Browse Abstracts
A Comparison of Artificial Neural Network Libraries
Patrick Harrington, Northeastern State University
Artificial neural networks were designed to model the unique architecture of the human brain, and are used to solve complex problems that are otherwise hard to solve using traditional algorithmic techniques. Neural networks are used in character recognition, speech recognition, and can be applied to NP-complete problems including the traveling salesman problem. There are several computer programming libraries, complete with code, available that allow for implementation of neural networks. Our research uses the concept of neural networks to compare three of these artificial neural network libraries: FANN, Snipe, and Encog. Our comparison is based upon the areas of the features, extensibility, documentation, and efficiency of the libraries. Our findings indicate that the Encog library is the most robust and the overall best choice.
A Comparison Study between Compressed and Uncompressed Inverted Indexes for Memory Constrained Devices
Gang Qian, Grzegorz Bugaj, University of Central Oklahoma
As the number of applications grows on smart devices, there is a need to efficiently index and query their documents within given memory constraints. This study was done to determine the feasibility of using compressed in-memory inverted indexes for embedded devices. We focused on comparing compressed indexes with their uncompressed counterparts in terms of their memory consumption, retrieval speed and storage usage. Data sets used for the test was Reuters – 21578, and target platform is Android. The results of the comparison study is reported in this poster.
A Hand in Design
Joanna Meachum, Rukmini Ravikumar, University of Central Oklahoma
This project will determine the effectiveness of graphic design elements via hand done graphics versus computer generated graphics. It will determine why one is preferred over the other, and if there is a point to where graphics become repugnant. It will also determine if there is a correlation between tactile response and the viewer in relation to these graphics.
A Health Care Campaign for Breast Cancer: An Early Detection Plan for University Students
Callie Carrell, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
In a health campaign project for a communication class, I propose to engage university students in an early detection plan for breast cancer. This campaign will include defining the situation and audience, establishing campaign goals, and selecting channels of communication. The current situation is the large number of women and men who will be diagnosed with breast cancer. For women, this number is one in eight. For men, 410 will die each year. The university targeted in this campaign has an enrollment of 3,805 students, which means 238 of the women from this university will be diagnosed with breast cancer. The projected change in behavior will involve the students conducting self-examination, receiving mammograms, and enrolling in classes. The communication channels will include utilizing mass media such as email to students and announcements in the university newspaper and radio programs. Communication messages in the email will include words in the subject bar such as “Do you have Breast Cancer?” A second channel would include utilizing a guest speaker who is a survivor of breast cancer. She will provide both logical and emotional appeals in her presentations. The final step of the campaign will be to determine the success of the campaign. An evaluation form will be completed by all who participated.
A Health Care Campaign: Preventing the Spread of Disease in the Workplace
Kristi Ryan, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
The purpose of this project conducted in a health communication class was to motivate employees to use hand sanitizers to prevent the spread of disease in their workplace. The organization used for this campaign was an outsourcing provider to help businesses manage customer relationships. The health care problem and target audience were identified through observations of workers’ behavior, interviews with workers, and other studies conducted in this workplace. These research steps identified a problem that stems from a time constraint that prevents employees from keeping their hands clean after utilizing the outside break area. Based on this research, the first activity of the campaign was gaining approval from management to install hand sanitizer dispenser outside employee break areas. A communication message used in the campaign became the label for this area: The AHS station for antibacterial hand sanitizer station. Campaign messages on posters were placed by doors for re-entering the building. The employee newsletter was also used to promote the use of the AHS stations. Another activity of the campaign involved having maintenance personnel to clean door handles twice daily. The final activity of the campaign was receiving information from the managers about the percentage of employees who are absent to illness. The result of the campaign is that absences decreased.
A Health Care Campaign: Combating Diabetes in the Native American Community
Troy Ward, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
The goal of this project conducted in a health communication class is to raise awareness about the risks of diabetes among elderly native people and present them with alternate behaviors. Within most Native American communities across the United States, diabetes has become an epidemic. According to Indian Health Services, this number is even higher in the elderly community. The targeted audience for this campaign is the elderly community of Choctaw Indians in Bryan County, Oklahoma. The main objective of this campaign is to inform the target population about types of foods that causes diabetes and provide them with motivation to discontinue consumption of them. One activity of this campaign included a set of oral presentations given in a location where many Choctaw Elders congregate. Messages in the campaign included appeals to their sense of community and respect for leaders. An example of a message is “help keep our community strong and vital by supporting each other in monitoring sugar intake and checking sugar levels.” Native Americans have a strong sense of community and appealing to what is good for the community had a strong effect. Other messages about modeling behavior that will teach the children the right way was also effective in adding emotional appeal. Interviews were conducted to ascertain the campaign’s effectiveness. Awareness of risks of diabetes to Native Americans was achieved.
A Logistic Regression Model for Predicting the Success of Nursing Students at UCO
Brian Gatewood, Cynthia Murray, Sarah Schatz, Tracy Morris, University of Central Oklahoma
The nursing program at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) has an abundance of students applying for limited slots of enrollment. When the selection process is competitive, it becomes beneficial to both the students and the nursing program to identify those students most likely to complete the program. Members of the Nursing Department conducted a study on enrolled nursing students in an attempt to discover the most important factors for predicting a students likelihood of completing the nursing program. The studied variables included TEAS scores and GPAs. The students were tracked for four years and were grouped according to whether or not they finished the nursing program. Using logistic regression we were able to construct a formula to predict the probability of a student completing the program based on these variables. This work was completed by Project SCHOLAR (Statistical Consulting Help for Organizational Leaders and Academic Researchers) students. SCHOLAR is an interdisciplinary student statistical consulting service at UCO. SCHOLAR students work collaboratively under the supervision of faculty from the Department of Mathematics and Statistics on various projects submitted from other researchers on campus and organizations in the community.
A Look at Eastern Medecine
Rebecca Wagner, Northeastern State University
Eastern medecine is rooted deep in tradition, dating as far back as the Shang Dynasty. This type of healing takes a more introspective and holistic look at treating the person for ailments of all types. A great deal of focus is placed on treating the whole person, which includes the mind, body, and the spirit. Different therapies are used to treat anything from cancer to a common headache. While there is a common belief framework consistently present throughout Eastern Medecine, there are many subtypes that sometimes use diiffering medical theories. The exact philosophies and techniques used can vary greatly. Overall, Eastern philosophies fall in line with working with the earth and the enviroment to promote a greater good for both. The people utilize the earth for healing. Traditional Chinese Medecine includes hebal medecine, massage (Tunia), and acupuncture. Chinese Herbal Medecine diagnoses and treats based on the theories of Traditional Chinese Medecine. Acupuncture is based on using the body’s natural meridians and stimulation of these points. Tunia, or massage, is a subcategory of body work, and focuses on releasing tension and blockages in the body . Tunia is typically used in conjunction with acupuncture to yield maximum positive results.
A Meta-Analysis of the Use of Calculators in Mathematics Achievement
Matt Garner, Karina Chavez, Kendra Parker, Vikki Orso, East Central University
This is a meta-analysis research study with the objective to review numerous previously published studies that addresses the research question: Does the use of calculators effect math student achievement in (1) computation skills and/or (2) reasoning profiency? The thesis for the study is that one can identify trends that indicate relationships among the use of calculators, computation skills and reasoning profiency in mathematics at the upper elementary/middle school level and the middle/high school level. Fourteen articles that addressed the question were selected at random from the literature and analyzed. The results found three general trends for results across the studies. At the upper elementary/middle school level the use of calculators improved the computation skills but had no effect on reasoning profiency. Also at this level students not using calculators improved both in computational skills and reasoning profiency. At the middle/high school level students using calculators improved in reasoning profiency; whereas, students not using calculators did not improve in reasoning profiency.
A Method for Obtaining a Particle Image Velocimetry
Aric Gillispie, Evan Lemley, Phd, University of Central Oklahoma
To better understand what happens to fluids in microchannels, it would be very useful to be able to visualize the fluids direction and its speed, or its velocity vector. Through simulations and calculations, pressure loss and flow rate can be determined, but to actually see what is happening would give clarification to what is happening throughout a field of view. The method we used to do this was particle image velocimetry or PIV. This allows vectors to be obtained based on the speed and direction of a fluid at a particular point. This was done through the use of neutrally buoyant particles in the fluid of a channel, and a high-powered laser with a diffraction grating lens that reflects off the particles allowing them to be tracked with a high frame rate camera. The laser itself was mounted to a platform that can be adjusted in very small increments to insure the laser sheet is passing through the precise location containing the neutrally buoyant particles. Once captured, the images were put into software called PIVlab where the particles were tracked from frame to frame, and the velocity vectors developed and displayed throughout a chosen field of view. The vectors could be measured to determine the rate the fluid was moving in different places, and whether or not vortices were forming, causing pressure loss. We obtained results showing precisely how the fluid was moving in a given location with the use of a particle image velocimetry system for fluid dynamics research.
A Mobile Cloud Computing Platform for Capturing Power Wheelchair Maneuvering Patterns
Travis White, Eddy Rajiah, Jicheng Fu, John Sluder, University of Central Oklahoma
Power wheelchairs are widely used to enable disabled persons to acquire independent mobility, which is important for health status, quality of life, social participation, etc. However, wheelchair driving could be challenging due to the users’ pathologies, poor maneuvering skills, and adverse environments. As a result, wheelchair accidents constantly occur. It is therefore critical to capture wheelchair driving patterns based on which intelligent, safe control modules can be developed. Compared to traditional sensors of high cost and low availability, smart phones and cloud computing provide an ideal solution to collect and analyze wheelchair driving data in real-time. In this project, we used gyroscope and accelerometer sensors in the smart phone to collect driving data. Machine learning methods, e.g., KNN, were then used to analyze the data. However, smart phones are not practical places for intensive computations and data storage. Cloud computing complements mobile computing via outstanding computing and storage capabilities. In our platform, data collected by the smart phone are sent to the cloud for storage and analysis. The results are then made available to users of various devices. Our experiments with the smart phone and cloud computing demonstrated that we could leverage the advantages of both techniques yielding the mobile cloud computing platform. This platform is useful to quantify driving patterns, recover trajectories and gauge activity and participation.
A Morphometric Investigation of Possible Hybridization in Sympatric Regions between Terrapene carolina triunguis and Terrapene ornata ornate
Timothy Steudeman, Kenneth Andrews, East Central University
The box turtles Terrapene carolina triunguis and Terrapene ornata ornata are sympatric in regions of Oklahoma. It has been proposed by multiple authors that these two species interbreed. Morphometric measurements were extracted from six hundred and ninety-five box turtles in field and museum collections to determine if interbreeding exist between these two sympatric species. The shell measurements extracted were: Length of Plastron, Humeral, Internal Seam, height of the shell, and length and widths of cervical 1, 2, 3, anterior lobe, posterior lobe, and carapace. Measurements where analyzed to determine a possible hybridization between the species Terrapene c. triunguis and Terrapene ornata. Statistical analysis software was used to determine correlations between specimens of a known species and those of possible hybridization. Baseline statistics were utilized to determine variation within these structures and T tests will be performed on the averages to determine if there are any significant differences between the average meristic values of the structures. Once these variances are determined, then Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and Cluster Analysis (CA) will be used to determine if these variations have hybrid specimens with intermediate values. Preliminary analysis suggests that cervical length would be of use in determining interbreeding.
A Network Approach to a Geometric Packing Problem
Bradley Paynter, University of Central Oklahoma
We investigate several geometric packing problems (derived from an industrial setting) that involve fitting patterns of regularly spaced disks without overlap. We first derive conditions for achieving the feasible placement of a given set of patterns and construct a network formulation that, under certain conditions, allows the calculation of such a placement. We then discuss certain related optimization problems (e.g., fitting together the maximum number of patterns) and broaden the field of application by showing a connection to the well-known Periodic Scheduling Problem. In addition, a variety of heuristics are developed for solving large-scale instances of these provably difficult packing problems. The results of extensive computational testing, conducted on these heuristics, are presented.
A Price-Based Approach to the Dialectics in African American Female Entrepreneur Experiences
Jeanetta Sims, Atoya Sims, Cierra Maddox, Jalea Shuff, Peggy Anderson, Sarah Neese, University of Central Oklahoma
This research seeks to better understand the experiences of African American female entrepreneurs using a price-based, dialectical approach. Through 20 interviews with African American female entrepreneurs about their experiences of managing, marketing, and obtaining business financing, the costs and benefits they experienced as entrepreneurs are explored. Using grounded theory, the interviews were analyzed and four price-based dialectics emerged: (1) Changing self vs. Maintaining self, (2) Being distrustful of others vs. Being faithful and trusting in God, (3) Weak support from own ethnicity vs. Strong supportive ethnic identity, and (4) Being halted by others’ perceptions vs. Moving forward despite pre-conceived notions.
A reduction in the stochastic effects of low-copy number DNA amplification through the use of duplex-specific nuclease
Nicole Sambol, University of Central Oklahoma
A study will be done to determine if the stochastic effects of amplification of low-copy number DNA could be alleviated using duplex-specific nuclease. DNA of a known concentration will be amplified using the AmpFlSTR Identifliler PCR Amplification Kit protocol, and the results will be analyzed with the ABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer to obtain control profiles. The DNA samples will then be diluted to concentrations of less than 100 pg. Amplification will be performed using the AmpFlSTR Identifliler PCR Amplification kit. PCR will be stopped after 10 cycles and the diluted samples will be treated with duplex-specific nuclease to obtain allelic normalization. PCR will then be resumed for the remaining 18 cycles according to the Identifiler protocol. Separation will be done using capillary electrophoresis on the Applied Biosystems 3130 Genetic Analyzer. The profiles produced for the diluted DNA samples will be compared to the non-diluted samples.
A Residency With Pulitzer-Prize-Winning Composer Michael Colgrass: Transformative Collaboration and Interaction between Students, Faculty, and Audiences through Creativity and Performance
Brian Lamb, Amy Johnson, Chelsea Maupin, Elijah Levingston, Ganbayar Gansukh, Hannah Howard, John Shell, Travis Welborn, University of Central Oklahoma
The Transformative Residency with composer Michael Colgrass is a creative and scholarly activity with an educational component; culminating in a guest artist residency on the UCO campus, live musical performances, and a professional commercial-quality compact disc. Collaboration is the central element of the entire experience, and the project is permeated with inter-related and overlapping opportunities for students to collaborate not only with one other, but also with faculty artists and soloists, a Pulitzer-prize-winning guest composer-in-residence, recording engineers, and producers. This project includes multi-disciplinary collaboration between students and faculty in the School of Music and in the Department of Design, where students guided by co-principal investigator Amy Johnson will engage in the creative layout and design of the CD and its packaging. This project benefits hundreds of students on the University of Central Oklahoma campus by providing transformative learning experiences in the areas of: Creativity Excellence in Performance (Using Neuro-Linguistic Programming to Optimize Performance in Life) How to Think Like a Kid Three Separate Concerts of Michael Colgrass’ Original Works The professional commercial-quality compact disc recording will also make a significant contribution to the recorded repertoire of the wind band, as the recording will contain previously un-recorded works by one of this country’s most prolific composers.
