey and conduct focus groups to look at branding and media use for the city. Using James Grunig’s situational theory’s four-point involvement scale, we developed a new method to evaluate the city’s media strategy and plan that included using 15 different types of media and information sources.
Poster
Measuring Moral Behavioral Reactions After Autonomic Feedback
Belden ,Dustin University of Central Oklahoma
Moral dilemmas have been a part of Social psychological research for decades, as have attachment styles and group behavior. Research has also shown that moral decisions have been altered after the experience of cardiovascular feedback, that attachment styles can change later in adulthood, and can even change again due to the type of group a young adult chooses to be a member of. It is the belief of the author that the most accurate moral position can be obtained after a cardiovascular feedback condition, and that cardiovascular activity needs to be analyzed dynamically, in order to understand the outcome difference this method provides over previous research methods. It is hypothesized that the addition of autonomic feedback, even through false feedback, will provide a more accurate understanding of a person’s real life moral position. Attachment style questionnaires will be given to understand the person’s attachment style, and cardiovascular activity will be analyzed through standard fourier transforms. It is proposed that the pink noise will show greater intention as false feedback is increased. Correlations between dynamic feedback and attachment styles is unknown.
Poster
Medical Marijuana: A Hodgepodge of State Laws
Ludlum ,Marty University of Central Oklahoma
ford ,darrell University of Central Oklahoma
Legalized marijuana for medical uses started with California in 1995. Since then, 20 states have enacted a myriad of contradictory laws. All state laws continue to conflict with federal law, where any use of marijuana is prohibited. The paper summarizes the different types of medical marijuana laws and groups them into some common policy areas.
Poster
Medicinal Aspect of Precious Metals : Silver, Gold, and Platinum : A review
Rahman ,A.K.Fazlur Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
Wu ,Tina Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
This presentation describes the usage of precious metals in medicine. platinum complexes are known to treat cancer due to its ability to prevent the division of living cells. Silver complexes interrupt the ability of bacteria cells to form bonds which causes the bacteria to fall apart. Gold nanoparticles have recently been found to be effective, in the treatment of cancer. Further research with precious metal nanoparticles may lead to effective cure for cancer in the near future.
Poster
Metamaterial-Inspired Aerospace Structure for Improved Low-Frequency Acoustic Performance
REKHY ,ANUJ Oklahoma State University
Manimala ,James Oklahoma State University
Aiken ,Joseph Oklahoma State University
Conventional acoustic absorbers used in aerospace structures such as foam, fiberglass or acoustic liners are impractical for low-frequency (LF) noise (~<400 Hz) which contributes to detrimental effects like environmental noise pollution, excitation of airframe vibration modes and reduction of cabin comfort. Research is currently underway at Oklahoma State University to develop a Metamaterial-Inspired Aerospace Structure (MIAS) delivering improved LF acoustic performance in addition to primary load-carrying capability. Metamaterials are manmade structural materials that derive their unique dynamic behavior not just from material constituents but more so from engineered configurations. Inspired by metamaterials, we utilize mass-loaded stretched membrane-type vibro-impact attachments on a baseline structure to create an effective LF acoustic barrier. Incident LF waves are up-converted via impact to higher modes in the backing structure for subsequent dissipation in conventional absorbers. Preliminary testing on 3D printed test articles in an impedance tube demonstrates filtering of LF spectrum to reduce peak transmitted pressure. MIAS prototype is being experimentally evaluated for proof-of-concept. Successful transition to applications will contribute to making commercial aviation more sustainable and enabling new mission capabilities for military vehicles. Moreover, this tunable, passive mechanism is amenable to multifunctional integration for energy harvesting and sensing.
Poster
METHODS FOR TESTING FOR INSECTICIDE EFFECTIVENESS
Deatherage ,Luvey East Central University
METHODS FOR TESTING FOR INSECTICIDE EFFECTIVENESS Authors: Luvey Deatherage University of Scholar: East Central University Location of Research: East Central University, Ada, OK, USA Funding: OK-LSAMP, NASA Mentors: T. Cluck, and C. Biles. East Central University Our laboratory is interested in testing the effectiveness of insecticides using Drosophila melanogaster as a test organism. One suggested method of applying insecticides was to inject small quantities into a fly. This method was rejected because exposure in nature using injection was unlikely, and we did not have the equipment to perform injections. Five other procedures were developed and tested for the most efficient analysis of insecticide effectiveness. Exposure of flies to insecticide-impregnated strips of filter paper was the best. However, larval exposure to insecticides in food also provided a good measure of efficacy for survival to adulthood when insecticides are present in the food supply.
Poster
Methods to Improve Accuracy of Predicting Traffic Fatalities in Oklahoma
Mrchkovska ,Nela University of Central Oklahoma
Sanders ,Jessica University of Central Oklahoma
Morris ,Tracy University of Central Oklahoma
The Oklahoma Highway Safety Office (OHSO) is a state agency that keeps records of vehicle accidents in Oklahoma. The OHSO uses this information to help other state agencies, like the Oklahoma Department of Transportation and the Oklahoma Highway Patrol, to develop programs to address highway safety issues. The OHSO must also make future projections for the number of traffic fatalities and report this information to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, students and faculty at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) analyze data provided by the OHSO to determine trends in the number of traffic fatalities over time and to make projections for the future. The goal of this project is to find the best method that could be used to improve the accuracy of projections of the number of traffic fatalities in Oklahoma. Data on the number of traffic fatalities from 1937 to 2007 were used to develop models for predicting the number of traffic fatalities in the future. Four modeling methods were used: Moving Averages, ARIMA, ARIMA with additional variable unemployment, and Exponential Smoothing. The models were then used to predict the number of traffic fatalities for 2008 to 2012. These predictions were then compared to the actual data values for these years. The mean square error of the predicted values to the actual values was used to select the best fitting model.
Poster
M-harmonic Functions on the Unit Ball
Fulkerson ,Michael University of Central Oklahoma
We investigate properties of a class of real-valued functions on the unit ball in n-dimensional complex space, called M-harmonic functions. These functions are defined by a differential operator, called the invariant Laplacian. An important result is that a function on the unit ball is the real part of a holomorphic function if and only if it is both harmonic and M-harmonic.
Poster
Microbial Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Microgravity
Paul ,Eric Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Shretha ,Alina Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Jahn ,Jesse Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Stressors during space take their toll on the human body, particularly the immune system, increasing the susceptibility of astronauts to opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium found in soil, water and on the skin, it can cause urinary tract, lung, and kidney infections. This microbe was grown in conditions mimicking micro-gravity and normal gravity conditions. Twitching assays were conducted to examine if micro-gravity conditions enhance pathogenesis and disease establishment. After growth periods, P. aeruginosa grown under zero gravity conditions showed a significant difference in the spreading/ twitching growth on 0.3% agar motility plates, as well as a difference in colony morphology, compared to cultures grown under normal gravity conditions. We also observed that two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01 and PA14) caused greater necrotic zones in bio-assays using lettuce leaves when grown under micro-gravity conditions. These results led us to believe that Pseudomonas aeruginosa (both PA01 and PA14) shows increased virulence under micro-gravity conditions. We have identified three potential proteins involved in increased twitching/motility and two of three proteins were over expressed in the micro-gravity grown microbe compared to the microbe grown under normal conditions. The third protein was under expressed in the micro-gravity grown microbe. We plan to further examine the function of the three proteins.
Poster
Micropipette Aspiration Technique: From Textbook to Testing
Wagner ,Nikolas University of Central Oklahoma
Xu ,Gang University of Central Oklahoma
The goal of this research is to design and construct a micropipette aspiration system around a research microscope that can be used in cellular biophysics research. Based on the fluid mechanics principles, this system can apply small suction pressures across the tip (a few micrometers in diameter) of a micropipette that will be used to manipulate individual cells or apply small pico-Newtown forces through a force transducer such as a microsphere inside the micropipette. The detailed principles and design of our custom-made micropipette aspiration system will be discussed, as well as the sample calculations and measurements. This system will be used in our ongoing study on the manipulation of single flagella and testing of their mechanical properties.
Poster
Minority Ownership of Oklahoma-based Home Healthcare Organizations
WILLIS ,GENNICE University of Central Oklahoma
Minority Ownership of Oklahoma-based Home Healthcare Organizations The purpose of this study is to explore the challenges of the low percentage rate of minority-owned home healthcare providers in Oklahoma. The focus of minority-owned business patterns are influenced by economics, politics and social decisions. This project revealed barriers for business start-up prospects that impact the rate of success. Business start-ups face challenges of lack of capital resources including savings, loans from family members, and/or financial institutions. Policies and regulations by politicians, and the influence of lobbying efforts from established organizations can limit competition. Decisions based on social influences can have a detrimental impact on the success of small businesses. Local and national data were studied to address the causes and influences that contribute to the low rate of minority businesses and the inability for many to thrive. Shortage of capital injection and business insight negatively influence the ability for growth. Results and outcomes for minority businesses are analyzed with the use of collectible data.
Poster
Mobile Device Analysis Corpus
Morrison ,Mike Southwestern Oklahoma State University
There is an exponential amount of mobile devices released to the public every month. For a Digital Forensic Examiner, it is their profession to be a subject matter expert on these mobile devices and to thoroughly understand how they operate. The researchers goal was to assemble and analyze a digital forensic library consisting of approximately 50,000 mobile devices.
Poster
Mobile Work Orders
Alrifai ,Rad Northeastern State University
Boston ,Colten Northeastern State University
Most work places use Work Orders to record, track and prioritize service requests. This mobile application allows for very simple, but powerful, tracking of work orders found in many business environments where employees can use their android smartphone for this purpose. This application was developed using the Android SDK within the Eclipse IDE to program the app in Java and XML.
Poster
Modeling the affect of platelets on blood clot degradation.
Kim ,Hyunjong University of Central Oklahoma
Bannish ,Brittany University of Central Oklahoma
The objective of this research is to understand how the rate of blood clot degradation is affected by tPA and platelets. We hypothesize that degradation is affected by tPA and platelets which act as obstacles and that more obstacles reduce the degradation rate. We use a mathematical model to run computational experiments (using the Fortran and MATLAB programs) to obtain results. We create snapshots which depend on the configuration of the obstacles with the same tPA concentration. The result is that for a fixed tPA concentration, the degradation rate is faster as the obstacles are placed further from the starting point of tPA. On the other hand, if we put the obstacles closer to the initial point of tPA, the degradation rate is slower.
Poster
Molecular Farming – Potato Ashley Strain Mentor: Dr. Kevin Yueju Wang Molecular & Cellular Biology Laboratory, Department of Natural Sciences Northeastern State University at Broken Arrow
Strain ,Ashley Northeastern State University
Strain ,Ashley Northeastern State University
Molecular farming is used to mass produce plants with the ability through the use of transgenic plants to replace certain pharmaceuticals such as antibodies, hormones, vaccines, and even growth factors. Transgenic potato plants were the first plants in 1990 used to create plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. Human serum albumin was the first recombinant plant-derived pharmaceutical protein. After years of research the potato has led to many products approaching commercialization. Arntzen group is working with transgenic potato plants to produce many plant-derived pharmaceuticals such as a vaccine against Diarrhoea, Hepatitis B, and the Norwalk virus infection. Transgenic potato plants can also be used in the production of veterinary vaccines. Transgenic potato plants are in inexpensive option for replacement of many pharmaceuticals. According to current research being done on new drugs and vaccines, 250 acres of transgenic potato plants can produce enough plants to produce enough Hepatitis B vaccine to meet South East Asia’s annual demand. The world has a growing need for pharmaceuticals. With a growing need the cost of these pharmaceuticals can be overwhelming for patients which may led to very few of the pharmaceutical needs actually met. Transgenic potato plants through research have shown to be a viable, cost-effective option for the growing need of pharmaceuticals nationwide.
Poster
Molecular Farming of Carrots for Vaccines
Curtiss ,Joshua Northeastern State University
Joshua Curtiss Molecular and Cellular Biology Dr. Kevin Wang 1/26/15 Northeastern State University at Broken Arrow 3100 East New Orleans Street, Broken Arrow, OK 74014 Molecular Farming Carrots for Vaccines Paper review: Molecular farming is not a new topic to the human population. Certain plants and animals have been genetically modified specifically for medicinal use. Using recombinant technology, we can fundamentally change the DNA of an organism and cause them to produce compounds that have medicinal purposes. Molecular farming has evolved the technique of using these plants or animals to produce specific proteins that are usable by humans as vaccines or treatments of various diseases. One example is the use of carrot tap root in producing a multitude of vaccines, such as: Hepatitis B, Measles, Human Immunodeficiency virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Yersinia pestis (also known as the Black Death). Research into all of these diseases is ongoing, but the carrot is important because it is the first plant approved to produce biopharmaceuticals for human use.
Poster
Molecular Farming: Biodegradable Plastics
Atkins ,Miko Northeastern State University
My research project is over biodegradable plastics. Recycling or “going green” is a big issue right now because pollution is a big problem and it affects the earths land, oceans, animals, and humans. Each year in the US alone we throw away billions of plastic items whether it’s a water bottle or a plastic bag and it can take these plastics thousands of years to degrade. A standard plastic water bottle, plastic bag or plastic anything contains harmful toxins such as BPA. BPA is a potentially harmful chemical that is widely used to make many different plastics including those that hold foods and beverages. Biodegradable plastics are a smarter choice and they are non-toxic. There are several benefits to using biodegradable plastics including but not limited to: they take way less time to break down, they are renewable, and they are better for the environment. In our efforts to reduce pollution and keep our mother earth healthy, it is now that through molecular farming scientists are able to produce biodegradable plastics that are eco-friendly.
Poster
Mothers’ Perceptions of Stealth Marketing Campaign Effects on Their Own and Other Children
Sims ,Jeanetta University of Central Oklahoma
Neese ,Ashley University of Central Oklahoma
Sims ,Atoya University of Central Oklahoma
Neese ,Sarah University of Central Oklahoma
Stealth marketing campaigns are alternative forms of marketing where third party messages are sent on behalf of companies in order to benefit the company or its products. Using a 4 x 4 factorial design with 360 participants, this research examines mothers’ third-person perceptions on their own and other’s children. Understanding the persuasive impact of stealth campaigns on consumers, specifically mothers, as well as third person effects extends marketing and persuasion literature and improves the implementation of marketing strategy.
Poster
Motivational Effect of Extrinsic Rewards and Social Comparison on Inhibitory Control in Adults with ADHD
Sims ,William Scott University of Central Oklahoma
Jeyaraj-Powell ,Tephillah University of Central Oklahoma
The current study is an attempt to understand the link between reward processes and behavioral inhibition in adults with ADHD. Studies have shown that motivation is a moderator of inhibitory control in children with ADHD, but little has been done to show the same effect in adults with ADHD. Additionally, social rewards such as praise and positive feedback have been shown to be a moderator of inhibitory control in children with ADHD, though not as strong as tangible rewards. The current study will use false information regarding the performance of other participants as well as monetary rewards as mediators. Failures of inhibition will be measured using a Stop-Signal Task (SST). The study utilizes a 3x2 mixed design, with participants being randomly assigned to one of three conditions: no-reward, low-reward, and high reward. It is expected that participants in the high-reward/feedback condition will exhibit the greatest inhibitory control, and those in the no-feedback/no-reward condition will exhibit the least inhibitory control.
Poster
Motor Synchronization and Team Coordination
Braly ,Adam University of Central Oklahoma
Empirical evidence from twenty years of motor coordination research has revealed that patterns emerge dynamically under task constraints (e.g., Haken, Kelso, & Bunz, 1985). These findings have been extended to demonstrate interpersonal interlimb coordination (Schmidt, Bienvenu, Fitzpatrick, & Amazeen, 1998). Additionally, nonlinear analysis of team coordination has shown that teams dynamically coordinate to accomplish a task (Gorman, Amazeen, & Cooke, 2010). The proposed study employs motion capture of hand movements during a cooperative manual task, and motion data will be analyzed using the methods of cross-recurrence quantification (Zbilut, Giuliani, & Webber, 1998). It is hypothesized that data series of dyads completing the task faster will reflect similar system states (e.g., longer and more frequent recurrent states) that are perhaps indicative of interpersonal coupled oscillations.
Poster
Multiple Solutions for a Fourth Order Boundary Value Problem
Bennett ,Olivia University of Central Oklahoma
Hopkins ,Britney University of Central Oklahoma
Karber ,Kristi University of Central Oklahoma
Milligan ,Thomas University of Central Oklahoma
This poster describes a process for transforming a fourth order differential equation into a system of second order equations satisfying homogeneous boundary conditions. We follow this by providing proofs of two lemmas that give estimates on a defined operator. These lemmas in conjunction with two others allow for the application of the Guo-Krasnosel'skii Fixed Point Theorem, which yields multiple positive solutions.
Poster
N
Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in College Students
Baalman ,Rachael University of Central Oklahoma
Shang ,Yuhang University of Central Oklahoma
Johnston ,Jonathon University of Central Oklahoma
Fakhr ,Mohamed University of Tulsa
Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a significant risk factor for subsequent infections and is a target for decolonization approaches; it is critical to understand the epidemiology of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Investigation into the dynamics of MRSA carriage will be valuable in the development of strategies to control this emerging pathogen. The efficacy of these methods may be dependent on the load and type of S. aureus present in the nose. The hypothesis is that carriage levels and types of S. aureus and MRSA are highly variable in a healthy student population. To test this hypothesis, nasal swab specimens were collected from University of Central Oklahoma students and cultured onto blood agar plates for quantitative analysis. Methicillin resistance was determined with cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR for mecA. Clonal similarities were determined by PCR amplification of the spa gene and sequence typing. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence was 21.5%, with a geometric mean of 1,820 Cfu/swab. MRSA prevalence was 2.4%, with a geometric mean of 412. spa typing results showed a variety of sequences, supporting the hypothesis.
Poster
Native American college students’ personal growth initiative, health, and ethnic identity
Spering ,Cynthia Northeastern State University
Wigington ,Amber Northeastern State University
Cragg ,Karie Northeastern State University
Baker-Oglesbee ,Alissa Northeastern State University
The main objective of this study was to explore relationships between personal growth initiative, life-satisfaction, physical and mental health, and ethnic identity in a diverse student population with high numbers of Native Americans. The Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II; Robitschek et al., 2012) measures an individual’s capacity for intentional self-improvement and is associated with many aspects of better functioning. There is limited theory and research on the way many positive psychology constructs function within diverse groups (Robitschek & Spering, 2012). College students were recruited and surveyed for this study. Due to individual group sizes, only the students who identified solely as white/Caucasian (N= 262) or solely as Native American/American Indian (N = 140) were included in these analyses. Results indicate that Native American and white participants did not differ significantly on their overall PGIS-II scores, nor on their PGI subscale scores. Higher PGIS-II scores were related to fewer days of rated “not good” mental health for the Native American group (r(136)= - .21, p = .01). In regression analyses, total PGIS-II scores did not predict mental and physical health, but post hoc regressions revealed that several of the PGIS-II subscales were significant predictors for both groups. The findings contribute towards a growing body of research on possible benefits of higher levels of PGI, as well as applicability to diverse groups.