A Review of Genetically Engineered Food
Dillon Cave, Northeastern State University
Genetically-modified food have had genes altered or replaced. Genes code for proteins to be produced by the plant for many functions. Scientists can manipulate genes to gain all the positives, while expelling any negatives. Genes that provide insect and disease resistance can be incorporated into the plants genome. By genetically modifying food, scientists can provide farmers reassurance when it comes to protection, health and boosting high yields for their crops.
A Review of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnostic Technique of Tongue Inspection
Rachel Wirginis, Northeastern State University
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is oriented toward recognizing and correcting imbalances in the flow of bodily energy, or Qi. Acceptance of TCM in the West is growing despite the fact that only a small number of TCM products or methods have been scientifically validated and techniques are not based on Evidence Based Medicine. While Conventional Western Medicine (CWM) relies on experimentation and research to determine practice some proponents of TCM explain that TCM is incommensurable with scientific methods. Many practitioners of CWM have raised concerns about the safety and efficacy of TCM practices. The traditional examination includes four diagnostic methods: inquiry, inspection, auscultation and olfaction, and palpation. Inspection incorporates “tongue diagnosis,” an assessment of the tongue and its coating. There are no known studies comprehensively evaluating the clinical diagnostic reliability of the four-part TCM examination, although, some assessments of tongue diagnosis do exist. This poster reviews available published research to address the reliability of tongue inspection and presents possible evidence of the efficacy of this ancient practice.
A Review on The Discovery of Dendritic Cells
Miranda Anderson, Northeastern State University
Dendritic cells are the key accessory cell used by the mammalian adaptive immune system . Their main function being to recognize antigenic material and present it to the surface of lymphocytes.In 1978 Steinman began his research by purifying dendritic cell from mice spleens. This along with mixed leukocyte reaction testing lead Steinman to first propose the idea, of dendritic cells as the accessory cell for adaptive immunity. Steinman and his team proved the importance and existence of dendritic cells. Upon this proof, opportunities for further research became endless for medicine.
A Review on: Expression Pattern of the Alpha-Kafirin Promoter Coupled with a Signal Peptide fromSorghum bicolor L.Moench by N. Ahmad, R. Sant, M. Bokan, K. Steadman and I. Godwin
Catherine Richardson, Northeastern State University
The increased research investigating the potential of seed-specific promoters as well as the rapid development of reproducible transformation systems has further encouraged the bioengineering of cereal plants for the production of valuable protein products in seeds. The research the the authors have done for this study involved coupling promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes with signal sequence (ss) and isolating them from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA . For this study,the authors used the α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) containing the endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMBUbi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide(SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, which preserves the fluorescent properties of GFP.
A Review on: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Lauren Tull, Northeastern State University
Dr. John B. Gurdon and Dr. Shinya Yamanaka were awarded with the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their research that revealed mature, differentiated cells have the ability to be reprogrammed to revert back to a pluripotent stem cell state. Prior to their discovery the common thought in regards to mature cells was that once a cell differentiated it was unable to revert back to a pluripotent stem cell state. This view was changed when Dr. Gurdon discovered in 1962 that a nucleus taken from a differentiated frog intestinal epithelial cell had the ability to generate a fully functional tadpole when transplanted to an enucleated egg. Despite Dr. Gurdon’s work, the question of whether an intact differentiated cell had the ability to be completely reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Dr. Yamanaka would answer this question in 2006. His research proved that the introduction of four transcription factors into a differentiated cell was enough to revert the cell to a pluripotent state. This discovery has the potential to be applied to assist in creating disease models for pharmaceutical application, which would eliminate the problems with the animal models. One problem is that some drugs that are effective in animal models such as mice are not effective in human patients. This would be eliminated because the patient’s own cells could be used in the disease model. Also this discovery could be applied in regenerative medicine, also known as cell therapy.
A review: Acupuncture in Preventing Atrial Fibrillation
Faith Fennell, Northeastern State University
Atrial fribillation (AF) is the most common clinical arrhythmia. Age and improved survival in cardiac disease has lead to an increase in AF patients. AF patients are symptomatic and have a reduced physical ability and higher risk for thromboembolic events. AF is also associated with increased mortality. To control sinus rhythm and prevent further recurrences, antiarrhythmic drugs are commonly used even with their limited efficacy and adverse effects. In traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture has been found to manage certain tachycardia with recent Western studies showing treatment for arterial hypertension and chest pain. This study attempts to look at the efficacy of acupuncture in preventing or reducing the rate of AF recurrences in patients.
A Service Learning Project Connects Dietetics Students with the Realities of Teenage Mothers and their Children
Tawni Holmes, Jenny Bilodeau, Katherine Powell, Rachel Hill, Sarah Rakowski, University of Central Oklahoma
Service Learning is a key tenant of transformative learning. Dietetic students in the Medical Nutrition Therapy course at the University of Central Oklahoma had the opportunity to learn valuable hands on menu planning skills as a service learning project conducted with the Pauline Mayer group home in Oklahoma City in Fall of 2012. The home is a place for teenage girls who are pregnant or have infant children to live while they finish high school. A previous visit with the group home gave members of the class observational data regarding the needs of the girls and their children and the circumstances in which they live. At the request of the home students in the class revised the current menus to meet the 2010 Hunger Free Kids Act guidelines for both teenagers and infants. The class conducted a literature search as well as researched the needs of both age groups for nutrient intakes and portion sizes. User-friendly tools for meal planning and grocery shopping were also developed so that the girls could learn life-long skills which could potentially affect their future ability to care for their children once they were living on their own. Follow-up with the Director of the home has provided positive feedback on the use of the menus and the usefulness of the tools for this age group. Feeback from the students of the course indicated that this was a valuable learning experience and provided an excellent opportunity for meeting a needed competency skill.
A simplified proof of the Kantorovich theorem for solving equations using scalar telescopic series
Ioannis Argyros, Cameron University
The Kantorovich theorem is an important tool in Mathematical Analysis for solving nonlinear equations in abstract spaces by approximating a locally unique solution using the popular Newton-Kantorovich method.Many proofs have been given for this theorem using techniques such as the contraction mapping principle,majorizing sequences, recurrent functions and other techniques.These methods are rather long,complicated and not very easy to understand in general by undergraduate students.In the present paper we present a proof using simple telescopic series studied first in a Calculus II class.
A Statistical Analysis of the “Fairness” of the NCAA Basketball Tournaments
Minzhe Wu, Tracy Morris, University of Central Oklahoma
The “fairness” of tournament designs is of crucial importance in competitive sports. For example, in a previous paper, Morris and Bokhari (2012) showed that in certain situations it is more advantageous to be seeded 10, 11, or 12 than 8 or 9. The objective of this research was to examine the “fairness” (meaning higher-ranked teams should perform better, on average, than lower-ranked teams) of the NCAA basketball tournaments relative to other tournament variations, such as reseeding and round robin designs. Data was collected from ( concerning seed and game outcome (win or loss) for both the men’s and women’s tournaments dating back to the beginning of each tournament (1939 for the men’s and 1982 for the women’s). This data was used to develop a model for estimating the probabilities of any given seed beating any other seed. These estimated probabilities were then used to simulate the outcomes of other tournament designs.
A Study of Varied Dopant Levels in BIMEVOX Compounds by Microwave Synthesis
Dwight Myers, Joshua Smith, East Central University
Oxide ion conductors such as the BIMEVOX series compounds have applications in electrolyte membranes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) [1]. BIMEVOX compounds were synthesized by substituting a different metal ion for vanadium in Bi4V2O11 to give Bi4V1-xMe11-3x/2. This study focused on manganese, silver, and gallium doped BIMEVOX phases with x=0.1-0.4. The microwave assisted synthesis method of BIMEVOX has proven to greatly decrease reaction times [2]. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the products are of high purity. FTIR analysis has also been performed to characterize the compounds. Compaction of materials and different crucible materials have also been examined. 1. F. Abraham, J. C. Boivin, G. Mairesse, and G. Nowogrocki, Solid State Ionics 40/41 (1990) 934-937 2. Vaidhyanathan, K. Balaji, and K. J. Rao, Chem. Mater. 1998, 10, 3400-3404
Academic Freedom and Its Implications on Students' Political Ideology
Ibrahim Nour, East Central University
Nowadays a majority of college students are not involved in the political process of their states or their countries for they believe their participation is inefficient, or their roles as voters does not make a difference. Students declare themselves as “independent” or “no party” registered voters. For they believe that independent registered voters do not necessarily need to vote. Yet, a Gallup Poll report released in 2011, shows 40% of Americans identify as independent registered voters and this number is expected to increase. On the college level, even though there are no specific instructions from administrations to professors to refrain from expressing political views, professors tend to be neutral and not willing to express personal opinions regarding political issues. As instructors are shy to express their political opinions in classes. Both sides, professors and students, are not aware about the importance of this exchange of information, which helps students to create and shape a personal political ideology. The goal of this research is to investigate the unspoken code that restricts instructors from speaking freely in classes, and find measures that rectify the problem.
Academic Predictors for Success in Optometry School
Randall Sauer, Northeastern State University
The purpose of this retrospective study is to examine the predictive reliability of incoming ACT scores, undergraduate grade point average, undergraduate science grade point average, optometry school GPA, and Optometry Admission Test scores in predicting success in optometric education. Success in optometry school is defined as National Board of Examiners in Optometry Part One score and cumulative optometry school GPA. Eleven years of student data (2000-2011) collected from Northeastern State University- Oklahoma College of Optometry. 275 student academic transcripts and admission data were made unidentifiable to by a school administrator. Data was analyzed using a step-wise linear regression. Total OAT score was found to be statistically significant to performance on NBEO Part 1 test scores (R=.556). Correlation improved when undergraduate GPA was added to the model (R=.601). NBEO Part 1 scores can be predicted by the following probability model equation: NBEO=-770.705 + (2.923 x total OAT score) + (90.981 x undergraduate GPA).In predicting optometry school GPA upon graduation, undergraduate GPA (p<.001) (R=.509) was the most correlative. The ability to predict optometry school GPA improved when total OAT score was included with undergraduate GPA (R=.570). Optometry school GPA can be predicted by the following equation: Optometry school GPA= .088 + (.537 x undergraduate GPA) + (.005 x OAT).
Acoustic Attenuation Coefficient
Kristen Howard, East Central University
Through this research I will obtain the acoustic attenuation coefficient in saltwater. In this experiment I used a 1MHz and a 4MHz transducer as well as rock salt and table salt. To find the attenuation coefficient I poured water mixed with salt increasing from five to eighty grams of either rock salt or pure salt into a cell block. I then used the 1MHz or 4MHz transducer to determine the amount of time it took the sound waves emitted from the transducer to travel from one end of the cell block and back. To find the acoustic attenuation coefficient I used Beer’s Law α=((-ln(A/Ao))/2fx). A is the second peak in mV, Ao is the first peak in mV, f is the frequency of the transducer, and x is the cell width. The values of the attenuation coefficient were plotted against the values of concentration of salt to examine patterns between the saltwater. The results of rock salt: 1MHz transducer α=-0.395 dB/MHzcm, 4MHz transducer α=-0.328 dB/MHzcm. The results of pure salt: 1MHz transducer α=-0.359 dB/MHzcm, 4MHz transducer α=0.184 dB/MHzcm. The acoustic attenuation coefficient and optical attenuation coefficient may have a linear or predictable relationship. If this idea is correct it can help with the over treatment and under treatment of patients during laser surgery. By improving the technique to obtain the acoustic attenuation coefficient the relationship with optical attenuation coefficient can be found. We must also examine why alpha is negative and
Adaptation and application of Medieval and Renaissance European Martial Arts Manuscripts for the creation of safe, non-violent, and tangible historical technique for replication upon the modern stage.
Erick Wolfe, University of Central Oklahoma
Adaptation and application of Medieval and Renaissance European Martial Arts Manuscripts for the creation of safe, non-violent, and tangible historical technique for replication upon the modern stage.
Affective Neuroscience: A Perspective on Psychopathology
Heather Coleman, Northeastern State University
The interdisciplinary field of Affective neuroscience investigates the neural mechanisms of emotion. The integration of the psychological and biological perspective has provided a greater understanding of psychological processes; in particular mental illness. This poster will provide an overview of this emerging field including theoretical approaches, meta-analysis conducted to date, and current methodology of investigation. Also, the contribution of Affective neuroscience research in understanding psychopathology and implications for future study will be discussed. The role of emotion regulation within a psychopathology framework will be emphasized.
Agréments du Chant: French Late Baroque and Early Classical Vocal Ornamentation According to the Primary Sources
Emerald Lessley, University of Central Oklahoma
While researching French baroque performance practices, it became apparent that there is a disparity among some early authors, especially in the area of French baroque vocal ornamentation. The goal of this project was to see if any correlation could be found in the ornament descriptions, and if so, whether the correlations reveal any performance trends. The selection of texts used was limited to French baroque and early classical sources discussing vocal ornamentation. The texts used are Bacilly, Remarques curieuses sur l’art de bien chanter (1671), Loulié, Eléments ou principes de musique (1696), L’Affilard, Principes très faciles pour bien apprendre la musique (1697), Bérard, L’Art du chant (1755), Corrette, Le Parfait maître à chanter (1758), Lecuyer, Principes de l’Art du Chant (1769), and Raparlier, Principes de Musique: les Agréments du chant (1772). Texts in their original languages were used so as not to be subject to misinterpretation of English translations. The intention was to identify a standard repertoire of ornaments used during the century researched. The primary relationship between the authors implied by the information is one based on the time period in which the respective authors were active. Additionally, there seems to be a definitive standard repertoire of ornaments based on the lists, descriptions, and musical examples given by the selected authors.
Alexander’s Excellent Adventures: An Examination of Cultural Influence on Adaptations of “The Romance of Alexander”
Rose Welch, Cameron University
The Romance of Alexander is a collection of myths and legends surrounding the exploits of Alexander of Macedonia, which were rewritten repeatedly during the 4th through 16th centuries in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and a variety of European vernaculars. The Romance of Alexander changes in each cultural setting as different parts of the story are emphasized, along with the accompanying art, in a variety of ways. Due to its popularity and prevalence, the Romance of Alexander is a good touchstone to examine the differences between these cultures. This is a survey of different versions of the tale, with emphasis on three key areas of study: (1) those parts and sections from the original story which are included, (2) the editorial changes in those parts, and (3) the changes in the artwork. The survey uses an empirical-analytical methodology by gathering archival research created by highly regarded resources, including professional journals and books.
Alleviating Stress in Nursing Students through Peer Mentoring
Brian Gatewood, Alvin Teh, Beth Cochran, Cynthia Murray, Tracy Morris, University of Central Oklahoma
Project SCHOLAR (Statistical Consulting Help for Organizational Leaders and Academic Researchers) is a student statistical consulting service at the University of Central Oklahoma. SCHOLAR students work under the supervision of faculty from the department of mathematics and statistics on various projects submitted from other researchers from both on and off campus. In 2012, SCHOLAR students were approached by a group of students from Newman University in Wichita, KS to analyze some experimental data concerning the effects of peer mentoring on the stress levels of nurse anesthetist students. A group of nurse anesthetist students were given a survey concerning stress. Following the survey, half of the students participated in a peer mentoring program (experimental group) and half did not (control group). After the peer mentoring program the students repeated the survey concerning stress. The mean scores on six of the twenty items for the experimental group decreased significantly more than the mean scores on the same items for the control group. This indicates that the peer mentoring program may be effective at reducing the stress levels of nurse anesthetist students at Newman University.