Poster
Native American Language Education Policy in Oklahoma: The Need for Native Language and Culture Education in Public Schools
Chanslor ,Martyne Northeastern State University
With 38 federally-recognized tribes, Oklahoma is home to 40 Native American languages, all of which are endangered. There have been many positive language revitalization programs throughout communities in the state, but these languages are still quickly losing ground among the most important speakers: children. Though many revitalization projects are focused on improving the fluency of children, such as the Cherokee Immersion School in Tahlequah, a relatively small percentage of Native children are reached by these programs. This paper proposes an addition to the current language revitalization programs in Oklahoma by creating partnerships with Native American Nations and public school systems to teach Native languages and cultures in all schools within the respective tribal jurisdictions. This paper shows the benefits of such a partnership for both Native and non-Native, including enhanced cognitive skills, better understanding of history and culture, and opportunities to connect with heritage. Methodology includes examining relevant research in the field, current language policy in Oklahoma, and the successes and problems of other school-based language education programs.
Poster
Near Space Ballooning: Equipment Research and Project Analysis
Henderson ,Thomas Tulsa Community College
Elleman ,Dallas Tulsa Community College
The scientific or engineering researcher that wishes to measure the effects of deep space on biological or mechanical experiments may not have the opportunity to do so with the limited resources available to learning institutions. If arrangements can be made for the experiment to fly on a rocket then pertinent questions would include: preparation time (time to launch), flight time duration, accommodations for data retrieval, and cost. Rather than use valuable resources to achieve deep space effects on experiments, critical outcomes could be measured at an altitude of 100,000 feet. This research investigates the equipment necessary to conduct experiments with sample payloads at high altitude also referred to as near space ballooning.
Poster
Nest structure and placement of Orchard oriole (Icterus spurius) nests in tallgrass prairie
Coppedge ,Bryan Tulsa Community College
Stie ,Alan Tulsa Community College
We studied the structure and placement of Orchard oriole (Icterus spurius) nests in upland tallgrass prairie at the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma. Nests were generally located in woody thickets of sumac, plum, or buttonbush near water at heights varying from 111 to 205cm. Nest mass (gm) after drying decreased with placement height. The average length of randomly extracted fibers from nests varied from 8.6 to over 21cm. Larger nests contained longer fibers, indicating that orioles use longer fibers when building at lower locations with more attachment points to build larger nests.
Poster
Next Generation Sequencing of a Mega Plasmid in a Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Retail Chicken Meat Reveals the Presence of Mu-Like Prophage and Multidrug Resistance Genes
Fakhr ,Mohamed University of Tulsa
Marasini ,Daya University of Tulsa
Campylobacter spp are one of the most frequently isolated foodborne bacteria from retail poultry meats. The whole-genome sequencing of Campylobacter jejuni previously isolated from Oklahoma retail chicken showed one chromosome of 1,733,718 bp in size. It also showed the presence of a mega plasmid of ~ 85 kb in size that was also detected by PFGE. Libraries were prepared using Illumina Nextera XT and the next generation sequencing was performed in house on a MiSeq sequencer. Genome assembly was done using CLC Genomic Workbench. Annotation was done using RAST. The draft sequence of the mega plasmid was found to be 84,727 bp in size. It appeared as a large pTet like plasmid interestingly carrying some Mu-like prophage genes like the Campylobacter jejuni Integrated Element (CJIE) prophage I protein gene, prophage MuSo1, a transcriptional regulator gene, Mu-like prophage FluMu protein gp29 gene, and Mu-like prophage virion morphogenesis protein gene. Interestingly, the plasmid also carried aminoglycoside resistant genes (putative aminoglycoside 6-adenylyltansferase and aminoglycoside phosphotransferase) in addition to the tetracycline resistance tet(O) gene, a streptothricin acetyltransferase gene, and a hygromycin-B-phosphotransferase gene. While Mu-like prophage genes were previously reported in few Campylobacter chromosomes, to our knowledge, this is the first report of its presence on a Campylobacter large plasmid.
Poster
No Cash - Just "Kohl's Cash": Are In-store Vouchers More Effective than Mail-in Rebates?
Nguyen ,Huong University of Central Oklahoma
Tran ,Thanh University of Central Oklahoma
Companies rely on a variety of marketing tools to attract and retain customers. Recently, the use of in-store vouchers (e.g., Kohl’s Cash, CVS’s Extra Bucks)¬—instead of mail-in rebates—is on the rise. This project compares the effectiveness as well as profitability of in-store vouchers to that of mail-in rebates by investigating (1) consumer’s perceived attractiveness of in-store vouchers, and (2) the firms’ trade-offs between the benefits and costs of using in-store vouchers.
Poster
Nurse-Patient Ratios
Bell ,Jermaine Northwestern State University
Quiram ,Loren Northwestern State University
Nurse staffing is a matter of great concern both here in the United States and abroad, because of its effects on safety and the quality of patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between patient to nurse ratios and adverse patient outcomes in a hospital setting. Nurse staffing is an extensively studied issue with results derived from nursing staff surveys and statistically analyzed data. Studies have shown that an increase in the number of nurses caring for patients has resulted in a fewer number of complications, lower morbidity rates, fewer number of medication errors, and decreased costs associated with medical care. Substantial links were found between nurse staffing and adverse patient outcomes. These links can be identified on a national and local level. In conclusion, this study indicates a need to implement safer patient to nurse ratios into nursing practice to ensure timely, efficient, and equitable patient care.
Poster
O
Occurrence of typical antibiotics in Huai River and Hongze Lake, eastern China
Thompson ,Linzi East Central University
The presence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment, particularly in lakes and rivers, has increased with the rapid development of the world economy. Today, between 100,000 to 200,000 tons of antibiotics are consumed globally per year with China alone consuming 12-25% of this value. Research on antibiotic contamination in many water bodies of China has been conducted. In this study, the economically important Hongze Lake, the Huai River, and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Laozishan Town in eastern China were examined for background antibiotic concentrations. Water and sediment samples were collected from six locations in this region, including near fish farms and the WWTP outlet waters, influent, and effluent. These samples were analyzed for five common antibiotics: norfloxacin (NOR), oxytetracycline (OTC), enrofloxacin (ENF), ofloxacin (OFL), and ciprofloxacin (CIP). OTC was not detected in any samples, and OFL was only detected in the WWTP influent and effluent, indicating this location as a potential source of OFL contamination into the environment. NOR and ENR were found in all samples, with NOR occurring in the greatest concentrations. The WWTP was over 75% efficient at OFL and ENR removal, but only 4% efficient at NOR removal. Based on these results, NOR appears to be of greatest concern to environmental contamination in this region. These background levels and results should be useful to future study in this region and on this subject.
Poster
OHP protein may preserve red algal photosynthesis from high light damage
Kwak ,Sukyoung University of Central Oklahoma
Karpowicz ,Steven University of Central Oklahoma
One helix protein (OHP) is associated with the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants and is necessary for recovery of photosynthetic activity after exposure of the plant to increased light intensities. Red algae are distant relatives to green plants and algae. We have identified several genes in the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis (nori) that encode proteins that are homologous to photoprotective proteins in green plants. We are specifically investigating whether the function and regulation of the Porphyra OHP homolog is similar to that of green plants’ OHP. An artificial microRNA to knock down expression of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii OHP gene has been created. Knockdown mutants that demonstrate a high-light sensitive phenotype are being tested for genetic complementation with the P. umbilicalis OHP gene. Green plants’ OHP mRNA and protein expression are known to respond to high light intensity. The response of P. umbilicalis’ OHP mRNA to high light levels is being tested with a time course experiment in which P. umbilicalis blades are exposed to elevated light intensities. Gene expression data are being collected.
Poster
Oklahoma’s Post Office Murals: A study of American Indian images.
McCraw ,Shannon Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Weaver ,Austin Southeastern Oklahoma State University
From 1934-1942, the United States federal government established an ambitious arts program to decorate federal buildings throughout the nation. The Section of Fine Arts – a division of the U.S. Department of Treasury – commissioned over 1100 murals for the nation’s Post Offices. Through artistic competitions and assignments, Oklahoma communities received thirty-one of these murals to adorn local Post Office buildings. Few scholarly articles exist on Oklahoma’s Post Office murals. The previous research on Post Office murals has focused on the ‘cultural tastes’ of local communities, southern culture, and as forms of ‘democratic art’ negotiated by artists, local communities, and the Department of Treasury. As a form of government-sponsored visual rhetoric, this paper focuses on Oklahoma’s Post Office murals and the native and non-native muralists’ depiction of American Indian images. We argue these murals represent acts of confrontation and resistance and need to be interpreted against the backdrop of the Great Depression and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. In conclusion, these murals represent an emerging Oklahoma identity focused on transitions in land use and expansion in Oklahoma Territory (western Oklahoma), and American Indian self-governance and cultural renewal in Indian Territory (eastern Oklahoma).
Poster
On Becoming a Competent and Autonomous Learner in Instructional Technology
Thomas ,Dominique Cameron University
Johnson ,William Cameron University
Jackson ,Karisha Cameron University
Johari ,Abbas Cameron University
The project is funded by the “Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO) Endowed Lectureship in Instructional Technology” grant through the School of Science and Technology at Cameron University. It reports on a study that measures students’ needs for competence and autonomy in a flexible open learning environment. The primary focus of the study is to examine a learning strategy that allows learners to have full control over their own multimedia skill developments. The study applies self-determination theory as its theoretical framework. Much research on self-determination theory supports the development of competency and independence in learners that are motivated and have a high desire to achieve (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000). The theory derives much from modern cognitive motivational theories including Bandura’s self-efficacy theory. In light of the findings, the researchers will outline answers to questions such as what teachers can do to meet their students’ need for competence and autonomy. The study also supports the very core value of Cameron’s Plan 2018: “Student learning as our top priority,” Action 1.10, “Improve student learning through innovative uses of instructional…,” and Action 6.1, “Focus resources to achieve optimal student learning.”
Poster
OPEC vs Oil Price Changes: The Oil Cartels Attempt to Control the Market
Hodges ,Tanner University of Central Oklahoma
Dement ,Megan University of Central Oklahoma
Meizan ,Abdul University of Central Oklahoma
Our research topic focuses on the price decisions of OPEC and their effects on oil prices. We will first gather the historical data and information of OPEC's price decisions from the last thirty five years. Then we will showcase an analysis of the historical information. This will include categorizing the pricing decisions, determining the reasoning and contributing factors behind OPEC's decisions, comparing OPEC's desired outcome to the realistic outcome of these decisions, and exactly how and to what extent these pricing decisions affected oil prices.
Poster
Opioids and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in biological function Faculty Advisor : A.K.Fazlur Rahman
Chen ,Allen Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
This presentation will discuss our understanding of pain killers and its biological action. Pain killers work through a variety of functions, including prostaglandin inhibition and the activation of opioid receptors in the nervous system. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs are the most common, mainly inhibiting the action of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in provoking pyretic and inflammatory responses from the body. Since they all have a similar function, their side effects also share similarities, mainly arising from the inhibition of cyclooxygenase. Opioids, which are drugs that interact with the nervous system and affect the brain’s response to pain, are the other main category of painkillers. Since they actually interact with the brain, they can be extremely addictive and habit-forming, but also can sometimes be the only form of effective treatment available for a patient. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between the chemical structure of these molecules and their medical functions.
Poster
Optimal Retirement Asset Allocation for RUSO Employees
Chen ,Han-Sheng Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Prather ,Larry Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Lin ,Ying-Chou Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Cormell ,Chad Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Haugen ,Guillermo Southeastern Oklahoma State University
RUSO employees are afforded the opportunity to invest for their retirement through the use of a 403b. A 403b is a tax deferred or tax sheltered account that is permitted under current tax law and permits compounding returns over what could be many decades. Because RUSO has decided on Voya as the 403b provider, RUSO employees face two important decisions; (1) how much to invest in the 403b, and (2) how their investment should be allocated. The first decision is a personal financial decision driven by a combination of tax law and unique personal circumstances. Finance theory can provide guidance on the second decision of how assets should be allocated. The purpose of this research is to investigate the historical risk and return of the Voya investments that are offered to RUSO employees and to use Markowitz (1952) optimization, which won him a Nobel Prize in 1991, to form optimal risky portfolios. Next, because RUSO employees will have differing risk attitudes about their acceptable level of risk, we will form utility maximizing portfolios for RUSO employees with differing levels of risk tolerance.
Poster
Optimizing Protocols for Measurement of Ion Leakage and Chlorophyll Content in Dark Stressed Plants.
Hall ,Rashad Langston University
Abiotic stress adversely affects plant growth. Determining membrane permeability as a result of environmental stresses, growth and development, and genotypic difference is accomplished by measuring solute leakage from plant tissue. We hypothesized that greater leakage would occur with increased light depravation. We did our original experiments with wild type Arabidopsis thaliana and a mutant deficient in lipoxygenase and subsequently employed Trigonella foenum-groecum. Plants were grown in soil for three weeks and then placed in the dark. Ion leakage was measured at zero hours, six hours, and 24 hours post darkness. Similar sized leaves were rinsed with deionized water, and immersed in 25 mL of deionized water for 4 h with shaking at 100 rpm. The conductivity of the solution was measured with an Oakton CON 510 Series conductivity meter. Theses samples were then autoclaved, and conductivity was measured again. Relative ion leakage of the autoclaved was calculated. We repeated these steps for each time period and obtained two measurements for each. Acetone extractions of chlorophyll and chlorophyll measurements of samples subject to the same conditions (including sampling time) were also carried out. We discuss the effects of light stress on ion leakage and chlorophyll content in T. foenum-groecum.
Poster
Organic Compounds as Glaucoma and Antiulcer Agents :
Rahman ,A.K.Fazlur Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
Glaucoma is an eye condition that damages the optic nerve. Although initially asympomatic, glaucoma leads to blindness. Current treatment for glaucoma includes the use of organic compounds such as Timolol, Bimatoprost (lumigan), and travoprost ( Travatan). For Ulcer treatment organic compounds such as Cimetidine(tagamet), Nizatidine(Axid) and Famotidine(Pepcid). During the presentation structural aspect of these compounds and biological function will be discussed.
Poster
Organic Compounds as Glaucoma and Antiulcer Agents :
Dick ,Brian Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
Glaucoma is an eye condition that damages the optic nerve. Although initially asympomatic, glaucoma leads to blindness. Current treatment for glaucoma includes the use of organic compounds such as Timolol, Bimatoprost (lumigan), and travoprost ( Travatan). For Ulcer treatment organic compounds such as Cimetidine(tagamet), Nizatidine(Axid) and Famotidine(Pepcid). During the presentation structural aspect of these compounds and biological function will be discussed.
Poster
Organic Dyes Improving the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Gesell ,Jessica Cameron University
Nalley ,Elizabeth Cameron University
Worthen ,Kristen Cameron University
Kelley ,Ciera Cameron University
Geiger ,Seth Cameron University
Fukuda ,Miwa University of Oklahoma
In this research dye-sensitized solar cells were constructed using an organic dyes with titanium dioxide nanocrystals. Difference formulations of Titanium Dioxide with different sized particles were used and the properties and performance of the solar cells were compared. These cells consist of titanium dioxide nanocrystals that are coated with light-absorbing dye molecules and immersed in an electrolyte solution, which is sandwiched between two glass plate. Different dyes both commercially available and synthesized in our laboratory were tested to determine which dye produced the highest voltage were tested. Light striking the dye frees electrons and creates "holes"--the areas of positive charge that result when electrons are lost. The semiconducting titanium dioxide particles collect the electrons and transfer them to an external circuit, producing an electric current. The cells can be connected in series to produce cells with voltages as high as five volts which can be used to power a small motor.
Poster
Organic Synthesis of Potential Inhibitors for Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase
Evans ,Russell University of Central Oklahoma
Fleming ,Christian University of Central Oklahoma
Karsten ,William University of Oklahoma
Chooback ,lilian University of Central Oklahoma
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the formation of dihydrodipicolinate from pyruvate and aspartate-β-semialdehyde (ASA). This reaction is the first committed step in the lysine biosynthetic pathway in bacteria and some plants. The absence of such a pathway in humans has made DHDPS an interesting target for novel drugs. Inhibitors of DHDPS are believed to contain antibiotic properties. Based upon this, 2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid and 4-hydroxy-2-oxoheptanedioic acid have been designed and will be synthesized. Kinetic studies of the inhibitors will be performed to investigate the mode of inhibition.
Poster
Oriental Medicine: The Five Elements
Hopkins ,Ashley Northeastern State University
Hopkins ,Ashley Northeastern State University
The Five Elements of Oriental Medicine are known as wood, fire, earth, metal and water. The elements are a major focus in oriental medicine. It is a theory, when all the elements are in balance, the being is in harmony. The elements work to balance one another out. If one element is out of balance, the corresponding element is also out of balance. The elements each represent different sources. The Wood Element represents the liver and gallbladder and its corresponding element, wood, represents the Spleen and Stomach. Fire represents the heart, small intestines and pericardium and its corresponding element, metal, represents the large intestines and lungs. The last element, water, represents the bladder and kidneys. When one of the elements are out of sync, there are some “illnesses” that one may experience, depending on the element that is not in balance.
Poster
P
Pain Killers : Opioids and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Chen ,Allen Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
Rahman ,A.K.Fazlur Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
Painkillers are among the most heavily used drugs throughout history. They work through a variety of functions, including prostaglandin inhibition and the activation of opioid receptors in the nervous system. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs are the most common, mainly inhibiting the action of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in provoking pyretic and inflammatory responses from the body. Since they all have a similar function, their side effects also share similarities, mainly arising from the inhibition of cyclooxygenase. Opioids, which are drugs that interact with the nervous system and affect the brain’s response to pain, are the other main category of painkillers. Since they actually interact with the brain, they can be extremely addictive and habit-forming, but also can sometimes be the only form of effective treatment available for a patient. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between the chemical structure of these molecules and their medical functions.
Poster
Palm Cooling’s Impact on Resistive Exercise Performance.