Altered TNF-Alpha And IL-10 Cytokines In Bladder And Kidney Of Mice With Increased Uropathogenesis
Sepideh Darbandi, Anil Kaul, Rashmi Kaul, Richard Glass, Oklahoma State University
Introduction: Proinflammatory TNFα and anti-inflammatory Interleukin (IL)-10 cytokines play an important role in innate immune responses during uropathogenesis. Early cytokine activation events that occur in the bladder immediately following urinary tract infection (UTI) are poorly understood. Evidence from our lab shows that estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha deficiency are important susceptibility factors in UTI pathogenesis as observed in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene knock-out (KO) mice. We hypothesize that ER alpha disruption alters TNFα and IL-10 induction in the bladder contributing to adverse UTI outcome. We studied the kinetics of TNFα and IL-10 in the bladder and kidney of ERα KO and wild-type (WT) mice at 2 and 7 days post UTI by Dr E. coli. Methods: Protein immunohistochemistry was performed in paraffin embedded kidney and bladder tissue sections from infected mice using HRP-DAB system. Results: TNFα was predominantly seen in the cells of transitional epithelium of the bladder and IL-10 expression was found in both bladder smooth muscles and uroepithelium. ERα KO mice showed delayed induction of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, but increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 production in both bladder and kidney at the early time point resulting in adverse UTI outcome in these mice. Conclusions: Timely induction of both TNFα and IL-10 at the early onset of UTI is crucial. Therapeutic modulation of TNFα and IL-10 may se
American Indian Literature: The Emerging, Established, and Iconic Voices of Generation X
Timothy Petete, Shay Rahm-Barnett, University of Central Oklahoma
The Native American Renaissance (c. 1968-92) is an era noted for the proliferation of American Indian literary authorship. Writers such as Louise Erdrich, Hanay Geiogamah, Joy Harjo, N. Scott Momaday, and Leslie Marmon Silko transformed genres, produced masterpieces, garnered international interest, and heightened expectations. These authors, along with as dozens of others, laid the groundwork for the next generation of American Indian scholars, novelists, poets, dramatists, fictionists, and filmmakers. Generation X writers (born in/since 1965) include Sherman Alexie, Mandy Smoker Broaddus, Natalie Diaz, Jennifer Foerster, Santee Frazier, Stephen Graham Jones, Beth Piatote, Cynthia Leitich Smith, David Treuer, and Daniel H. Wilson. In terms of purpose, style, and content, some have elected to write in the manner of their predecessors, whereas others have adopted a different approach. In each instance, their rationales are based on several conditions, including artistic tendencies, contemporary technologies, social and political climates, and adapting markets. This ongoing research project has produced several scholarly, teaching, and service activities.
Americans at War: The Political Impact of Photography
Tarron Vogt, East Central University
Does war photography make people feel differently about war? The poster will feature pictures of every war starting with the Civil War through the War in Iraq. The research will explain how photography changes how the American people feel about war.
America's Looming Retirement Problem
Mary Sheets, Micah Zink, Sara Zink, University of Central Oklahoma
Personal retirement funding comes from Social Security (SSA) and savings. Since SSA is not meant to provide luxuries in retirement, Americans need to save in order to keep ongoing lifestyles. Currently, America’s savings rate is dropping and relying more on SSA to provide a higher percentage of retirement funding. This reliance on one source of funding becomes dangerous. Americans have a multitude of options when discussing ways to save for the future. Retirement accounts are the most popular way of saving. These retirement accounts are encouraged by the US government and receive special tax treatments.
An Algorithm for Civil Aircraft Altitude Adjustment Over Precipitous Terrain
David Stapleton, University of Central Oklahoma
Some results are presented from an algorithm that uses Level 1 DTED (Digital Terrain Elevation Database) data to compute a database of baseline altitude adjustments over the earth that can be applied to offset meteorological risks posed to IFR aircraft over precipitous terrain. Each baseline adjustment is called a Precipitous Point Value or PPV, and the database consists of one PPV assigned per point to grid points on the earth’s surface. At each grid point the algorithm considers statistics of nearby points and constructs a best fit plane. The height adjustment for a given segment of a given procedure is obtained by scaling the largest PPV in the flight segment. The purpose of the algorithm is to develop a database of offsets for civil aircraft flight procedure designers that improves upon current algorithms.
An Analysis of Online Learning Problems and Pitfalls in Accounting Curriculum
Jane Calvert, University of Central Oklahoma
Distance education is quickly becoming prevalent on university campuses. This new educational platform is relatively new and learning theory and "best practices" with respect to accounting curriculum are in their infancy. There are several significant deficiencies in current online learning modalities. This presentation discusses the most important of these issues that will affect the development and management of online learning for accounting students.
An Analysis of State Park Self-sufficiency
Hung-Ju Chien, Kao-Wen (Grace) Chang, Lowell Caneday, Oklahoma State University
State Park System protects natural resources and provides natural-based recreation for all people. State Park System attracts an annual attendance of over 700 million which is three times more than the attendance of National Parks. In FY2010, there are 2,194 state parks in the United States and 2,121 state parks are in operation. However, with recent economic trends and budget short-falls at the state level, several state park systems have been directed to move toward self-sufficiency in operations. Self-sufficiency is that an agency is able to generate enough operating revenues to cover its own operating expenditures. Thus, the analysis of self-sufficiency focuses on the operating revenues and operating expenditures. The purposes of this research aim to investigate the state park self-sufficient status and to analyze financial structures of operating expenditures and operating revenue sources of State Park System.
An Android Shopping Platform
Rad Alrifai, Brent Spencer, Northeastern State University
Customers often have trouble finding prices and other information about items when shopping at retail stores. This application helps customers to find information about items in the store by using their mobile phone. The software can scan the bar code of an item to retrieve information about it from the store database. The application sends a message to the database to request the needed information about the item before allowing the user to add that item to the shopping cart. The application uses the camera to scan a barcode then sends it to the database to match against data stored in the catalog class. The code can then displays the retrieved information about an item before adding it to the shopping cart.
An Approach for Raising Female Information Assurance and Security Workforce
Myung Ah Park, Michelle Hepner, University of Central Oklahoma
The gender inequity in the IT field has been addressed with different approaches such as outreach programs for middle/high school female students and gender-inclusive instructional methods to retain female students in the IT-related disciplines. However, efforts to promote future female IAS workforce have rarely been conducted although the gender inequity in the IAS field is even starker than it is in the general IT area. In this work, we will discuss problems with existing approaches for IAS education and propose a holistic IAS educational strategy which not only addresses those problems but also may be effective in bringing up a female workforce for the IAS field. Finally, we will discuss the experiences in our first attempt to implement the proposal.
An Assessment of Teaching Economics with The Simpsons
Shiouyen Chu , Christopher Shane, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Innovative pedagogies, such as classroom experiments and technology supplements have been developed and employed in teaching Economics. Especially in a general education classroom, students come from a variety of disciplines and lack sufficient background knowledge of economics. Alternate teaching methods other than traditional chalk-and-talk help increase students’ attention and engage them with the lecture material. This paper aims to quantify the effectiveness of teaching Economics with the American TV show The Simpsons. We evaluate students’ understanding of economic concepts by comparing their performance in answering Simpsons-related questions on pop quizzes and exams. Our results indicate that showing The Simpsons helps students who earned a grade below C gain an advantage in answering Simpsons-related questions on the exam, especially for definition-based Macroeconomics questions.
An Economic Analysis of Wind Capacity
Cody Woods, Zhen Zhu, University of Central Oklahoma
Wind generation capacity in the U.S. has increased rapidly in more recent years. In our study, we provide an overview of the trend in wind generation capacity and the relevant discussions concerning the micro-level determination of the capacity. In addition, we provide empirical evidence at the more macro-level in order to provide a better understanding of the determinants of wind capacity. Other variables chosen in addition to the production tax credit include GDP and oil prices as GDP provides an ultimate need to power and higher oil prices motivate energy users to seek alternative energy. Our evidence strongly supports the notion that the production tax credit increased wind capacity while GDP and oil prices are the internal drive for wind energy.
An Evening with Louis XIV
Sion Honea, John Clinton, Tess Remy-Schumacher, University of Central Oklahoma
On February 19, 2013 the Center for Historical Performance presented its inaugural event, the historical performance concert “An Evening with Louis XIV.” The Center for Historical Performance is a new entity of the College of Fine Arts and Design’s School of Music. This concert was devoted to music of the time of Louis XIV and featured a historical performance of François Couperin’s famed ”Apotheose de Lully,” a programmatic work extolling the musical genius of Jean-Baptiste Lully, effective creator of the French operatic tradition Tragédie Lyrique. Production of the concert required extensive research in historical performance, especially musical interpretation and ornamentation, in order as nearly as possible to recreate the music as heard at the time of Louis XIV. The work was also performed on historical reproduction instruments. The dean of the College of Fine Arts and Design, Dr. John Clinton, conducted an ensemble composed of faculty artists and School of Music alumni.
An Experimental Study of the Comparison of Water and Oil Flow Through Vertical Pipes.
Krystal Brantley, East Central University
The purpose of this research is to study and compare water flow versus oil flow through vertical pipes. This experiment is set to find the difference of the fluid travel through vertical pipes based on pressure, volume and fluid viscosity. In this experiment, there are two facilities that are being used. Both of these facilities are vertical test stations with both top chambers being 2 inches in diameter and the barrels measuring 1 inch in diameter. After the water and the oil are shot through the facilities, the results measure the volume of fluid ejected over the same time period. The results indicate that oil and water travel differently through vertical pipes due to the relationship of viscosity to volume. Constant volume output over time requires greater pressure for the oil which has greater viscosity.
An Exploratory Multi-Campus Survey on Student Study Habits
Marty Ludlum, Brittany Smith, Kara Ludlum, University of Central Oklahoma
The conventional wisdom assumes college students do not study as much as in previous generations. The current project is a preliminary examination of this assumption. In the current project, we surveyed business students (n=725) across five campuses in fall, 2009. We found disappointing results on the amount of time college students spend studying. We found significant differences between students on their study habits based on several demographic factors. We conclude by discussing the implications for further research in this area.
An Investigation of the Food Environment in Carter County
Kevin Fink, Christi Schultz, Deana Hildebrand, Jonathan Yuhas, Mendy Spohn, Nancy Betts, Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma recently ranked as the fifth most obese state in the United States. Two-thirds of Oklahoma adults are classified as overweight or obese. Closer proximity to grocery stores and supermarkets encourages healthy eating behaviors and obesity prevention while convenience stores and other smaller venues are not associated with healthy eating and obesity prevention. The purpose of the study was to examine the food environment for food outlets in Carter County, Oklahoma. To assess the environment, the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) was utilized to examine the availability, price, and quality of healthy versus regular food options. Higher scores represented a more healthy overall food environment while lower scores indicated an unhealthy food environment (-9 to 57). Utilizing ArcGIS, locations and food outlets were mapped. The overall assessments were low within the county. The mean county score was 9.14. The highest rated store assessment was 42. Overall, grocery stores provided a higher mean subscale score for availability of healthy food items than the other store-types examined. Grocery stores also provided a statistically significant healthier food environment for the overall NEMS-S and availability scores. More convenience stores were available than grocery stores within the county.
An Iterative Approach to the Extended Broncho Tower Puzzle
Stephen Gregg, Britney Hopkins, Juan Orozco, Kristi Karber, Thomas Milligan, Tyler Powell, University of Central Oklahoma
We explore the Broncho Tower, a modification of the Tower of Hanoi puzzle, by constructing a computer program. This program iteratively exhausts the possible moves that a player can make when solving the puzzle.
An Oasis in the Wasteland: An Analysis on Fred Rogers' Appeal to the United States Senate
Colton Rowe, Cameron University
Fred Rogers, better known as Mr. Rogers, did not seem like a fighter. His television show, Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood was renowned and loved for his insightful, soft spoken ways. But in 1969, Mr. Rogers went before the senate and fought. The stakes were the future of public access television funding, and Mr. Rogers brought the greatest weapon imaginable: rhetoric. Mr. Rogers exemplified what made his show different frrom the other shows in the television "wasteland." By placing his argument in a larger context, Mr. Rogers not only defended his show and the future mental welfare of children, but by extension, the future of America. He also depicted himself as the kindly guide to that future. This analysis uses the literature of Halford Ryan and Ware and Linkugel to examine Mr. Rogers' speech.
Analysis of Barack Obama’s 2013 Inaugural Address (Through the Lens of Dramatism)
Troy Ward, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
The purpose of this rhetorical analysis is to apply the concepts of the dramatic pentad created by Kenneth Burke to uncover the motives of persuasive speakers. In my analysis of Obama’s 2013 Inauguration speech, I argue he uses the pentads to motivate the audience. I argue his philosophy and intentions are that a collectivistic American culture can face today’s challenges. I also argue that the most obvious pentad used by President Obama is “agent.” This pentad is described as the person or people who performed the act. Throughout the speech, he referred to “we” many times creating a sense of unity as American people. He used “we” as a “God Term,” in which all other positive terms are subservient to it and promote America as a collectivistic culture. Another dominant pentad is Obama’s references to the “agency” pentad, which is the method to accomplish a deed. When he recited “we will defend our people and uphold our values through strength of arms and rule of law,” he revealed a method of achieving unity through our constitution. A third dominant pentad used by Obama is “scene.” For Obama, the scenes are the historical context and the realities of our time. His references to these revealed his argument that all men and women are created equal both in the eyes of God and the law. I conclude his motives are to heal the bitter divisions created during the election campaign and
Analysis of Oklahoma mushroom fruiting-body odors using GCMS and Solid Phase Microextraction
John Bowen, Alex Matunas, Clark Ovrebo, Kaci Rosales, University of Central Oklahoma
Various mushrooms including varieties of stinkhorns use a reproductive strategy involving disagreeable odors to disseminate their spores by drawing flies. In this study, an analytical method using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Solid Phase Microextraction was developed to analyze the odor causing compounds of Lysurus mokusia and other wild mushrooms. Results from four species of stinkhorn mushrooms will be presented and the compounds identified in each species will be compared.
Analysis of the Spread and Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Bacteria Among Wild Animal Populations of Bison and Longhorn Cattle in the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge
Dennis Frisby, Joseph Kheir, Michael Kaiser, Tahzeeba Frisby, Cameron University
The use of antibiotics and other antimicrobials has become commonplace in modern society. Not only are they used to treat infections and disease in human clinics and veterinary medicine, but also they are routinely used as feed additives in animal and fish farms. Consequently, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are routinely isolated from farm animals. There is growing concern and mounting evidence for the spread of these resistant strains into the environment. While a number of studies have focused on the spread and persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among farm animals and human populations, there is little data available about the levels of resistant bacteria in wild animal populations. Environments, such as livestock farms and human populations, with continuous selective pressure would be expected to have higher levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria than a nature preserve or wildlife refuge where selective pressure is expected to be low. The focus of this study is to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria in bison and longhorn wild animal populations on the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge in comparison to agricultural cattle. Suspensions of fecal samples from each animal group were plated on MacConkey agar to select for fecal coliforms which were subsequently tested for resistance to various antibiotics. Initial studies indicate surprisingly higher than expected levels of tetracycline resistance among bison.
Analysis of the X-Linked KX Blood Group Gene (McLeod Syndrome)
Jonathan Nahmias, Jason Onarecker, Kathi McDowell, Marc Scott, Patrick Schrepel, Zach Burns, Northeastern State University
Mcleod syndrome is a rare and historically significant genetic disease in humans caused by a mutation in the X-linked Kx blood group gene, given by the symbol XK. Using the gene catalog, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), we found the XK gene is responsible for encoding a putative membrane transporter expressed in all parts of the body, but is primarily found in nervous tissue, heart, and red blood cells. The chromosomal location of the gene is Xp21.1. Using Genbank, another online database, we ascertained that the accession number is NM_021083, the coding sequence is 5091 base pairs, and is derived from an mRNA molecule. Using a BLAST search we were unable to obtain a genomic sequence for this gene, but the data showed a strong correlation to genomic sequences in other species. Using Spidey we performed a cross-species analysis between the XK gene on a human and a gorilla which indicated a 99.6% match in identity; only 10 of the base pairs out of the 1456 base pairs do not align. The OMIM report shows that the XK gene encodes for an antigen of the Kell blood group system often resulting in acanthocytosis. Through Genbank we learned the locus of this protein (NP_066569) and the amino acid chain length (444); however, we were unable to obtain the structure of the protein using the molecular model database.
Analysis of WWZ
Tobyn Large, East Central University
We use a competing species model with growth and death rates both researched and inferred to diagnose the zombie apocalypse. Using the population of Oklahoma and hypothesized statistics for zombies, we develop a system of differential equations to find the population of both the humans and zombies at any given time, if the apocalypse were to actually happen.
Analyzing Modulators of Vesicle Fusion and Synaptic Signaling
Jamin Brown, Andrea Holgado, Elizabeth St. John, Monte Stone, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Synaptic transmission in C. elegans is mediated by VSM-1, a SNARE interacting protein that prevents the formation of SNARE complexes. Our preliminary results show that in the absence of VSM-1, C. elegans experience an increased rate of synaptic transmission, suggesting that in this case SNARE complex formation occurs without inhibition. In characterizing the functional role of VSM-1, we hypothesize that VSM-1 may act by preventing vesicle fusion, thus inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters. Mutant rescue attempts using microinjections of recombinant DNA plasmids suggest that expression of VSM-1 fused to GFP in nerve cells alone is not sufficient to reverse the effects of the VSM-1 mutation and restore the mutant to the wild-type phenotype. To further elucidate whether lack of rescue was due to expression in neurons only or due to GFP altering the normal functional role of VSM-1, we began producing transgenic lines expressing VSM-1 and fluorescently labeled VSM-1 in muscle cells, nerve cells, and both. Initial rescue analyses using an aldicarb medium followed by additional studies using transgenic lines show that expression of VSM-1 did not result in a reversion to the wild-type phenotype. Instead, we scored a significant hypersensitivity to the aldicarb, indicative of enhanced synaptic activity. Construction of additional nematode lines expressing non-fluorescent versions of VSM-1 in these tissues is underway.
Analyzing Wheelchair Motion Data
Ying Zhang, Jicheng Fu, University of Central Oklahoma
This study is a part of an intelligent wheelchair project. The aim is to analyze wheelchair driving data to capture patterns. All the data were collected using accelerometers. Specifically, there are six basic wheelchair motions: moving straight forward and backward, turning left and right, and stopping and starting. We also found that transitioning data existed between any two motions. However, values of the transition data are different. To reduce the variations as much as possible, our protocol used wheelchair’s staying put as landmarks. Before taking any motions, the wheelchair remains stationary for 2 minutes. Hence, we could easily identify these landmarks from the acceleration data. Based on sample data, we could classify new data using KNN (K-Nearest Neighbors) in Matlab. A new data item is classified based on the similarity to the majority of its K closest neighbors. We tried different K values and found that the best K is 4 just in our test model.
Android TextEncrypt
Rad Alrifai, Clinton Parker, Northeastern State University
With a drastic increase in high profile hacking attacks in the last few years, the general public has become increasingly aware of computer security issues. Cell phones, despite being mobile computers now, are generally not considered unsafe by the average person as long as they maintain possession of it. Unfortunately, the most common encryption standards used by cell phone transmissions currently, A5/1 and A5/3 (known as KASUMI) have been shown to be weak and vulnerable to attack with very modest computational resources. Additionally, due to the nature of the SMS service architecture, text messages that are sent are stored in multiple locations other than the sender and receiver. TextEncrypt attempts to mitigate these weaknesses by encrypting a text message with AES 128bit encryption before ever broadcasting the message, thereby adding an additional layer of significant protection behind the obfuscating layer of the current lacking standards. Should an attacker either decrypt the radio signal or gain access to an SMS server, they will still need to decrypt the individual messages. This is currently a nontrivial task.
Anthelmintic Efficacy of Medicinal Herbs in Goats Infected with Nematode Parasites
Arthur Goetsch, Daowei Zhou, Rhongzhen Zhong, Zaisen Wang, Langston University
Boer does naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus from grazing pasture were allocated to five groups and moved to a barn to investigate anthelmintic efficacy of three medicinal herbs, Rheum palmatum L. (rhubarb), Meliae cortex (melia bark), and Quisqualis indica L. (rangoon creeper). Does were given ad libitum access to grass hay and water and a limited amount of a concentrate-based supplement. Treatments were control, rhubarb, melia bark, rangoon creeper, and a 1:1:1 mixture of the three herbs. The herbs in powder form were mixed with water just before drenching. After being acclimated for 7 days, does were drenched with water alone or with the respective herbs at 20 g/day for 10 days. Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 13, and 16 after the start of drenching for worm egg count. Blood samples were taken on day 0 and 13 for measuring packed cell volume. After 10 days of treatment, none of the herbs showed anthelmintic effects. Compared with control does, does treatment with rhubarb and the mixture had higher packed cell volume; however, the increases may have been due to scouring in response to treatment with rhubarb. In conclusion, these herbs were not effective anthelmintics for the most problematic internal parasite of goats, H. contortus, in much of the US.
Antidiabetic Effect of Transgenic and Wildtype Safflowers
Noor Ahmed, Northeastern State University
Safflower, an agricultural crop grown for thousands of years, has been utilized in Iranian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. A transgenic strain of the Carthamus tinctorius plant was recently developed to produce human insulin for diabetic patients. Insulin is usually obtained from the pancreas of some animals or harvested from genetically engineered bacteria (Escherichia coli) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however, these methods of insulin production are expensive and demand for this biopharmaceutical is high and expected to sharply increase. Transgenic safflowers, which can efficiently produce a higher supply of insulin at a lower cost, have the capability for meeting the climbing demand for insulin. In the study of non-transgenic safflowers, hydroalcoholic extract was isolated and used to treat diabetically induced rats to determine if it had any anti-diabetic effect. In the study of transgenic safflowers, the human insulin gene was inserted, inducing the plants to produce insulin, which was then harvested by grounding the seeds and extracting the oil.
Antioxidant Inhibition of Keratinocyte Invasion of a Synthetic Dermis
Attika Secondi, Melville Vaughan, Rose State College, University of Central Oklahoma
Keratinocytes are skin cells located in the epidermis under normal circumstances; these cells are also involved in nonmelanoma skin cancers. The experiment performed tested the hypothesis that treating with anti-oxidants would decrease the invasion of the Keratinocytes into the more dermal layer. The experiment was set up by creating synthetic wound tissue made with skin fibroblasts and rat tail collagen. The wound samples were incubated allowing the fibroblasts to reorganize the collagen after mixing. Following this the artificial skin tissue was allowed to contract and grow in a submerged environment for 2 days. Then precancerous keratinocytes that are known to invade a setting filled with fibroblasts were placed on top to affix to the wound tissue. Then the tissues were brought to the surface of a culture media by placing in a Transwell insert that allows nourishment from below and (both controlled and treated) were grown like this for two weeks. The tissues were then collected and prepared for sectioning. The sections were stained, viewed and photographed. The stained sections suggested that antioxidant treatment had a positive effect. If given time we can see how the keratinocytes tell the difference between where they are supposed to be (epidermal layer) and where they are supposed to stop (dermis layer) or when the confusion for the cells to differentiate take place. This will be performed using standard staining techniques to identify proteins such as keratin.
Anti-tumor immunity induced by combination of glycated chitosan and high intensity focused ultrasound
Wei Chen, University of Central Oklahoma
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used for cancer treatment using its selective photothermal destruction of target tumor. In this study, a HIFU system was used to treat animal tumors with an immunological stimulation through application of a novel immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC). We stably transduced multimodality molecular imaging probes, including mRFP, firefly luciferase and herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) into murine 4T1 breast cancer cell line. The growth and metastatic tumor cells were detected using the IVIS system and microSPECT/CT system for fluorescence imaging and radionuclide-based imaging. We found that GC has a potential to reduce cell migration in vitro by decreasing the Twist1 expression. We also treated the 4T1-bearing mice using GC, HIFU and HIFU-GC. The results showed that tumor metastasis was apparently suppressed by a combined treatment using HIFU and GC, but not in HIFU or GC alone. Histology two weeks after treatment showed accumulation of macrophages in treated tumors. We also found that plasma collected from mice treated with HIFU-GC could significantly suppress the viability of cultured cells compared to untreated or single treated group. In summary, these results suggest that the HIFU therapy combined with GC can enhance the tumor immunogenicity and tumor control.
Application of a geometric-sensitivity-difference based reconstruction method to improve object depth-localization for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography in a circular outward imaging geometry
Krishna Teja Tokala, Daqing Piao, Oklahoma State University
Purpose: To improve object depth-localization for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) in a circular-array outward-imaging geometry that is subjected to strong sensitivity variation with respect to imaging depth. Approach: We demonstrate FDOT image reconstruction based on geometric-sensitivity-difference (GSD) method that optimizes the data-model fit based on the paired measurements corresponding to two pairs of source-detector that share either the source or the detector, in comparison to the conventional method that optimizes the data-model fit based on the unpaired measurements corresponding to individual pairs of source-detector. The FDOT image reconstruction based on GSD-scheme applied to same-source source-detector pairs is demonstrated using simulated continuous-wave measurements in a circular-array outward-imaging geometry, of which the native sensitivity varies strongly with respect to the depth. The outcomes of GSD-based image reconstruction are compared to those of the conventional baseline method that utilizes the native sensitivity and does not involve depth-compensating scheme. Result: This alternative approach effectively reduces the variation of the reconstruction sensitivity, comparing to the reconstruction based on the native sensitivity of measurement. Conclusion: The GSD method improves the depth localization taking advantage of the source-detector pairing for the fluorescence reconstruction of the anomalies.
Are Students Experiencing Transformative Learning?
Alexandria Assaleh, Cynthia Murray, Ryan Biggerstaff, Sarah Schatz, Tracy Morris, University of Central Oklahoma
Project SCHOLAR (Statistical Consulting Help for Organizational Leaders and Academic Researchers) is a student statistical consulting service at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO). SCHOLAR students work under the supervision of faculty from the department of mathematics and statistics on various projects submitted from other researchers. SCHOLAR students were asked to analyze data collected from the Graduating Student Survey (GSS). Every year, students who apply for graduation at UCO complete this survey. The members of Project SCHOLAR focused their studies on the questions pertaining to Transformative Learning experiences. Through the Transformative Learning tenets, UCO aims to provide a unique learning experience for students who attend the university. These tenets are Discipline Knowledge, Leadership, Problem-Solving, Service Learning and Civic Engagement, Global and Cultural Competencies, and Health and Wellness. We are interested in the impact of these tenets on the student’s overall college experience since their implementation in 2007. We present a statistical analysis of the differences over five years with respect to items concerning the six tenets. We also examined the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) completed by UCO students in 2009 and 2012. Again, only those questions related to the six tenets were analyzed, and those results were compared with the results from the GSS.
Argument Quality: An Examination of the Boston Globe’s Pulitzer Prize Winning Journalism on Stem Cell Research
Jordan Hedrick, Chelsea Neal, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
In this series of Pulitzer Prize winning articles, Gareth Cook introduces the reader to the controversial issue of stem cell research. These stories were written during 2004 when stem cell research was a particularly heated, and contested issue. Cook presents his arguments affirming stem cell research by connecting with the audience emotionally, and by using logical evidence. The central argument is while there are ethical questions surrounding this issue, there is potential for stem cell research to bring healing and prevention of human disease.
Argument Quality: An Examination of The New York Times’ Pulitzer Prize Winning Journalism on Food Safety
Evan Wakefield, Callie Carrell, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
In these ten articles, Michael Moss explores the issues of tainted meat, the meat industry, and government regulation of the food industry. Combining statistical evidence with the introduction of people (characters) harmed by tainted meat, Moss presents an effective narrative to offer explanation of the industry and creating reader engagement. This analysis explores this narrative and concludes that storytelling, and not quantitative evidence, is central to these articles’ explanatory power.
Argument Quality: An Examination of The Washington Post’s Pulitzer Prize Winning Journalism on The Democracy Exportation Project in Yemen
Melissa Haworth-Cox, Brittani Young, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
This analysis focuses on David Finkel’s articles on the Democracy Exportation Project in Yemen, which were written for the Washington Post in 2006. These three articles won a Pulitzer Prize in Explanatory Reporting. This analysis finds the author focused on emotional elements in the story to elevate traditional forms of evidence, such as authority, example, and analogy. In doing so, the reader has a stronger attachment to the Sheiks who desire to end tribal violence in Yemen.
Assessment of Transformative Learning Principles in Undergraduate Fitness Assessment Class
Chelsea Smith, Greg Farnell, University of Central Oklahoma
Transformative learning (TL) is a teaching model that in the recent years has been applied to many universities to allow for a greater educational experience for students. The TL concept is placing the student at the center of their own learning by participating and engaging in their acquisition of knowledge. This research project seeks to describe the effects of all six TL pillars of the University of Central Oklahoma into one class. The six pillars are health and wellness; scholarly activities; global competency; service/civic engagement; leadership; and discipline knowledge. TL as they relate to each of the six pillars will be addressed in an undergraduate kinesiology class through systematic testing, including leadership inventories, discipline quizzes and group work on a specific topic. The students will be in a counterbalanced experimental design and tested at the completion of each topic. The data will be collected by word theme software from the group paper and scores on inventories and discipline quizzes. The researchers hypothesize incorporation of all six principles will lead to a different word theme pattern and higher scores on the quizzes and inventories.