Perry ,Rachel University of Tulsa
Caruso ,John University of Tulsa
Mitchell ,Lacey University of Tulsa
Edwards ,Roman University of Tulsa
Martin ,Jake University of Tulsa
Baptista ,Rachel University of Tulsa
Vickers ,Samantha University of Tulsa
Clark ,Ashley University of Tulsa
McArtor ,Jon University of Tulsa
Introduction: Hyperthermia impairs various physiological functions. Conduction to remove body heat entails contact with cold objects; by creating large thermal gradients, heat dissipates. Underneath the hand’s palmar surface lies anastomoses, blood vessels that expedite the removal of body heat. Methods: To assess palm cooling’s impact on physiological changes from exercise, 35 subjects performed three four-set leg press workouts while receiving one of three treatments: no palm cooling (NO PC), palm cooling between sets (PC BTN), or palm cooling between sets and for 20 minutes post-exercise (PC BTN & POST). Between sets of the PC BTN and PC BTN & POST workouts, subjects placed their left hands in 15oC water for 100 seconds. Average power (AP) was measured per set. Results: Each dependent variable had at least one significant main effect; three (AP, left hand skin temperature, blood lactate concentration) also exhibited two-way interactions. Left hand skin temperatures showed NO PC, PC BTN > PC BTN & POST at several time points. Data from “high responders” (≥ 40oC hand temperatures) underwent an additional analysis that also elicited an interaction with PC BTN > NO PC > PC BTN & POST at multiple time points. Blood lactate results showed NO PC > PC BTN, PC BTN & POST at 0-minutes post-exercise. AP outcomes saw PC BTN, PC BTN & POST > NO PC for set four. Conclusion: Palm cooling hastened heat removal and lactate clearance, as well as delayed AP decr
Poster
Passive Speakers in the Absentee Shawnee Community: Understanding their Silence
Longhorn ,Donna University of Central Oklahoma
Passive Speakers in the Absentee Shawnee Community: Understanding their Silence The Absentee Shawnee language is among the many severely endangered languages still spoken in North American and Canada (Krauss, 1998). As fluent Native American language speakers pass away, the urgency to uncover resources for language preservation increases. Passive speakers are the adult members of indigenous communities who understand their heritage languages fluently but rarely, if ever, speak them (Grinevald and Bert 2011). This research study explored the impact traditional Absentee Shawnee socialization practices had on restricting the operational use of the Shawnee language in adulthood. Absentee Shawnee tribal members with a certified degree blood quantum of ¼ - ¾ between 55 – 75+ years of age were surveyed. The survey included societal/cultural (i.e., boarding school era), language socialization (i.e., language shift) and emotional variables (i.e., affective filters) that may contribute in developing passive speakers. Preliminary analysis of data from 50 participants will be shared and discussed at this poster session. Results point to the importance of Tribal and scholarly attention that is directed towards understanding the passive speaker phenomena in order to determine what language revitalization potential lies within these tribal members.
Poster
Patient Knowledge of Complications, Care, and Management of Contact Lens Wear
Hicks ,Jaclyn Northeastern State University
Hess ,Bethany Northeastern State University
Wyatt ,Dr. Kippi Northeastern State University
ABSTRACT Purpose. To obtain a better understanding of the knowledge patients have on complications and care of contact lenses. To identify the percentage of patients at Northeastern State University Oklahoma College of Optometry, NSUOCO, who are poorly educated on contact lens management. Methods. A 10 question survey was handed out to 50 contact lens patients before the start of the exam. The results were added to find the main response to each question. A handout was made based on the questions in the survey and is now given to contact lens patients. Results. Only 28 patients think a case should be changed every three months or more often. Majority did not know that cleaning a case with spit, water, or alcohol can increase risk of complications. 56% knew that rubbing lenses does not increase complications. Seven patients said hot tubs, showering, and swimming are not safe while wearing contacts. 42% believed a complication had occurred due to contact lenses, solution, or both. Only 21 patients had received a handout before. Conclusion. Based on this anonymous survey it is apparent that contact lens patients need to be better educated on care of contact lenses. The contact lens handout will increase patients’ knowledge about caring for lenses. Key Words: patients’ knowledge, contact lens care and management, educational handout
Poster
Pentascale Pairs
Forbat ,David University of Central Oklahoma
Pentascales are normally understood to be the first 5 tones of a major or minor scale and may also be called pentachords, 5-finger patterns, or "positions." Pentascale study offers students of all ages a means by which to develop important music reading and hand-coordination skills. Through pentascale study, intervallic reading is solidified under each hand without the distraction of having to address fingering issues. Furthermore, for many, pentascales provide an initial introduction to major and minor tonality. The purpose of this project was to expand upon pentascale study so they are presented and studied in pairs. Specially-composed exercises and pieces allowed students to play major (WWHW) pentascales built on I and V simultaneously. In minor keys, minor (WHWW) pentascales built on i and iv were similarly paired.
Poster
Perceptions of New Graduate, Post-Licensure Registered Nurses at the Initiation of Professional Responsibilities
Floyd ,Stephanie University of Central Oklahoma
The aim of this study was to identify any discrepancies between new graduate nurses’ perceptions of their professional roles before they begin practice and what they experience at the initiation of their duties. Turnover and attrition is a major issue within the nursing profession. Better understanding of new graduate perceptions will provide the opportunity to identify the timeline of transition shock and be used to address the rate of turnover by better preparing new graduate nurses for practice. A case study research design was selected to survey a population of newly licensed Registered Nurses at the point just before and after initiation of professional responsibilities. Survey results were clustered thematically to look for common results among responses. Evidence was found of discrepancies between expectations and reality that indicate transition shock can be influential in nursing turnover as early as two weeks into practice.
Poster
Performing for Control
Black ,Jessica Southeastern Oklahoma State University
During the 17th Century, fleas from rats spread the disease known as the Bubonic Plague, which wiped out 20-60% of the English population. Morality was lost. Prostitution and gambling ran rampant. The Church decided they would take back control... With entertainment. "Corpus Christi" Cycles would travel from town to town teaching the common folk stories and lessons of the Bible. "Corpus Christi" literally means "Body of Christ," and the cycles meant that the troupe would travel on wagon from venue to venue performing. Sure, The Church wanted the people to gain their morality back, but also, they wanted more bodies at the services. And what better way to gain more control than Theatre!
Poster
Peripheral Refractions in Myopic Children: Spectacles vs. Contact Lenses
Boyd ,Clayton Northeastern State University
Edwards ,Nathaniel Northeastern State University
Salmon ,Thomas Northeastern State University
ABSTRACT Purpose. Lenses designed to provide peripheral myopic defocus may slow progressive myopia. Our purpose was to compare peripheral optics of three clinical options for childhood myopia: 1) spectacles, 2) single vision soft contact lenses and 3) multifocal soft contact lenses. We hypothesized that multifocal soft lenses would provide the most peripheral myopia. Methods. Five myopic children were corrected normally with spectacles, single vision soft and multifocal soft contact lenses. We performed cycloplegic retinoscopy centrally and in 16 peripheral positions (full circle every 45 degrees, at two eccentricities each). Refractions were compared to see which correction mode provided the most peripheral myopia for each subject. We also measured higher order aberrations centrally. Results. Results were displayed on polar plots that allowed easy comparison of peripheral refractions. The correction mode with the most peripheral myopia varied between subjects. Multifocal soft lenses were best for only one subject and second best for three others. Central spherical aberration showed no correlation with peripheral defocus. Discussion. Among our subjects, multifocal soft contact lenses did not always provide the best optics for myopia control. Further study is needed. The methods we developed (peripheral retinoscopy and polar plots) may be helpful for future myopia research.
Poster
Pertussis Recurrence and Decreased Vaccination Rates
Tapia ,Chelsey Northwestern State University
Research has shown that numbers of Pertussis have continued to rise. Outbreaks of Pertussis have been linked to age less than six months, non-vaccination due to personal beliefs, the immunocompromised, and the older population with waning immunity. Better education for the general population by healthcare professionals will facilitate the process of decreasing the incidence of Pertussis.
Poster
Phylogeography of Sonoran mud turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense) in the Madrean Sky Islands
Kimmel ,Laura University of Central Oklahoma
Haynie ,Michelle University of Central Oklahoma
Stone ,Paul University of Central Oklahoma
Phylogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of genetic lineages. When well-planned and executed, phylogeographic analyses can show historical patterns of gene flow and genetic isolation. Naturally fragmented freshwater habitats often create replicated natural experiments well-suited to phylogeographic study. The often subdivided topography of individual mountain ranges in the Madrean Sky Islands in New Mexico and Arizona make the habitat ideal for studying genetic variation of the Sonoran mud turtle at three levels: within drainages, among drainages, and among mountain ranges. We have obtained sufficient samples (between 17 and 40 per population for three populations per range) from the Peloncillo, Galiuro, Huachuca, and Pajarito Mountains. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop is ongoing. After DNA extraction from blood samples, we amplify and sequence 400 bp of the left domain of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop and 400 bp of the right domain of the D-loop. Future research will focus on completing sequencing and using sequences to examine the genetic structure of Sonoran mud turtles.