Automated Modular Optical Tweezers
Baha Jassemnejad, University of Central Oklahoma
Since its inception, optical trapping and manipulation by means of lasers has provided a useful way to study microscopic dielectric particles, tissue cells, and cellular organisms. An Optical Tweezers (OT) system is developed here that is both modular and automated; the OT apparatus is entirely composed of breadboard components and controlled by computer. The advantages of this approach are that the system is (1) easier to modify, (2) less expensive, (3) easily repairable, (4) user-friendly, (5) faster, and (6) less prone to random error. Due to its versatility, this type of modular, automated OT system will see applications in extreme conditions, such as deep-sea, subterranean, and extraterrestrial environments.
Automated Speaker Recognition System Based on Spectral and Temporal Analyses of the Speech
Cedric Tinang, Aaron Langston, Mohamed Bingabr, Tommy Le, Trison Graham, University of Central Oklahoma
Automated Speaker Recognition (ASR) is the ability of a machine to accurately recognize a speaker by comparing his/her voice to a voice stored in its memory. Human voice is unique and can be classified by a voice biometric (VB) that is based on the anatomy of the speaker's glottis, nasal cavity, oral cavity, teeth, tongue, and throat constriction. The objective of this research and project is to develop ASR system that extracts the VB from a preset password, uttered by a speaker, and compares it to a VB stored in the system, only granting access if the two voice biometrics match. The voice password was chosen to insure the use of all anatomical parts of the human speech production system, so the extracted VB will be reliable for speaker recognition. The proposed ASR system consists of several subsystems that use different signal processing techniques to extract different parameters of the VB. The subsystems filter out any noise in the speech signal, segment the uttered sentence into words, run a cross correlation in the time and frequency domains to compare articulation and speaking style of the words, extract vowels to compare formants of the vowels, extract the pitch of the speaker, extract the consonant "m" to compare the anatomy of the nasal cavity, and finally perform statistical analysis to determine a match or mismatch between the voice biometrics, based on weighted factors of each test. Seventy percent of the subsystems have been developed and tested successfully.
Automation and Control of a Satellite Antenna Positioning and Alignment System
Baha Jassemnejad, University of Central Oklahoma
The proposed satellite antenna control revolves around dealing with geostationary satellite communication systems. Geostationary satellites have an equatorial orbit, with each satellite corresponding to a section in the sky where a satellite dish is pointing. Stationkeeping for the satellites providers requires them to move the spacecraft within the allowed tolerance for every specific slot in the sky. As the satellites become older, the providers attempt to extend their lifetime by conserving thruster fuel. The fact that the satellite is not in a stationary position requires for a system to be in place in order to maintain signal quality by moving the dish on the ground. The system produced would use software driven motors in order to direct the antenna in the proper direction to maintain signal strength. The system would process the signal received, and use an internal stochastic algorithm in order to determine the maximum power position, which corresponds to the position of the satellite in the sky. The random velocity vectors used in a stochastic algorithm would be able to avoid local extrema and dynamically adjust to find the actual satellite position regardless of any other interference. The device would be able to be deployed in remote and harsh locations that makes travel both a costly endeavor and one full of technician risk.
Automation and Remote Control of an Astronomical Observatory
Baha Jassemnejad, University of Central Oklahoma
The Selman Living Lab, located in northwest Oklahoma, is an astronomical observatory and biological research station which is owned and operated by the University of Central Oklahoma. As an astronomical observatory, it consists of two manually controlled domes, one of which is currently housing a 12” reflector telescope. In order to improve the utility of this remote station, an automation and control system is needed to enable both remote and automated observing. The purpose of this project is to devise a modular system that can easily enable the automation of a typical ash dome/observatory setup. This system makes use of various sensors to track the movement of any telescope stationed in the dome, and moves the dome to match the orientation of the scope. The telescope is then driven by commercially available software designed for the telescope model currently in use at the observatory. Safeguards will prevent the dome from being opened and operated in poor weather conditions, and an automated dust cover and solar filter will protect the optics from the sun during solar observing.
Axis Orientation of PureVision® 2 for Astigmatism at One, Five, and Ten Minutes Lauren Frost*, April Parker*, Latricia Pack†
Lauren Frost, April Parker, Latricia Pack, Northeastern State University
ABSTRACT Purpose. We evaluated the axis orientation of PureVision® 2 for Astigmatism (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) lenses to conclude whether or not these lenses provide successful (± five degrees of six o’clock) orientation. Successful orientation with one diagnostic lens in less than ten minutes will likely encourage the use of this lens in practices and allow practitioners to decide whether or not the implementation of this lens will be time and cost effective. Methods. We fit 60 astigmatic eyes (34 test subjects) with PureVision® 2 for Astigmatism soft toric lenses and recorded the orientation of the lenses at one, five, and ten minute intervals. Results. PureVision® 2 for Astigmatism stabilized within five degrees of six o'clock 38.33%, 58.33%, and 58.33% of the time at one, five, and ten minutes post-application, respectively. Conclusion. PureVision® 2 for Astigmatism positioned within five degrees or less of six o’clock 58.33% of the time at both five and ten minutes. We conclude that a practitioner can expect approximately 60% of PureVision® 2 for Astigmatism initial diagnostic lens toric markings to be oriented within five degrees of six o’clock by five minutes post-insertion. Key Words: PureVision® 2 for Astigmatism, stabilization, rotation, astigmatism, toric _______________________________ * BS † OD, FAAO Northeastern State University Oklahoma College of Optometry
Best Practices for Not-for-Profit Thrift Shops
Trang Nguyen, Robert Epstein, Suzanne Clinton, University of Central Oklahoma
Finding the best practices to provide profit-driven organizations with information that is critical to their development and growth is not a new venue for research. Most studies focus on developing future strategies, planning actions, and measuring performances, but there is no mention of such strategies and actions for not-for-profit (NFP) organizations. The majority of these organizations run their thrift stores in an informal manner and subsequently does not have a thorough strategy. This research draws upon mostly primary sources including articles, academic journals, and research data and statistics. Some of the concerns regarding NFP’s existing practices are poor customer service, a lack of visual merchandising, and poor management of employees with developmentally challenged. Recommendations are made on the most efficient ways regarding management and marketing practices for NFP organizations to better themselves as “businesses” and as philanthropic organizations.
Biodiversity studies of bees: A perspective from species-level systematics
Victor Gonzalez, Michael Engel, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Despite more than 250 years of biodiversity research and the enormous societal relevance of bees, a significant amount of work remains to be done to fully understand their evolutionary history and diversity, as well as to achieve actual conservation and sustainability goals. Even in areas where the bee fauna has been relatively well extensively studied such as North America, biological information is still limited to a few common species, others are known from a single sex, many are new to science, and traditional identification guides are often outdated or nonexistent. Furthermore, the species status of the vast majority has never been tested since they were proposed by earlier scientists based upon obsolete unspecified or non-existent species concepts and limited morphological knowledge due to the scientific equipment available at the time. This means that not only have we entered the 21st century with old, untested hypotheses, but also that potentially useful morphological characters remain to be explored and analyzed. We highlight the urgent societal need for species-level systematic work, particularly emphasized by the recent concerns about population declines of both managed and unmanaged bees, and the urge to assess the status of pollinators and pollination services. We also draw attention to the wealth of exciting research and collaboration opportunities that can be developed today while addressing such a need.
Bioformatic Analysis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Dominant Intermediate B; CMTDIB
Elizabeth Ludinich, Crystal Haun, Joleen Wilson, Kathi McDowell, LaTekia Tyson, Samantha Huffman, Northeastern State University
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Genbank, Basic Local Alignment Tool (BLAST), Spidey, and Molecular Modeling Data Base (MMDB) are databases utilized in research of genetic disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). CMT is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders. CMT comprises a group of disorders that affect peripheral nerves. There are several forms of CMT; this research will focus on information pertaining to Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy, Dominant Intermediate B DI-CMTB CMTDI1. CMTDIB is caused by a mutation in the dynamin-2 (DNM2) gene. By using OMIM database, which focuses on the relationship between phenotype and genotype of a disorder, we were able to obtain the chromosomal locus of DNM2. The locus is 19p13.2 with an accession number NM_001005360. Through Genbank we found the mRNA for the gene is 3684 base pairs with the coding region starting at 191 and ends at 2803 of this sequence. Using Spidey, we are able to find that the sequence for DNM2 is 88.4% comparable to the mRNA sequence for Mus muculus gene accession number AK_171049. The gene has six highly conserved DNA coding sequences between mouse and human. By utilizing MMDB and the program Cn3D, we were able to visualize a structural representation and digital image of the protein.
Bioinformatics Research of Classic Maple Syrup Disease
Steven Upshaw, Bailey Hammitt, Kathi McDowell, Staci Davis, Northeastern State University
Classic Maple Syrup Disease type II is classified by its sweet urine odor in infants and is an inherited disorder where the body is unable to metabolize certain amino acids. The name of the gene is dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase or DBT (OMIM *248610).This information was obtained from OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man). OMIM was accessed to search for the genetic disorder. OMIM is commonly used by medical professionals and research scientists to study human genes and genetic diseases. The cytogenetic location is on chromosome 1 p21.2. Next, research was performed using GenBank to obtain a genetic sequence. GenBank lists the accession number as NM_001918. This is a cDNA sequence that has 10831 base pairs. The organism source is Homo sapien. BLAST is a tool used by molecular biologists, which stands for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST compares different nucleic acid sequences. From BLAST the genomic DNA sequence for DBT was identified as accession number NG_011852. Using the Genbank’s cDNA accession number NM_001918 along with BLAST accession number NG_011852, Spidey was utilized to compare the mRNA-to-genomic alignment. Spidey showed 11 exons with an overall percent identity of 100.
Bioinformatics Analysis of Forkhead box P2 Gene
Katlyn Varner, Jacinta Maiorana, Jan Byrd, Kathi McDowell, Omead Ghaeli, Richard Smedley, Sarah Cragun, Northeastern State University
The proper development of the way we speak involves neurological systems associated with specific genes. FOXP2 codes for the proteins associated with the development and ability to learn language and speak. Autosomal dominant mutations in the Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) gene cause speech and language abnormalities. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Genbank, Basic Local Alignment Tool (BLAST), Spidey, and Proteins are databases utilized in research of genetic disorders such as FOXP2. OMIM lists the location of the FOXP2 gene on chromosome 7-section q31.1 with 603Kp of genomic DNA. According to GenBank, the accession number of FOXP2 is NM_148898.3, and the organism is Homo sapiens with a sequence length of 6448 bp that codes for 740 amino acids. The three dimensional protein figure illustrates 6 domains each containing 2 beta- sheets and 3 alpha helices. The sequence NM_148898.3 is an mRNA with a coding region ranging from nucleotide 357-2597. A comparison between this mRNA and the DNA for this gene (NG_007491.2) indicates coverage of 91%, a percent identity of 100% and 16 exons on the Spidey database. By examining and learning about the FOXP2 gene through OMIM, GenBank, Spidey, Blast, and Protein databases, we are able to learn and better understand the processes that modern geneticists use when studying a particular gene.
Biomass Deconstruction to Produce Sugars Using Ionic Liquid
Jude Abia, Rashad Ismayilov, Northeastern State University
The ability to use cellulosic biomass for the large scale production of fuels and chemicals depends critically on the development of effective conversion processes. The major technological barrier to using cellulosic biomass has been the depolymerization step in which sugars are produced for conversion into molecules with higher energy densities than the parent biomass. The high energy cost and difficulty in processing biomass are the main roadblocks to the widespread commercialization of this renewable energy source. We report on the development of technologies involving ionic liquids that can i) efficiently deconstruct cellulosic biomass to release cellulose and hemicellulose, ii) hydrolyze cellulosic components to produce sugars.
Bluetooth and Spyware Hacking of Android Smart Phones: A Forensic Assessment Using FTK
Marci Brokish, University of Central Oklahoma
This research will help in determining proper protocols and procedures to use in the forensic examination of an Android smart phone that has been compromised by a hacking exploit. This study will examine the artifacts left on an Android phone and determine whether these artifacts can provide clues to the phones compromise. An Android phone is defined as a ‘smart phone.’ A smart phone is a cellular phone that has the computing power of a personal computer . Therefore, an Android smart phone is susceptible to the same security issues as a laptop or desktop computer. This research will provide digital forensics examiners protocols and procedures for locating artifacts on the phone that may be useful in an investigation. There are several different ways to hack a smart phone and this study will focus on Bluetooth hacking and hacking through the use of purchased spy software. This study will research hacking capabilities using six different programs. Each program will be installed on an HP Pavilion dv4 laptop. The separate programs will then be used to attempt to hack into an Android smart phone in order to test exactly how vulnerable the phone is to a hacking exploit. Once the phone has been compromised, proper digital forensic protocols will be used to image the phone and then examine the device to locate possible evidentiary artifacts left on the phone by the attack. Once all the data has been collected, compiled, and analyzed a report will be produc
Bound Smoothing using Euclidean Squared Distance Matrices
Heather Magee, University of Central Oklahoma
A distance matrix A which encodes squares of pairwise distances in matrix form is known as a Euclidean Squared Distance Matrix (ESDM). Bordered ESDMs are useful in determining the embedding dimension of points in space. We investigate known methods that use these bordered ESDMs to improve the bounds on unknown distances of four points in three dimensional space (using the tetrangle inequality) and extend these ideas to five points.
Boundedness, Monotonicity and Convergence of a Sequence of Special Zeros Obtained from Fibonacci-Type Polynomials
Kristi Karber, Rebecca Miller, University of Central Oklahoma
We considered a generalized Fibonacci-type polynomial sequence and studied the corresponding sequence of maximum real roots. After showing that the sequence was bounded, we created two subsequences from the original sequence and proved that each subsequence was monotonic. We then proved that the sequence of maximum real roots converges.
Broncho Tower - A Modification of the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle
Stephen Gregg, Britney Hopkins, Juan Orozco, Kristi Karber, Thomas Milligan, Tyler Powell, University of Central Oklahoma
The Broncho Tower makes slight changes to the classic Tower of Hanoi puzzle, but maintains the same goal of moving one or more sorted disks between pegs. The main difference concerns the rules that govern how these disks can be sorted as the puzzle is solved. Our research has included trying to find a mathematical formula using a difference equations approach that models the Broncho Tower, and gives the minimum number of moves required to solve the modified version of the game.
Buffer Manufacturing
Alayna Trujillo, Oklahoma City Community College
Cytovance Biologics is a biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing company specializing in the production of therapeutic proteins and antibodies from both mammalian cell culture and microbial fermentation. When manufacturing buffers for the downstream process, adherence to good manufacturing protocols is mandatory to ensure product integrity. This project describes the process of buffer manufacturing in a GMP facility.
Building a Communications Framework in the Age of Social Media
Kelly McClure, Cameron University
Social Media applications are being recognized as useful teaching tools in the area of education. However the promise of social media communication with our students and the practical use of social media tools in the classroom is problematic. What tools to use and which of the many social media platforms are appropriate for the content matter? This initial study looks at social media tools in the framework of classroom and content communication. The study began with review of research based examples of social media use in the classroom. Information was then solicited from current local teachers for examples of how they are using social media in their own classrooms. The sample was small and consisted of current teachers from just three different schools systems, however the results showed surprising variation of social media use. The results were plotted on map-type diagrams to show relationships among various uses of social media. The end result is an initial framework for using social media platforms in the classroom as content delivery devices and as student communications tools. While this was a small anecdotal based review of social media for teaching and communication, the implications of using social media in the classroom as a teaching tool invite further study.
Building a Secure Web site over ASP.NET
Alyssa Baay, Myung-Ah Park, University of Central Oklahoma
Nowadays, everything is done over the Internet. With just a single click, one can go through million websites that provide information one is looking for. However, because of this innovation, one’s identity may be at risk. In this work, we will present a web server running over ASP.NET that employs the security measures to prevent two most serious web attacks, namely SQL injection and Cross Site Scripting (XSS). We will show how these measures keep the site secure by applying the said measures and then trying to exploit the site.
Building of a Portable EEG Monitor
Baha Jassemnejad, Yuhao Jiang, University of Central Oklahoma
The project is about designing and building a Portable EEG Monitor that can record electric signals from the brain and transmit them to a computer wirelessly in almost real time. This monitor is cheap and affordable to the public and can be easily carried around.
Cache Memory Simulation
Thomas Turner, Eric McDonald, University of Central Oklahoma
A cache is a small store of very fast and costly memory that enables computers to execute programs much faster that would be possible without this device. Although programs are large and need, on occasion, quantities of information, neither the instructions nor data are referenced randomly. The pattern of memory references occasioned by executing a computer program is called locality of reference. At any one time, a program executes a fraction of the instructions that comprise the total program and accesses only a small portion of the data managed by the program: it is this feature of a program that makes a cache possible. If we can put the instructions and data that are used by a program in the moment that they are needed, we can benefit from the very fast memory of the cache to execute the computer program. At the same time we also benefit from having slower, cheaper memory to store the part of the program we are not executing. In this way, we benefit from having relatively fast execution at a relatively economical cost. This poster, titled Cache Memory Simulation, documents a simulation illustrates three cache designs. The purpose of the simulation is to aid students in their understanding of this aspect of computer architecture.
Can access to school transparency expenditure data required by SB1633 of the 2010 Oklahoma Legislature reveal statistically significant relationships between school expenditures and student outcomes?
Howard Kuchta, Kelly McClure, Cameron University
The School District Transparency Act (SB1633) of the 2010 Legislature requires the posting of each Oklahoma school site and school district annual expenditure data. This made individual school-site expenditure practices accessible for the first time. The research question posed was: Can access to school transparency expenditure data, required to be published by SB1633 of the 2010 Oklahoma Legislature, reveal statistically significant relationships between reported variables, particularly student academic outcomes? The focus for this project was the 2010-11 school site transparency expenditure data. A manageable sample of the 1,785 schools in Oklahoma was derived from a National Center for Education Statistics online search. Sampling was done to reduce the scope of the project to 45 ES (PreK-5), 45 MS (6-8), 45 HS (9-12) public schools resulting in 124 state-wide schools in the sample. The question centered on whether statistically significant correlations between local school discrete expenditure data items and related instructional variables could be established that would inform educational spending practices within local schools and districts? The results show significant relationships such that the expenditure data available under the School District Transparency requirement can and should be utilized to draw associations about instructional spending practices and their relationship to student performance and other instructionally-related variables.
Canton Lake: Legal Contract vs. Moral Compass
Will Robinson, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Canton Lake is a key part of the economy of Northwestern Oklahoma, and now it has been reduced to a puddle. Oklahoma City has the legal right to a portion of the water held at Canton Lake, but does it have the moral right to withdraw the water knowing the damage that will occur not only to the lake itself, but to the surrounding communities as well. I will give specific details of the ecological damage that will be done by the withdraw of water, the possible impact on the economy, as well as the continuing conflict between rural and urban in this situation.
Cellular anti-tumor immunological responses induced by laser immunotherapy with immunologically modified carbon nanotubes
Joseph Aquaviva, Ellen Boarman, Wei Chen, University of Central Oklahoma
An enhanced immune response is vital for a successful cancer therapy. Glycated chitosan (GC) has shown promising results in producing an anti-tumor immune response when combined with phototherapy. GC is also an excellent surfactant. Recently, carbon nanotubes have been used extensively in biomedical applications. Specifically, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have shown enhanced light absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) range. Also, through transmembrane movement, SWNTs act as drug carries and allow therapeutic agents to enter cells. Using GC and SWNTs, we constructed immunologically modified carbon nanotubes (SWNT-GC). SWNT-GC and GC were incubated with tumor cells to assess the capability of SWNTs transporting GC into the cells, and to determine the toxicity of SWNTs. We also incubated tumor cells, treated with laser-SWNT-GC, with dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells to ascertain the effects the newly constructed immunologically modified carbon nanotubes have on immune cells. The immunologically modified carbon nanotubes increased T cell proliferation and DCs activity, while proving to be nontoxic and capable of entering the cells. Laser immunotherapy with immunologically modified carbon nanotubes is a novel modality for producing an anti-tumor response.
Cellulosic Ethanol for Biomass Fuel
Justin Watts, Northeastern State University
There are many scientists in numerous countries, including the United States, working on solving the worlds energy crisis. Research is being conducted on different technologies including solar power, wind power, and biofuels. The subject of my research is a specific type of biofuel called cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol itself is a highly combustible fuel, it even has a higher octane rating than premium gasoline. However, this also means that most engines need a blend of ethanol and gasoline to function without potential harm unless it is an E85 approved vehicle. Given the potential decrease in fossil fuel consumption and separation from dependence on foreign oil I believe harnessing the potential energy from the cellulose found in plants and fungi could be the greatest development of this century. The problem lies with the inefficient methods and high cost associated with ethanol, along with the biomass feedstock issues. In this experiment we will show how cellulose can be broken down into glucose by the enzyme cellulase, and fermented to produce carbon dioxide and ethanol. Cellulase is actually a group of enzymes that hydrolyze the glycosidic linkage between the glucose monomers. Since there are many different enzymes and many different linkages, finding the right enzyme and feedstock may prove crucial to this research.
Center for Historical Performance
Sion Honea, Tess Remy-Schumacher, University of Central Oklahoma
The Center for Historical Performance is a new entity established by the School of Music of the College of Fine Arts and Design at the University of Central Oklahoma. Its mission is: Historical Performance improves and promotes learning for students and teachers. The Center serves the University of Central Oklahoma and extended community with concerts, visiting artists, master classes, lectures and coursework. The new Center takes advantage of the large number of existing faculty in the School of Music who possess specific training and experience in the field of historical performance and scholarship. Its inaugural activity was a concert produced on February 19, 2013 that presented a historical performance of François Couperin’s Apotheose de Lully, which involved extensive historical research in performance practice as well as performance on historical instruments. The Center also aims to serve as a focal point for stimulating interdisciplinary activity among departments of the College of Fine Arts and Design and other Colleges of the University of Central Oklahoma.
Changing lives through short-term study abroad. A transformative experience?
Maria Teresa Moinette, University of Central Oklahoma
Study abroad continues to occupy a position in the educational field as a positive venue to traverse borders and learn to live with individuals in a society that is not one’s own (Michelson, 1999). The desire to create more opportunities for students to study abroad has led to a shift in higher education for programs that can accommodate the needs of students of the 21st century. One option is to offer shorter stays abroad in order to allow for the international experience in an academic setting, while enabling students to graduate in four or five years. The growing number of short-term participants in study abroad suggests that the trend will continue. Yet, the research into this arena remains scanty. Whereas research demonstrates that long and mid-term study abroad have educational, personal, and academic value, the impact of short-term study abroad and the educational value of such a sojourn remains, largely, a mystery.
Channel One: Assessing the Quality of Adolescent News
David Scott, Mike Chanslor, Northeastern State University
Over the past thirty years private for-profit corporations have played an increasingly significant role in common education (Ford, 2010). School districts facing budgetary constraints have entered into a variety of agreements that allow corporations to disseminate commercial-based messages to their students in return for equipment or other compensation. Since many schools are unable to afford the cost of new equipment, technology, and instructional materials, they have been receptive to corporate partners (Alper, 2003). One of the more notable examples of the increased corporate presence in the classroom is "Channel One News." However, a key issue is the overall journalistic quality of the program. The cumulative data seems to suggest that Channel One's "captive audience" model of news production does not result in higher quality journalism as measured in traditional social responsibility terms. It would also appear the potential of Channel One News to address deficiencies in current event knowledge and civics has been compromised to some degree by the overall commercial emphasis of the program. Arguably the data produced from this study makes a strong case that CNN Student News could be a better choice for students. However, in terms of overall news story types, there does not appear to be a large substantive difference between the two programs, but Student News has considerably less commercially related content embedded within the newscast itself.
Characteristics and Applicability of Commonly used Classification Algorithms in Data Mining
Gang Qian, Rui Zhang, University of Central Oklahoma
Data Mining is an inter-disciplinary field that offers a spectrum of tools and algorithms to discover useful information and patterns from a huge universe of data. Because of the number of available algorithms, it is often difficult to choose a suitable algorithm for a given application. In this poster, we study seven commonly used classification algorithms, including decision tree, rule-based classifier, lazy learner, naive Bayesian, Bayesian network, artificial neural network, and support vector machine. Features and characteristics of the seven algorithms are compared and presented based on such criteria as construction cost, classification speed, expressiveness, stability, applicable data types, and easiness of handling of irrelevant, correlated or missing data. The goal of the project is to provide data mining practitioners with a guide to choosing the right classifier for their corresponding application domains.
Characteristics of Successful Grant Proposals: Findings and Recommendatons
Kathryn Schoonover, Arizona Chin, Northeastern State University
Objective: The objective of this research was to determine attributes of grant proposals and principal investigators that contribute to success in acquiring extramural funding. Methods: We examined archival data in the form of grant proposals that had been successfully awarded and those that were not funded. After examination, we compiled a list of characteristics that distinguished effective proposal development. Results and Conclusion: Findings indicated that successful grant proposals are well organized, carefully constructed with adherence to funder guidelines, and clearly compliant with institutional policy. Proposals that were not funded showed evidence of disorganization and disregard for timely preparation and submission for institutional review. Realistic expectations, understanding of fundability of projects, and experience or training in proposal development appeared lacking among principal investigators-writers of these proposals. One of the implications of these findings is need for emphasis on principal investigator professionalism. We propose training for principal investigators to encourage demonstration of excellent skill in organization, familiarity with their project or program, understanding of the funding source, knowledge of institutional assistance, and compliance with guidelines.
Characterization of the Slow-Binding Inhibition by Acetopyruvate of the Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase from E. coli
Lilian Chooback, Priscilla Seabourn, William Karsten, University of Central Oklahoma
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway for production of L-lysine in bacteria and plants. The kinetic mechanism is ping pong with pyruvate binding to free enzyme and L-aspartate-b-semialdehyde (ASA) binding to the F enzyme form. The enzyme is feedback inhibited by the end-product L-lysine. The enzyme has received interest as a potential drug target since it is not present in mammals. Acetopyruvate is a slow-binding inhibitor of DHDPS competitive versus pyruvate with an initial Kis of about 25 mM and a final inhibition constant of about 4 mM. The enzyme:acetopyruvate complex displays an absorbance spectrum with a  max at about 303 nm and a longer wavelength shoulder. The rate constant for formation of the complex is 0.03 s-1. The enzyme forms a covalent enamine complex with the first substrate pyruvate and can be observed spectrally with a max at 275 nm. The spectra of the enzyme in the presence of pyruvate and acetopyruvate shows the initial formation of the enamine intermediate followed by the slower growing in of the E:acetopyruvae spectra with a rate constant of 0.005 s-1. The enzyme is proposed to form a covalent Schiff base between acetopyruvate and K161 on enzyme that subsequently deprotonates to form a resonance stabilized anion similar to the enamine intermediate formed with pyruvate.
Characterization of Three Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Loci in Neotoma albigula
Lindsay Stone, University of Central Oklahoma
The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is an important component of vertebrate immune systems. Genetic analysis at Mhc loci can provide information on susceptibility to certain viral strains. Neotoma albigula (white-throated woodrat) has been associated with at least three distinct strains of arenaviruses, suggesting an interesting coevolutionary history between the host and virus. In this study, we have been screening three Mhc class II loci to detect genetic variation within N. albigula subpopulations in Arizona. We hypothesize that specific alleles for each locus will be positively correlated with disease susceptibility. Initially, we screened two loci using capillary electrophoresis-based single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Using this method, we found moderate levels of genetic variation at the loci and little correlation between disease susceptibility and alleles. Due to SSCP optimization issues, we have added a third locus and are sequencing the alleles to confirm their identity. We have optimized the protocol and our results indicate we have successfully screened the Mhc loci for genetic variation. The methods used in this research, as well as previous findings, will be applied to collaborative research project with Texas Tech University and the University of Texas Medical Branch involving the association with N. albigula and arenaviruses.
Characterizing Fuel Use Rates of Heavy-Duty Diesel Equipment: A Case Study for Wheel Loaders
Heni Fitriani, Phil Lewis, Oklahoma State University
Heavy duty diesel construction equipment consumes large quantities of fuel and subsequently emits significant quantities of air pollutants. This poster presents a methodology for characterizing fuel use rates of construction equipment in order to better estimate air pollution emission rates and is based on real-world data collected from the equipment as it performed construction activities in the field. This study examined five wheel loaders by estimating the weighted-average fuel use rate via an engine load modal analysis. For each wheel loader, the engine load data was classified into 10 modes, ranging from the minimum to the maximum engine load, and an average fuel use rate was determined for each mode. The overall weighted-average fuel use rate was determined by multiplying the modal average fuel use rate by the percentage of time spent in that particular engine mode and then summing the results for each of the 10 modes. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the distributions of the weighted-average fuel use rate for each wheel loader by randomly selecting values (within specified ranges) for the percentage of time spent in each engine mode and the modal average fuel use rate. Preliminary results indicate that there is inter-vehicle variability in the weighted-average fuel use rates of the five wheel loaders. A sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to determine which variables have the greatest impact on the weighted-average fuel use rate.
Chickasaw Nation: Analysis of Participation in Tribal Government
Daniel Tollett, Adrian John, Brian Sanders, Monty Stick, East Central University
The purpose of this research is to survey and gather information to why voter turnout and participation in tribal meetings of the Chickasaw Nation is low. The method of information gathering is going to be a simple survey that will be sent to Chickasaw citizens. The data that we receive with this will help us in determining why participation in tribal government is low and with the help of the Chickasaw Nation we hope to bring light on this subject and to bring about any policy change that would help involve the people in their government. We will present our findings to the legislative body of the Chickasaw Nation for analysis.
Chinese Cupping Therapy
Kandace Hockett, Northeastern State University
Cupping is a lesser known form of alternative medicine. The Chinese believed that you have pathways that energy flows through and there is 5 main ones located on the back so this is mainly performed on the back. Its a process of placing glass bulb-like cups that are suctioned to the back. There is two types, wet cupping and fire cupping each giving different benefits. The Chinese believe that cupping can help treat various diseases, increase blood flow and remove toxins to help achieve good chi.