Poster
Physical Training for Parkinsons Disease: Pilot Study
Covey ,Kyle University of Central Oklahoma
Ahrens ,John University of Central Oklahoma
White ,Lacey University of Central Oklahoma
Sealey-Holtz ,Linda University of Central Oklahoma
Mcclelland ,Amanda University of Central Oklahoma
Olson ,Jacilyn University of Central Oklahoma
The purposes of this study were to assess the feasibility of a simultaneous physical fitness and speech therapy treatment program for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to report changes in functional fitness, balance, and speech components. A group of eight individuals with PD (58-82yrs) volunteered. Participants’ initial functional fitness was measured by performance on the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) and the MINI-BEST Test (MBT). After initial measurement, a group training program of 60-minute sessions, three times a week for four weeks was administered. The protocol consisted of a warm up, strength and endurance exercises, static and dynamic balance training, and flexibility/cool down. Voice training was administered simultaneously. Modifications were included for individuals to maintain own pace while partaking in group activities. Upon program completion, the SFT, and MBT, were again assessed to monitor progress. RESULTS: Physical measures: significant improvements (p<0.05) were found in chair stands, arm curls, 8 foot up and go, and the dynamic balance portion of the MBT. CONCLUSION: Combined training improved functional fitness, balance, and select speech parameters in adults with PD. Data and participant feedback determined the program to be feasible. More research is needed to determine if these changes can be attributed to the combination of voice and physical fitness training as opposed to separate interventions.
Poster
Physiological Reactivity is Negatively Correlated with Implicit Racist Attitudes
Hall ,Deon University of Central Oklahoma
Durham ,Justin University of Central Oklahoma
Mather ,Robert University of Central Oklahoma
Lack ,Caleb University of Central Oklahoma
The project investigated the degree to which an individual's implicit racist attitudes influence the level of anxiety achieved while watching video clips of socially inappropriate humor. There is a growing need for research as it relates to multiculturalism. In this study, participants had their heartrate and galvanic skin response recorded while being shown videos, two of different types of humor (socially inappropriate and slapstick) and one control clip of an innocuous political story. The participants were also instructed to complete a racial Implicit Association Test (IAT). The race of experimenter was manipulated as half the participants were instructed by a black experimenter and the other half were instructed by a white experimenter. It was hypothesized that participants who scored significantly on the IAT would experience the least amount of anxiety in the presence of a black experimenter while viewing the socially inappropriate clip. There was a negative relationship between implicit racism and anxiety. Individuals who scored high in implicit racist attitudes were generally less anxious while watching the humorous clips.
Poster
Playing to Our Strengths: Helping Students Get the Most of a PUI Education in Chemistry
Frech ,Cheryl University of Central Oklahoma
Montes ,Luis University of Central Oklahoma
The University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) Chemistry Department has 200 chemistry majors with a range of post-graduation goals. A small percentage of these students end up in graduate programs in the chemical sciences each year. We have identified several factors that correlate with students’ eventual success in a graduate program. These include: participation in undergraduate research, either in the department or in a summer REU, active membership in the department Chemistry Club, attendance at a regional or national chemistry meeting, and a successful mentoring relationship with one or more department faculty. We will discuss current preparation of our majors and share some advice from successful students.
Poster
Pollinator Traits Correlate with Nectar Standing Crop Levels in an Invasive Plant Species found in Island Ecosystems in Greece and the USA
Barthell ,John University of Central Oklahoma
Gonzalez ,Victor University of Kansas
Hranitz ,John Bloomsburg University
Redd ,JeAnna University of Central Oklahoma
Petanidou ,Theodora University of the Aegean
Wells ,Harrington University of Tulsa
Animal species interact in a variety of ways (negative, positive and neutral) in order to acquire resources they need to survive in their respective environments. Competition is a negative interaction that can be mediated in ways that reduce stress among competitors. To understand this phenomenon, we recorded numbers, sizes and types of bees found at plots of the highly invasive weed species yellow star-thistle, Centaurea soltitialis, in both the USA (on Santa Cruz Island) and Greece (on the island of Lesvos). Larger bodied bees were, on average, most common at high nectar volume plots of this plant species while smaller bodied species were common at low nectar volume plots. This pattern was consistent between locales and over time. These results are also consistent with the hypothesis that pollinator species minimize direct competition by partitioning their foraging efforts in a manner that avoids physical contact with other species at flowers. The underlying mechanism for this process is under investigation.
Poster
Population Dynamics of Myotis Velifer in Oklahoma
Balch ,Brenden University of Central Oklahoma
Laverty ,Sean University of Central Oklahoma
Cave bats or Myotis Velifer have distinct population patterns that change year to year. This project uses mathematics to model population dynamics of Myotis Velifer in Oklahoma caves. More specifically, the bats that stay in Oklahoma during the wintertime are investigated. It is thought that the resident bats that stay and hibernate have the greatest influence on the overall population patterns of Myotis Velifer in Oklahoma. The baseline model will be extended to look at other factors that could affect the population of cave bats, including weather, diseases, and other environmental factors.
Poster
Population Genetics and Structure of Local Invasion of Red Imported Fire Ants (Solenopsis invicta) at the University of Central Oklahoma
Matheny ,Audrey University of Central Oklahoma
Kimmel ,Laura University of Central Oklahoma
Fenwick ,Allyson University of Central Oklahoma
This study looks at the genetic variation, population structure and geographic dispersal of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) on the University of Central Oklahoma campus. Studying this local invasion can reveal patterns and trends that can be used to mitigate future invasions. In October of last year, biologists spotted red imported fire ants spreading across campus within a time span of two weeks. Students subsequently sampled colonies on campus mapping over 500 nests and took samples of workers from >20 colonies. The identification of red imported fire ants was confirmed by morphological techniques. We are evaluating the genetic diversity using published microsatellite loci and population genetic techniques. We have optimized the microsatellites and will soon genotype them. Genetic variation is expected to be low if there was a single introduction and higher if there were multiple introductions. Additionally, the social structure of the colonies was determined using the Gp-9 locus. Preliminary data show most colonies are polygyne (multiple queen) with 2 possible monogyne (single queen) colonies. Our results support previous work suggesting polygyne colonies are more successful invaders because they utilize colony budding dispersal. Future research will analyze microsatellite data and expand the study area.
Poster
Positive Effects of Studying Foreign Languages on Academic Performance
Lopez Gonzales ,Maria Laura Cameron University
Currently, the United States’ education system places little emphasis on teaching foreign languages compared to the emphasis placed on other areas such as math, science, and art. To be both competitive and competent in our current job market, students graduating from secondary and post-secondary schools must have the necessary tools to be able to face the challenges that ongoing globalization brings. A study at Cameron University was created to determine the relationship between the formal and informal study of foreign languages and general academic performance. As part of the study, a survey was given to students at Cameron University who responded to questions concerning languages learned during their primary, secondary and post-secondary school education, as well as their current letter grades and GPA scores at the college level. The study showed that there is a positive correlation between studying foreign languages to various degrees and academic performance.
Poster
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment: EMDR vs. Medications
Herian ,Courtney Northwestern Oklahoma State University
Meza ,Nayeli Northwestern Oklahoma State University
The effects of first line medication and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapies, were compared in a research study of people diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over a 6-month treatment plan. Researchers selected eighty-eight random subjects and were treated with EMDR or fluoxetine. The participants received eight weeks of treatment and the outcomes were evaluated at a 6-month follow-up. EMDR consisted of 90-minute individual sessions, in which it allows the person to think about the traumatic event while focusing on eye movements. Although further research can be conducted for more evidence, researchers believe that the eye movements activate the brain's chemistry to permit changes in the person's memory structures. The outcomes were measured using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) that was proven to give reliable results in the reduction of PTSD symptoms. At a 6-month follow-up, it was concluded that the CAPS total score drop was 62.2% for EMDR and 48.3% for fluoxetine. When comparing EMDR with fluoxetine, EMDR is proven to be most effective in treating people suffering from PTSD.
Poster
Potential of an Old-Growth Cross Timbers Forest at Lake Arcadia, Oklahoma
King ,Chad University of Central Oklahoma
Ramsey ,Shey University of Central Oklahoma
The Cross Timbers is an oak-dominated ecotone located between the Eastern Deciduous Forest and the Great Plains in the south-central United States. Previous research has modelled potential sites in Oklahoma that may contain old-growth Cross Timbers forest; one of the sites highlighted by the model was the Arcadia Lake region in central Oklahoma. The objective of our research was to investigate the structure and historic dynamics of the Cross Timbers forest at Lake Arcadia. Increment cores were collected from dominant and co-dominant tree species to determine age structure. Remnant wood was opportunistically collected to determine if fires were historically present at the site. Results demonstrate several Quercus stellata (Wangenh.) that are the oldest trees, dating to the mid-19th century. Remnant wood provided evidence of 10 fires that occurred between 1900 and 1950 based on fire-scar analysis. Ignition of these fires was likely related to early Euro-American settlement in the area. The contemporary structure of the forest at Arcadia Lake suggests an increase in mesophytic species density that is a product of fire suppression, similar to other studies of forests in the Cross Timbers. Continued analysis of forest structure and dynamics will provide a deeper understanding of forest succession and old-growth status at Lake Arcadia.
Poster
Preparing Teachers for Urban Schools: Preliminary Findings from an Urban Teacher Preparation Academy
Nelson ,Mike University of Central Oklahoma
Belflower ,Lauren University of Central Oklahoma
Bollig ,Pamela University of Central Oklahoma
Coker ,Amanda University of Central Oklahoma
Cunningham ,Candace University of Central Oklahoma
Putnam ,Joshua University of Central Oklahoma
Quadri ,Yetundi University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an Urban Teacher Preparation Academy (UTPA) in retaining and developing effective teachers. The program studied was developed through a collaborative partnership between the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) and Oklahoma City Public Schools (OKCPS), an urban school district, in response to a shortage of qualified teachers in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. Data sources included classroom observations conducted by the research team and observations conducted by UCO supervisors. Data were coded with the analysis focused on identifying patterns in three domains; instructional practice, classroom management, and classroom environment. Particularly noteworthy were the positive teacher-student interactions and classroom climates, and the use of pedagogical practices that support active learning. Relatively few instances were observed of individualized instruction and relating instruction to the experiences of urban students. Seventy-four percent of the academy graduates have accepted employment with the (OKCPS) and at this time all remain in the district. The program shows promise in producing effective teachers that choose to remain in urban schools.