Chinese Tea and its Culture
Athena Gonzalez, Cameron University
When thinking of Chinese culture, Chinese tea is one of its important cultural icons that come to mind. From its ancient times to modern life, Chinese tea plays an important role in the lives of Chinese people. With four major tea types (black, green, oolong, and white) stemming from the same plant, anyone can enjoy a cup of Chinese tea that suits their preference. Not only does tea serve as a relaxing, warm beverage, but it can also benefit the drinker's health. As the Chinese culture evolves, the significance of having tea also increases. Through conducting both primary and secondary research, this study further examines the important roles tea plays in Chinese culture and its many functions in modern life. The personal interviews with native Chinese citizens have provided a deeper understanding of the social aspect that tea exhibits in modern life such as symbolizing togetherness and harmony, functioning as a medium in which people communicate ideas and spend valuable time with one another. The library database research also has produced rich findings in authentic visuals of Chinese tea, its long history, its medical values, and its entertaining functions.
Communication Perceptions Related to Life-Threatening Illness in a Relationship: A Q Methodology Study
Jeanetta Sims, University of Central Oklahoma
This study examines the prevailing viewpoints related to participants’ perceptions of how communication would unfold if their relational partner was diagnosed with a severe, life-threatening illness. Using Q methodology, 59 participants performed Q Sorts, which were then analyzed using PQ Method. Principle components analysis yielded three factors on which 42 of the sorts loaded and 56% of the variance was explained. The three factors distilled from Q Sorts were interpreted as Factor 1: Communicative and Inclusive; Factor 2: Secretive and Withholding; and Factor 3: Communicative and Exclusive. Each of the three prevailing viewpoints offers insights on how participants expect to communicate if their relational partner is diagnosed with a severe life-threatening illness. Implications for marriage and family counseling are discussed.
Comparative Study of Infectious Diseases in Saudi Arabia and the United States
Eric Paul, Haitham Alnaqeb, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Infectious diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites. This poster focuses on comparing some of the infectious diseases common to both Saudi Arabia and the United States such as Cholera, Salmonellosis, Malaria, and Shigellosis. We choose diseases with different modes of transmission for our study; water (Cholera), food (Salmonellosis), and blood (Malaria). Lifestyle, environment, and immigration play an important role in the spread these infectious diseases. Our research indicates that there are similarities and differences that helped spread infectious diseases in the two countries studied. The large numbers of immigrants play an important role in the spread of diseases such as Cholera in Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, the environment factors influence the incidence rates for Malaria in both Saudi Arabia and the United States. Food borne infections could be point source or common source epidemics and can be influenced by a wide array of factors. We collected data from official sources, such as, the Centers for Disease Control, the World Health Organization, and Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia.
Comparative Study of Two French Painters David and Delacriox
Maria Chacon, Claire Westlund, University of Central Oklahoma
The French Revolution (1798-1799) brought significant change to French culture, including art. This presentation demonstrates the change in art by examining the artistic movements and the work of the major artists Jacques- Luis David (1748-1825) and Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863). First, it discuses the Rococo style of art before the French Revolution. Second, the Neoclassical artistic tradition is examined as it was used before and during the revolution. Third, Romanticism as the reaction to Neoclassicim is presented.
Comparative Technology Assessments for Curricular Reform in Graphic Design The Letterpress Lab Project
Amy Johnson, University of Central Oklahoma
This project tests two letterpress machines that produce the same end result but require different creative processes and pedagogical approaches in the context of a lab to refine teaching methodologies in the discipline of graphic design. Letterpress is the relief printing of text and image using a press with movable type, which is inked and then pressed onto paper. Prior to the computer designers often used the qualities, capabilities and limitations of available technology as an integral part of their problem solving and design process. In many ways the limitations of the equipment at hand forced innovations and expansions within the discipline. Today much of the work of design takes place in the environment of the computer and, while this is an incredibly valuable and powerful tool that engages the student’s hands, minds and eyes it is an abstractly mediated process in which constant change is possible without record of iterations tried. The power of the computer has in many ways removed innovation, born from limitation, from the discipline of design. The goal for this project is to develop curricular environments that a) test the impact of reintroducing hand-based skills into the graphic design curriculum; b) test through comparative assessment student learning with hand-based tools verses mechanized tools and c) test student comprehension of design vocabulary that stems from letterpress technology.
Comparing Student Satisfaction between Online and Blended (Hybrid) Courses
Deborah Hyde, Lawrence Wybrant, Northeastern State University
The goal of this research was to determine the attitudes of students taking an online physical geology course which was presented completely online including laboratory experiences conducted at home and comparing it with students taking a blended physical geology course which was presented partially online with a portion of the instruction conducted in a traditional classroom setting allowing student and teacher interaction to increase concept knowledge reinforcement. Informal data derived from former students suggested that students would be more satisfied with a blended presentation method which allows for face-to-face laboratory experiences and student interaction. To test this hypothesis, students from an online control group were given instruction completely online and compared with an experimental group which consisted of a blended class. Identical survey instruments were administered to both groups of students one week before final exams asking them to gauge their overall satisfaction with the course they had taken. The survey instrument was a Likert style survey which included ten statements for which students were asked to choose one of five levels of agreement. An overall satisfaction quotient was calculated and the results suggested that students preferred the blended presentation mode in 9 of 10 categories. The aggregate satisfaction quotient was calculated to +12.25 % in favor of instruction using the blended online Physical Geology method of instruction.
Comparison of Leaf Area Index (LAI) of Tomato Plants Grown Under Conventional or Plasti-culture Techniques
William Phillips, Alicia Fisher, Redlands Community College
Produce producers can use plastic-culture is a management tool to conserve water and to control weeds. The objective of this research was to compare tomato plant canopy growth under conventional (C) and plastic-culture (PC) techniques. Eight rows of tomatoes (4 pairs of rows with treatment randomly assigned within each pair) were established on Canadian soils at the Darlington Applied Agriculture Research Center (Lat. 35.58 N Long. 98.00 W). Rows were 24.1 M ± SE 0.18 (78.4 ± 0.57 ft) in length. Plants were planted 1.5 m (4.5 ft.) apart. More than one variety was used, but all varieties were represented in each row. Variety was not considered as a variable in the analysis. Canopy size was estimated using a Ceptometer (AccuPar model LP-80; Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) to measure photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the first week of July, 2012 when plants were mature. Four above canopy and below canopy PAR readings were made for each plant. The Ceptometer bar was held level and readings were made parallel, perpendicular, and diagonal to the row. Data were analyzed using the paired T-test procedure. Number of plants alive per row, ratio of above and below canopy PAR readings, and estimates of LAI were not different (P > 0.40) between C or PC treatments. In this experiment plasti-culture did not significant increase canopy size.
Comparison of Load Carriage Foot Force Distribution With and Without Hiking Pole Use
Bert Jacobson, Oklahoma State University
The use of hiking or trekking poles has gained much popularity among recreational walkers and hikers. The purpose of this study was to compare the distribution of foot force while walking with and without hiking poles. Following IRB approval, each subject was fitted with a 20 kg pack and tested while walking at 5.0 Km•hr-1 under each condition. Data were collected using a piezoelectric force plate (Kistler Instruments Winterthur, Schweis) interfaced with Bioware Analysis System. Three trials were conducted in random order 1) without hiking poles (NP), 2) with standard (SP) hiking poles, and 3) with anti-shock (AP) hiking poles. For each trial the following data were recorded: 1) Medio-lateral (FFx), anterior-posterior (FFx), and vertical (FFz) ground reaction force for the foot and medio-lateral (PFx), anterior-posterior (PFx), and vertical (PFx) ground reaction for the hiking pole. Repeated measures ANOVA yielded no significant differences in foot forces among the three conditions (NP, SP, and AP) for any of the recorded directions (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). The subjects felt less subjective exertion while using the poles. In conclusion, trekking poles may not redistribute force distribution to the extent that energy may be conserved, however, the perception of reduced exertion and the added stability may warrant additional research.
Comparison of the Testing of Oblique Axes in Confrontation Visual Field Testing Versus the Traditional Method
Elizabeth Fieser, Kaylaen Dittmer, Spencer Johnson, Thomas Salmon, Northeastern State University
Purpose. To determine if testing arcuate visual fields at four locations per eye along oblique axes (at 45 degrees and 135 degrees) is as effective as testing arcuate visual fields using the traditional method of testing eight locations per eye at the principal meridians (90 degrees and 180 degrees). Methods. Eight “patients” had front surface mirror-coated lens blanks taped over each of their eyes. We placed two layers of hypoallergenic tape on the back of the lens blanks to induce different severities of quadrantanopias. Fifteen “examiners” performed a traditional visual field screener along the principal meridians and a non-traditional visual field screener along the oblique axes on each patient. The examiners recorded if they observed a defect and in which quadrant it was located. Results. The examiners were able to correctly identify 67% of eyes with the traditional method and 63% of eyes with the oblique method. The traditional method was 61.9% sensitive and 83.5% specific. The oblique method was 58.9% sensitive and 75.9% specific. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean of the differences between the two methods was close to zero, however, the degree of variability between testing methods was larger than desirable. This suggests a low degree of repeatability from one examiner to the next. Conclusions. Collectively, the examiners showed slightly better sensitivity and specificity with the traditional method.
Comprehensive History of Western Music Education
Sion Honea, Annette Nashire, Emerald Lessley, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this project is to complete preparatory work toward the production of a comprehensive history of music education. This will cover the history of western music education from antiquity to the present and correlate its various manifestations and objectives with relevant philosophies of music education, explicit or implicit. Despite the fact that numerous histories of music education exist, in each case limited by such factors as geographical area, target population, chronology, educational approach, and philosophical foundation, no comprehensive history of music education has ever been produced. The immediate practical result of this lack of historical awareness is a fragmentation and confusion in approaches to music education, as well as inefficiency in methodology. A comprehensive history such as that projected in this project will bring a greater understanding of historical trends and philosophical purposes to present practice. It should also provide the basis for the development of a first, truly effective music advocacy that can be emulated in other fields of art.
Computation of Solvent Effects on Energetics of Metallocene-Catalyzed Ethylene Polymerization
Paritosh Das, Emvia Calixte, Cameron University
Computationally, we have investigated the effects of several solvents (namely, cyclohexane, toluene and dichloromethane) on the energetics of various steps of metallocene-catalyzed ethylene polymerization. [CpCH2Cp]ZrR+, with R = CH2CH2CH3 have been primarily used as the model active catalyst species. For comparison purpose, some computational data have also been obtained on catalyst systems bearing F and CH3 substituents on the Cp ligands. All calculations were based on density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP). Compared to the gas-phase, the solvents are found to stabilize the individual cationic species (namely, reactants, products, intermediates and transition states) significantly. However, these effects largely cancel each other when applied to specific reaction steps (except for steps such as complexation or product separation for which the reactant or the product is a cation of the form [CpCH2Cp]ZrR+).
Computer Science Jobs Application
Rad Alrifai, David Boling, Northeastern State University
One of the project's goals is to provide Computer Science faculty with a single place to post any internship or employment opportunities they may receive. The second goal of the project is to provide Computer Science students with a single place to search for employment or internship opportunities without the need to visit with each professor individually. The system administrator, however, has to be able to not only search the database, but also add jobs, employers, other administrators, job seekers, and contacts to the database. The administrator also must have the ability to remove jobs, employers, other administrators, job seekers, and contacts from the database. The software was developed using C# and Microsoft SQL Server Database.
Conservation Biology Research Projects with Service Learning
Patty Smith, Kelly Markwardt, Tulsa Community College
For the past seven years, twenty-four undergraduate students developed and participated in research projects with some emphasis dedicated to community service. The implementation of undergraduate research at Tulsa Community College and the successes in conservation biology and plant conservation research courses through various service learning projects will be addressed. With the West Campus greenhouse facilities, students propagate plants for various research projects with service learning components. Students propagate native plants from local stock (seeds, cuttings, transplants) for West Campus flowerbeds designed and developed by the students. For example, the Native American Flowerbed showcases native plants used for foods, medicines, ceremonies, and other purposes by Native Americans; this was a collaborative project with the Native American Studies Program. Also, the Veterinary Technology Flowerbed showcases native plants toxic to animals; this is an ongoing, collaborative project with the Veterinary Technology Program. Currently, Kelly Markwardt is designing and developing a Butterfly Flowerbed for the Child Development Center. For future service learning projects, students will assist in the design and development of a Campus Community Garden with fruit tree orchard, vineyard of various fruits, and vegetable gardens. Each spring, the research students assist with the seed germination and propagation of crop plants for underprivileged community gardens.
Conservation Triage and Sonoran Mud Turtles in the Peloncillo Mountains of New Mexico
Chelsea Smith, Paul Stone, University of Central Oklahoma
Conservation triage is a method for allocating resources to obtain the largest conservation impact. Advocates of this approach recommend concentrating resources on situations where there are serious threats but also a high probability of recovery if action is taken. However, current environmental policy and funding priorities remain focused on critically endangered species. By taking a small fraction of resources devoted to endangered species and diverting them to less extreme problems, we could perhaps reduce matriculation of vulnerable and threatened species into the endangered ranks. Sonoran Mud Turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense), listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN, are ideal candidates for conservation triage. In the Peloncillo Mountains, large populations are associated with small impoundments constructed during the New Deal. Many impoundments are failing due to siltation or dam failures, which likely threatens otherwise thriving turtle populations. We began calling attention to this problem in 2008. Neither the landowner (USFS) nor funding agencies (including TCF) could allocate resources to restoring these habitats because the problem was not considered sufficiently grave to warrant attention. During 14-28 May 2012, a group of biologists, ranchers, and private citizens began restoration efforts at two impoundments. This poster is a presentation depicting those efforts.
Construction project management software(#CPM)
Rad Alrifai, Daniel Gibson, Northeastern State University
Construction project management software (#CPM) is interactive applications that can help users learn the basics of construction management and its business practices by playing games. The game covers various topics involving bidding, scheduling, cost, project management decision making and final project completion. The goal is to let the enthusiasts control a project to ultimately succeed by beating the cost and delivering the project on time. To complete a game, the user needs to make various decisions and perform several tasks. Each completed decision and task has its own perks and its repercussions. There are fun interactions as well as sudden mishaps that can arise in construction that must be handled to ensure successful project completion. The ultimate goal is to help the user understand construction management and its practices in a fun interactive way. The audience of #CPM would include construction companies, Universities, Colleges, Tech/Trade Schools, and others who are generally interested in construction management.