Poster
Preparing Young Adults for Successful Relationships through the Within My Reach Relationship Education Program
Kuns ,Brooke University of Central Oklahoma
Burr ,Dr. Brandon University of Central Oklahoma
Bertram ,Dr. Glee University of Central Oklahoma
Many struggle with forming and maintaining healthy romantic relationships. The incorporation of the research-based Within My Reach (WMR) relationship education curriculum into an existing marriage course allows young adult college students, who may be contemplating important relationship decisions, the opportunity to raise awareness and learn important skills that build healthy relationships. The overall objective of this research was to assess how student attitudes change regarding healthy relationship knowledge and attitudes over the course of a semester based on core principles taught through the WMR curriculum. Our hypothesis was that those in the revised marriage course would show significant gains in key relationship areas over the semester. Results showed students in the revised classes reported significant gains in Relationship Confidence, Relationship Vision, Relationship Insight, Sliding vs. Deciding behaviors, and Listening Skills. Furthermore, the individuals who were not in a relationship showed more pronounced gains when compared with individuals who were currently in a relationship. The findings indicate the students who received the revised class have a better understanding at the end of the semester of how to not only choose a good fit for a partner, but also have gained important relationship skills such as communication and conflict resolution techniques.
Poster
Press Releases: Creating Buzz
Nguyen ,Julie Cameron University
Over the years, the Lawton Public Library has contributed to the Lawton Community. The library puts on various programs for a wide range of people. For young adults, the Lawton Library hosts variety of events including game nights, teen book readings, art competitions, and craft events. For younger children, the library provides storytelling, arts and crafts, and movie nights. The Lawton Library is a cornerstone in the Southwest Oklahoma. This poster and presentation will discuss my experiences writing press releases for the library as well as how the press release itself continues to serve as a vital genre for nonprofit organizations. As Lehtimaki, et al (2011) suggest, the traditional press release is often the only way to disclose essential information to intended audiences and have the unique benefit of being able to be read in a variety of media and platforms, including newspapers, radio, and websites. Further, as Graube, et al (2010) suggest, the press release serves a “gatekeeper” function for an organization often only inviting participation by particular groups. The poster and presentation will show how press release writing for the Lawton Public Library validates much of the current research concerning the press release genre.
Poster
Prevalence of Tick-borne Diseases in Oklahoma County
Bryson ,Matthew University of Central Oklahoma
Brennan ,Robert University of Central Oklahoma
Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the cases of tick-borne diseases in the area of Oklahoma County. This study will ascertain whether this increase is due to a higher rate of pathogens in ticks themselves. Tick specimens will be collected from multiple sites around Oklahoma County utilizing dragging techniques. Specimens will be identified to species and the contents of their gut analyzed via Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction to determine the presence of seven tick borne pathogens.
Poster
Prevalence, Virulence, and mecA Gene Possession of Staphylococci in Oklahoma Retail Fresh Mushrooms
Fakhr ,Mohamed University of Tulsa
Alharpi ,Muna University of Tulsa
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of staphylococci in both conventional and organic retail mushroom sold in the Tulsa, Oklahoma area. Characterizing the isolated strains for their possession of toxin and mecA genes was also aimed at. A total of 420 samples of retail mushrooms were purchased from retail stores including Asian markets across the Tulsa area. A total of 297/420 of mushroom samples (70.71%) was positive for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. The prevalence of S. aureus in the tested mushroom samples was only 2.36%. The mecA gene was detected in 64/297 (21.55%) of the positive samples. A total of 551 isolated Staphylococcal strains were also tested for the presence of 18 toxin genes. The prevalence of enterotoxins ranged from 0.34% to 2.69%. A subset of 120 staphylococcal isolates was subjected to 16S rDNA gene sequencing and was molecularly identified. A total of 10 different Staphylococcus species was detected including S. aureus, S. fleurettii, S. saprophyticus, S. vitulinus, S. sciuri, S. xylosus, S. succinus, S. pasteuri, S. warneri, and S. haemolyticus. More than half of the screened S. fleurettii strains carried the mecA gene. In conclusion, the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. in fresh mushrooms is high and a subset of the strains was shown to harbor enterotoxin genes which might lead to foodborne poisoning. Staphylococci other than S. aureus may serve as reservoirs for the methicillin resistance mecA gene.
Poster
Preventing Pressure Ulcers by Using Accelerometer, Voice-to-Text, Speech Recognition and Cloud Data Technology
Chambers ,Steven University of Central Oklahoma
Fu ,Jicheng University of Central Oklahoma
Pressure ulcers impose a serious threat to power wheelchair users. In order to prevent pressure ulcers, one must ensure to adjust his/her position in the wheelchair regularly. Remembering to do so can be difficult, but smartphones can provide a tremendous advantage in reminding a power wheelchair user of making these scheduled adjustments. In addition, the majority of the wheelchairs do not provide the mechanism to measure wheelchair tilt or recline angles. By using the smartphones accelerometer and voice to text technology, the users’ tilt and recline angles are monitored in order to provide the user with real-time guidance to keep with a specific tilt and recline angle adjustment schedule. Accessibility in such an application is of upmost importance. In order to provide maximum ease of use, speech recognition technology is employed in order to allow the handicapped user to interact with the application primarily with voice commands. The application also takes the advantage of mobile data networks (either cellular or WIFI) to transmit the tilt and recline angle data to the cloud for storage and subsequent analysis.
Poster
Progress Towards the Synthesis of 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D5
Albinescu ,Dragos Northeastern State University
This research project presents the progress towards the convergent synthesis of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D5, a new, highly potent cancer chemopreventive agent, and also an effective inhibitor of renin gene expression. This vitamin D analog was able to reduce the tumor incidence up to 47% and tumor multiplicity up to 50% in chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis experiments in rats. The convergent synthesis involves the copper (I) mediated coupling reaction of two independently synthesized fragments, namely, a vitamin D5 side chain, as a Grignard reagent, and a 1α-hydroxylated core vitamin D structure (triene system), as a tosylate. The side chain was synthesized via an asymmetric alkylation of 3-butenoic acid esterified with a chiral auxiliary (R-binaphthol) and the “triene” system was generated from vitamin D2, via a vitamin D2 sulfur dioxide adduct. This convergent synthesis is designed to offer a better synthetic alternative to the current linear synthetic pathway.
Poster
Proliferation Assay in Tension-Free and Tension-Maintaining Skin Equivalents
Hilal ,Mona University of Central Oklahoma
Anderson ,Cory University of Central Oklahoma
Vaughan ,Melville University of Central Oklahoma
As cell proliferation is key to many biological processes, such as wound healing and cancer development, it is important to perform proliferation assay that allows the determination of the number of cells growing and dividing. Cell proliferation can be affected by different internal and environmental factors. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of mechanical tension on proliferation by performing proliferation assays for tension-free and tension-maintaining skin equivalents. The engineered tissue was prepared by developing a dermal equivalent of normal human fibroblasts and type I collagen mixture and then plating the combination with keratinocytes. While plastic rings were inserted in the experimental group to provide tension, the control group lacked such plastic rings. After the tissue was allowed to mature, they were processed for frozen sectioning. DNA synthesis was detected based on the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) into cellular DNA during DNA replication and the reaction of EdU with a fluorescent azide that allows the proliferated nuclei to become fluorescent green when detected through fluorescence microscopy. Preliminary quantification of the data demonstrated that proliferation was present in the dermal compartments of both the tension-free and the tension-maintaining tissue, with the tension dermis exhibiting greater proliferation than the tension-free dermis.
Poster
Promises of a Honey Pond & A Fritter Tree: Rural Western Oklahoma Pioneer Women, 1900-1910
Caffee ,Cheryl University of Central Oklahoma
Lula Hall-Morrow left Bono, Texas with her husband and four children in 1900, and headed north into Oklahoma Territory to homestead one of the last remaining plots of land in the western portion of the state. The family hoped for a bright future, mortgage free, where they could live off the land and strive for economic success. By utilizing an autobiography written by the Morrow matriarch and the Indian-Pioneer papers, this work explores the lives of Oklahoma pioneer women and their families between 1900 and 1910. It follows the day the young Morrow family, and other pioneers moved to Oklahoma in a covered wagons and explores their lives in the first decade of homesteading. New settlers in western Oklahoma, contributed to the social and economic success of the new state as they established new communities and created successful farms and ranches. Resilient and adaptable, the frontier woman cared for a sick child and then went to the pasture to mend a fence. Within this framework, women voluntarily kept their domestic roles but developed autonomy and equal status in the social and economic ventures. They found happiness and contentment within their relationships as they worked alongside their husbands in satisfying partnerships on the prairie and stepped outside the boundaries of the domestic sphere. Through homesteading, rural women found their honey ponds and fritter trees, as promised by Uncle Sam in 1900.
Poster
PROPOSAL FOR DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CAPACITANCE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER
OMENA ,ANDRE University of Central Oklahoma
NEIGHBORS ,MATTHEW University of Central Oklahoma
SEMANDS ,JOHN University of Central Oklahoma
Capacitive sensors are widely used in industrial, scientific, medical, automotive, and consumer applications including pressure measurement, touch sensing, position sensing, level sensing, humidity sensing, flow meters, and impurity detection. This project focuses on creating a wireless infrastructure for monitoring high resolution capacitive sensors. The objective is to design and configure a wireless sensor transducer (WiST) system to monitor capacitive sensors, convert the measurements to digital signals, and transmit the data to display at a receiving station (Gateway). High resolution capacitive to digital conversion allows more divisions over the sensing range which can support more decision making threshold conditions. Wireless capability decreases clutter of wires and allows for mobility of monitoring. Special consideration is given to hardware connectivity, programming, modification, and refinement into a finished product.
Poster
Prosecutorial Misconduct & the Disclosure of Evidence
Girdner ,Stephanie Northeastern State University
Stephanie C. Girdner Northeastern State University 2 February 2015 Prosecutorial Misconduct & the Disclosure of Evidence   Prosecutorial Misconduct & the Disclosure of Evidence Abstract This research will examine the constitutional obligation of prosecutors to disclose certain types of evidence, specifically exculpatory evidence and impeachment evidence, in discovery proceedings or upon request by defendants during criminal proceedings. Some defense attorneys contend that some prosecutors violate defendants’ due process rights guaranteed by the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution by withholding evidence that would impact or change the outcomes of criminal cases. By analyzing and outlining the court cases surrounding prosecutors’ obligatory disclosure of evidence, this research will show how the U.S. Supreme Court interpreted and clarified the Brady rule that was established in Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963), and other rulings of subsequent cases. Furthermore, this research will attempt to determine if or when prosecutors can be held criminally responsible or liable for their prosecutorial misconduct of the nondisclosure of exculpatory or impeachment evidence to defendants during criminal proceedings.
Poster
Protein concentration and detection in a microdevice for cardiovascular disease diagnosis
Omena ,Thiago University of Central Oklahoma
Teigland ,Tucker University of Central Oklahoma
Allen ,Jennie University of Central Oklahoma
Smith ,Regina University of Central Oklahoma
Hossan ,Mohammad University of Central Oklahoma
Karpowicz ,Steven University of Central Oklahoma
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world resulting in the loss of 17.1 million lives a year. One in four heart-damaging events goes unrecognized or misdiagnosed due to lack of symptoms. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a protein specific to the heart muscle that is the preferred biomarker for detecting cardiac damage. However, because the concentration of cTnI isoforms (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated) in the blood is so small, there are currently no microdevices to monitor heart disease. Application of an electric field in a buffer solution with samples, known as electrophoresis, can separate and concentrate proteins. Our goal is to design a microdevice that is capable of separating and concentrating cTnI isoforms using electric fields, prior to an immunoassay that will then detect cTnI isoforms. The separation and concentration of proteins was enhanced with a combination of novel microdevice design and on-chip electrophoresis. The detection of phosphorylation-specific cTnI will be accomplished by using antibodies and immobilizing cTnI in the device. We achieved an increased sensitivity to a phosphorylation specific cTnI while also decreasing the limit of detection through antibodies with immobilized cTnI. These results allow us to differentiate and quantify different phosphorylation states of cTnI. In summary, our microdevice has great potential as a point-of-care tool in the accurate diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, possibly saving many lives.
Poster
Public Health Implications of Colombian Diaspora: Market Density as an Indicator for Food Insecurities
Johnson ,Mark University of Central Oklahoma
Food security is outlined as the universal capacity to procure safe food goods in a diurnal modus consistent with biological load and lifestyle. Therefore, food insecurity is the failure of these processes, which can predictably lead to anthropometric deviations, reduced educational attainment, and other deleterious public health disruptions. It is thereby crucial to reveal novel approaches in predicting food insecurities, and to elucidate subsisting mechanisms that either frustrate or fortify these conditions. Colombia is a developing country suffering from an internal conflict that has displaced over 5.2 million residents. This humanitarian crisis characteristically exacerbates established food insecurities, which reaches over 19.2 million inhabitants, > 41% of the total population. Hencetofore, no study has attempted to couple market distribution to the reported food security status of Bogotá D.C., a megalopolis of 8.7 million residents, of which, more than 5.8 million remain currently food insecure. It was then hypothesized that market density will reliably infer sustenance anxieties across the 20 localities of Bogotá. Our results revealed an orthogonal relationship between market distribution and varying levels of food insecurities throughout Bogotá, foisting poverty as a primary antecedent to hunger.
Poster
Purification and Quantification of tadA enzyme in Escherichia coli
Tatum ,Baylee University of Central Oklahoma
The tadA enzyme is responsible for the chemical substitution of the standard adenosine base pair with the nonstandard hypoxanthine base pair at specific wobble positions in the Escherichia coli transcriptome. This substitution allows for flexibility in the translation of proteins by increasing the number base pairs the edited nucleotide can interact with. Due to the limited amounts of the tadA enzyme in E. coli, recombinant DNA techniques had to be utilized to acquire a quantifiable amount of the enzyme. The genetic sequence translating for tadA was replicated using a sequence specific primer and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By inserting the replicated tadA gene into the 1655 E. coli culture, the gene could be ligated into an E. coli expression vector and cloned into the culture. Once the recombinant vector was cloned into the E. coli, the protein was allowed to accumulate in vitro and was purified using a histidine tag and subsequent histidine purification technology. A nucleotide specific assay was performed on the purified enzyme to quantify the activity of the tadA enzyme. This data would demonstrate how efficient the protein is at high concentrations and as well as its enzymatic threshold at optimal conditions.
Poster
Q
Quantifying the Impact of Top Sales Executive’s LinkedIn Connections on the Financial Performance of the Company.
Samaraweera ,Manoshi University of Central Oklahoma
Badhan ,Faria University of Central Oklahoma
This study empirically tests whether the number of LinkedIn connections of sales executives is related to the financial performance of the company. First, we monitor the LinkedIn connections of a sample of sales executives working for a set of large public companies over several quarters. We then assess whether the LinkedIn numbers are related to the company’s quarterly financial metrics (such as ROA and ROI). Given the nested structure in the dataset, we use Hierarchical Linear Modeling to analyze the data. Results will be presented at the research day.
Poster
Quenching of Cyanoaromatics Fluorescence and Aromatic Carbonyl Triplets by Model Sulfur Compounds
Das ,Paritosh Cameron University
Wurtz ,Hunter Cameron University
Sulfur-bearing moieties play significant roles in various processes of interest to biology, agriculture, industry, and environmental pollution. The multifarious functions of S are made possible by the numerous oxidation sates in which the element can exist, including some that are capable of facile redox interconversions. We have investigated several model organosulfur compounds for their charge-transfer interactions as donors with photoexcited singlet states of three cyanoaromatics, namely, 1,2,4,5-tetracyanbenzene (TCB), 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene (DCN), and 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (DCA) and with triplet excited states of aromatic ketones (e.g., benzophenone). This paper will present and examine kinetic data on the quenching of steady-state fluorescence of cyanoaromatics by several thiols, sulfides and disulfides and on the quenching of ketone triplets by several thiols (studied by nanosecond laser flash photolysis). In addition, the data on the efficiency of hydrogen transfer from thiols to ketone triplets will be presented.
Poster
R
Recent Approaches in Producing Marker-Free Transgenic Plants
Skorupski ,Taylor Northeastern State University
Recent Approaches in Producing Marker-Free Transgenic Plants Taylor Skorupski Mentor: Dr. Kevin Yueju Wang Molecular & Cellular Biology Laboratory, Department of Natural Sciences Northeastern State University at Broken Arrow 3100 East New Orleans Street Broken Arrow, OK 74014 Abstract: Today, many consumers are worried about the process of genetic modifications in concerns to our food. One of the many techniques that are used in genetically modifying our plants is by the insertion of a selectable marker such as an antibiotic resistance or herbicide resistance gene. These selectable marker genes are used to easily and more readily screen transgenic plants. Since many consumers are unaware of the benefits and fear genetically modified organisms, several techniques have been at play in order to remove the selectable marker gene. These techniques include: co-transformation, transposition, homologous recombination, and site-specific recombination. These techniques use strategies such as excising the selectable marker, in other words cutting it out of the DNA or simply separating the selectable marker from the wanted gene in the early transformation stage. By removing the selectable marker gene, industries have now produced a marker-free transgenic plant. We reviewed recent approaches to produce marker-free transgenic plants.
Poster
Recreating Spray Pyrolysis: Thin Film Solar Cell Methodology
Bidlack ,James University of Central Oklahoma
Porter ,Hunter University of Oklahoma
Spray pyrolysis is an advanced technique used to create thin films on solid media by applying atomized liquids to the surfaces while simultaneously heating them to annealing temperature. Thin film solar cells were created using glass doped with a thin layer of tin oxide. One glass slide was coated with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in an acidic solution and then heated to anneal the titanium, creating an anode. Titanium was applied using three techniques: a cold atomized spray that was then heated to annealing temperature, an atomized spray onto glass preheated to annealing temperature, and a hand-based doping method using a template acting as a control. Cathodes were created by deposition of graphite onto another tin-doped slide. Cells were then assembled by loading an iodine electrolyte (KI/I2) solution between the anode and cathode and held together using cyanoacrylate glue. Cells were evaluated qualitatively (based on appearance, thickness, and imperfections) and quantitatively (based on voltage output and percent viability). Cold spray cells contained unavoidable imperfections and moderate voltages. Hot spray cells contained few imperfections, a perfect viability rate, high ease and speed of construction, but higher variability and lower voltages. Control cells contained technical issues and a low viability rate, but had overall higher voltages.
Poster