Continued Investigations on Use of Dragon’s Blood Pigment in Photovoltaic Cells
Brett Jones, Jim Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma
Both laboratory investigations and statistical analyses were pursued during the past year to gain additional information about the use of Dragon’s Blood (Daemonorops draco) in photovoltaic cells. In general, experiments conducted in Fall 2011 provided similar results compared with experiments during the previous year. In both of these experiments, the voltage values in cells treated with the pigment were significantly higher than values from control cells, which contained no pigment. It was decided to focus on calculating current and power readings from data collected and conclude these investigations with a manuscript for potential publication. As such, statistical analyses demonstrated that photovoltaic cells made with Dragon’s Blood produced average voltage, current, and power readings of 150 millivolts, 1.68 microamps, and 0.289 microamps, respectively, over a period of 19 days. These readings were significantly higher than values obtained at night and substantially higher than values obtained from cells constructed without pigment. The low cost of constructing these cells, coupled with their longevity, suggests that they have potential as economically-feasible and sustainable energy alternatives.
Continuing the Investigation: Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy as the Framework for Advanced Illustration Studio Objectives
Keith Webb, Rukmini Ravikumar, University of Central Oklahoma
This study explores curricular reform of beginning, intermediate and advanced studio illustration coursework taught in the Department of Design at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) through the application of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy. A previous study was conducted, showing evidence of improved outcomes for two test groups. Results showed that student outcomes regarding illustrative performance improved significantly in Illustration I and moderately in Illustration II. While the findings were promising, the data was insufficient to support a conclusion as to why there was a greater increase in Illustration I cores vs. Illustration II with this pedagogical design. Additionally, would the application of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy, as it was applied in the earlier study, influence other mid level and upper level illustration course project outcomes in the same way? In the proposed investigation, four courses will be examined and samples taken from Illustration I, II, III and Environmental Illustration courses in the Graphic Design Program. Prior to testing, student participants will be divided into to two groups based on their standing in class after a precursory assessment of student illustration portfolios. Both groups will receive the same project but one group will receive instruction based on Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy learning objectives. The results of this investigation is relevant to the future of curriculum design in Illustration.
Controlled Drug Delivery Systems
Matthew Griffith, Ashley Hartsell, Garrick Friesen, Hardeep Saluja, Kaci Hall, Tanya Harrelson, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Substantial advancements have been made in controlled drug delivery systems in the last twenty to thirty years due to contributing advancements in biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. In delivering optimal drug therapy, the desire is to maintain a drug concentration within the therapeutic window to ensure efficacy and minimize toxicity. Research has shown that dosing more than once to twice daily in order to achieve optimal therapy results in less patient compliance. Therefore, extensive research and attention has been directed to the development of controlled drug delivery systems. These dosage forms allow for controlling the rate of drug delivery, sustaining the duration of therapeutic activity and targeting the delivery of drugs to tissues among other advantages. The objective is to display the five common controlled drug delivery systems used in optimizing drug therapy and increasing patient compliance. These five dosage forms range over a short time span in relation to the history of pharmaceutics, but each has been developed to improve therapy in one of the three manners previously listed. The controlled drug delivery systems included are enteric coating, micro-encapsulation, transdermal delivery, osmotic pumps, and intravaginal rings. The benefits of modified release dosage forms can result in increased patient compliance, decreased side effects, decreased spikes in concentration, enhanced bioavailability, the ability to target specific organs or
Conversing On A Mobile Phone versus In-Person: The Impact of Reduced Attention On Flicker Change Detection Paradigm
Cindy Chia, University of South Australia
The prevalence of road accident cases has called for researchers’ growing attention in the last decade. 275 students (56 male and 216 female) from University of South Australia participated in a Change Detection activity via CogLab software to empirically investigate the impact of conversing on a mobile phone versus conversing in person on the ability to detect change in flicker paradigm. As anticipated, reaction time is found to be related to flicker paradigm and that participants in the control condition group has the fastest reaction time, followed by the conversation group and then the mobile group. While attention is the most crucial role in bringing observers into awareness and consciousness, it is foremost important aspect in a change detection task. These findings relate to traffic environment where multitasking while driving disperses observer’s attention and may lead to unintentional carelessness affecting effective scan on visual scenes.
Conversion of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel Using Microwave Irradiation
Tyler Scott, Spence Pilcher, Northeastern State University
With the ongoing rise in cost of crude oil and focus on global warming, finding renewable energy sources is a current area of trending research. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source that has sparked interest in our region due to its ability to reduce toxic emissions, reduce dependence on foreign oil, and contribute to rural economic development. To introduce undergraduate research students to this topic, an experiment was developed for the organic chemistry II laboratory course which entailed preparing biodiesel from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation. The procedure that afforded the highest conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel used potassium hydroxide as the catalyst ( methanol) and reacted at 50oC for 5 minutes.
Correlating Effects of Conformity: Egoism and Prosocial Behaviors
Amber McCoy, University of Central Oklahoma
Conformity is the actions in which individuals behave or interact within a group (Baron, 1973). This set of experiments is a modification of Asch’s conformity studies (Jacobson, 2011). This study involved examining the interaction between genders to see the effect on individual conformity. The experiment identified key attributes that an individual conforms to and identified what causes individuals to adapt to gender in their discourse community. This experiment exposed how gender plays a prime role in conformity. The study examined the role of gender in conformity, showing that participants conformed to males regardless of ethnicity (p < .05). Additionally, it is demonstrated that, regardless of the participant’s gender, individuals conformed to the males (p < .05).This study is important because it identified what individuals will more likely conform to. The results of this study relate to egoism and prosocial behaviors by how individuals conform. Keywords: gender roles, conformity, egoism, altruism, ethnicity
Correlation Between Speed and Strength in an Un-Weighted Straight Punch
Zachgery Scurry, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of my study is to determine the correlation between speed and strength in a straight punch. I will test 20-30 college students’ speed and strength in a straight punch. A bivariate Pearson Product Moment Correlation will be the statistical method used to determine the relationship. The first test will be to determine punching strength. To obtain this data each student will perform a one repetition weighted cable push (simulating to actual motion of a straight punch). The equipment to be used in the strength test will be the Pro-Maximum Single Pull Cable Column. The cable will be adjusted to arm pit height of the participant. Participants will then be asked to perform a straight punch with their dominate hand. Starting at 10-15lbs, the student will perform one punch at 5lb increments, until he or she reaches their maximum weight. The second test will be to measure the speed of each student’s punch. To measure the velocity of a punch the Humac 360 (Computer Sports Medicine Inc. Stoughton, MA) will be used. A Humac 360 is a small computer box with a 16 ft. cord attached, it is designed to be pulled to determine velocity. Each student will be given three attempts to reach their peak punching velocity. My hypothesis is that the two will have a significat positive correlation. Related research has tested speed and strength before but there has not yet been done a direct correlation between thetwo. Awaiting IRB approval.
Correlation between viewing distance and asthenopia associated with viewing of three-dimensional televisions
Erin Ridder, Bonnie Rigney, Northeastern State University
Asthenopia symptoms may include blurred vision, headache, tiredness, soreness, and pain concentrated around the eyes. We used active shutter technology, which is most commonly used for 3D televisions. Manufacturers of 3D televisions list the optimum viewing distance, which seems close in relation to normal television viewing. We hypothesize that more subjects will have asthenopic symptoms while viewing at a shorter viewing distance, due to the greater dissociation between accommodation and convergence.
Corruption of public officials in the state of Oklahoma
Davi Peetoom, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
The content of this abstract will examine different forms of corruption exibited by state employees by using specific examples of these crimes. The purpose of this presentation is to show that everyone is susceptible to corruption even if that person may be an employee of the state.
Cost Effectiveness of the RPS Adeno Detector Plus
Mindi Combs, Dr. Earlena McKee, Linda Ray, Thomas Salmon, Northeastern State University
Purpose. Analyze the cost effectiveness of the RPS Adeno Detector Plus Methods. We selected from patients already presenting with a red eye complaint. Our data was collected from both surveys completed by clinicians and the results of thioglycollate broth and RPS Adeno Detector Plus tests. With this data, we determined the total number of positive bacterial tests, adenoviral tests, and the total number of tests positive for both bacteria and adenoviruses. We then calculated the percentage of these types of red eyes compared to the total number of red eyes tested. Results. We found that the clinical founded diagnosis of bacterial conjunctivitis (2), 0 of 2 were correct. In addition, of those diagnosed on clinical findings alone to be of viral etiology, 2 of the 3 were correctly diagnosed. Conclusion. We found there were no changes in treatment after reading the results of the RPS Adeno Detector Plus. Because there were so few patients in this study we were unable to determine the potential value of an RPS Adeno Detector Plus relative to the cost of Tobradex.
Critical Thinking by Advanced Accounting Students
Daniel Haskin, University of Central Oklahoma
In the Fall of 2012, I engaged my advanced accounting students in a research project to accomplish the following objectives: 1. Define critical thinking. 2. How would critical thinking be useful to me in practicing financial accounting as a CPA in public practice or in industry or government? 3. How would critical thinking have helped prevent some recent accounting scandals such as Enron, WorldCom, and Bear Stearns? 4. How does critical thinking relate to ethics in the practice of financial accounting? This project fits with the transformative learning objective related to research, creative and scholarly activities—students are encouraged to apply critical thinking to all situations.
Cultural Strategies of Organizing: Secondary Socialization for Organizations in the 21st Century
Christopher Rudick, Northeastern State University
Recent developments in the economic condition of world markets have prompted many organizations to overhaul their public image. While many of these recent tactics are public and highly visible, some strategies are ongoing focus internally and hinge more on the creation and maintenance of organizational culture via the employee socialization process. The creation of these cultures generally serves to fulfill a proximal goal in earning the trust of their clients and the public in general via the representations of bank employees and the terminal or ultimate goal of success and profitability. This paper examines the value appeals utilized in the employee handbook of a Midwestern bank by using a rhetorical cluster analysis. It attempts to deconstruct the language used in order to discover more about the creation of this particular organizational culture through the socialization of new employees and image management strategies. Ultimately, this document is highly suggestive of a planned strategy to socialize newcomers into the beliefs of the organization.
CURE-STEM: A Model for Encouraging and Sustaining a Culture of Student-Centered Research
Charlotte Simmons, Beverly Endicott, Charles Hughes, Gregory Wilson, John Barthell, Wei Chen, William Radke, University of Central Oklahoma
We describe characteristics of a model for encouraging faculty development and student learning through undergraduate research practices at a publicly funded predominantly undergraduate institution. The Center for Undergraduate Research and Education in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, or CURE-STEM, incorporates best practices from a now burgeoning literature on undergraduate research and has yielded a positive fiscal return on investment in faculty members who support student-centered research activities.
Custodial Grandparents and Emotional Well-Being: The Lingering Effects of Reassuming the Parenting Role
Braden Cary, Yungfei Kao, Northeastern State University
The study explores a need in counselor education on addressing custodial grandparenting as part of a lifespan development curriculum. The aging world has given rise to a growth in custodial parenting. The 2010 census reports close to 5.4 million children living under a household headed by a grandparent. As these grandparents become more involved as parents, data shows for the grandparent: higher depression, insomnia, and less time spent focusing on their own issues. Grandparents seeking assistance with their emotional distress learn to offset the negatives with the happiness with the grandchild and a sense of purpose. The current study sought to understand the perceptions from counselors-in-training. Grandparents assume the role of parent out of various reasons: death of parent, financial hardship, incarceration of a parent, military deployment, or abusive household. Each reason comes with their own difficulties that direct their treatment. In addition, these reasons may cause biases within counselors. By presenting counselors-in-training vignettes of a grandmother seeking therapy for her and her granddaughter, the research sought to disseminate between those who view an intake of a grandparent who has assumed parenting from the death of her daughter compared with those viewing a grandparent who has assumed due to incarceration of her daughter. Specifically, comparisons are made on the perceptions of ability to parent alongside perceived affect.
Dancing With Technology: Creating New Interactions Between Music Composition and Dance Choreography with Movement Controlled Sound and Video in the Collaborative Performance, Network
Aaron Robinson, University of Central Oklahoma
Recent innovations in computer music technology have made possible a new approach to music composition and dance choreography: the compositional and choreography processes have equal determination in the creative process, even to the point of rendering that process in real-time. These technologies include hardware and software for real-time audio and video creation and processing, and interactive computer programming. This project, supported in part by a grant from the Office of Research & Grants, The University of Central Oklahoma, explores new approaches to performance art by experimenting with some of the aforementioned technologies in live performance environments. Through experimentation and this technology, dancers are able to affect the live sound and video projections with their movements in realtime. All of the audio and video processing tools were written in Max/MSP computer software. Working with Austin Hartel and dancers from The Hartel Dance Group of Oklahoma City, I was able to conduct hands on research into new interactions between music/video composition and choreographed/improvised dance. This collaborative exploration of technology, music, video and dance led to Network, premiering in Oklahoma City at The Magnolia Building on June 7th, 2012 and subsequently performed multiple times over the past year at venues such as The Oklahoma City Museum of Art and at Living Arts in Tulsa, OK.
Data Acquisition for Laminar Fluid Systems
Daniel Atkinson, University of Central Oklahoma
The goal of this research is to more efficiently take in data pertaining to laminar fluid flow in a junction and/or channel by upgrading the currently used hardware as well as modifying the current software and creating new software. Current research in the lab uses pressure losses and fluid flow rates to calculate loss coefficients for the junction. This system uses a number of analog sensors interfaced with a microcontroller which is then interfaced with a computer for data acquisition. My research will upgrade the microcontroller to more efficiently pass data to the computer. On the software side of my research, I will be implementing a new acquisition program that will be more robust than the current supporting features such as taking in information about the fluid running through the junction to be used by the program for calculations. This will make running a broader spectrum of fluids through our experimental systems more efficient and more accurate. To complete these tasks I will be implementing a modular approach first implementing new hardware which is still compatible with the old software then adapting current programs for implementation in the redesigned data acquisition program.
Data mining for identifying students’ difficulties in conceptual modeling
I-Lin Huang, J. Hsu, Langston University
Conceptual data model is a process for building data models that are essential to building a well-functioning database. Conceptual data modeling has become a critical concern both in academia and in practice because the quality of database systems is critical for wide-spreading e-businesses and enterprise resource planning systems in current business environments. However, conceptual data modeling is an error prone process, especially for student database designers. Empirical studies have showed that the performance of student database designers is significantly lower than that of expert database designers. Educational data mining has been used to discover the relationships between students’ mistakes and the co-occurring content. On the basis of the results, changes in teaching approaches can be suggested. In this research, a data mining approach is proposed to assist teachers to identify students’ difficulties in conceptual data modeling. By establishing the measurements for students’ errors and potential causes, the patterns for the relationships between errors and potentials are explored.
De Novo Next-Generation Sequencing, Assembling and Annotation of Arachis Hypogaea L. Spanish Botanical Type Whole Plant Transcriptome
Ning Wu, Kanyand Matand, Kayla Love, Langston University
Peanut is a major agronomic crop within the legume family and an important source of plant oil, proteins, vitamins, and minerals for human consumption, as well as animal feed, bioenergy, and health products. Peanut genomic research effort lags that of other legumes of economic importance, mainly due to the shortage of essential genomic infrastructure, tools, resources, and the complexity of the peanut genome. This is a pioneering study that explored the peanut Spanish Group whole plant transcriptome and culminated in developing unigenes database. The study applied modern technologies, such as, normalization and next-generation sequencing. It overall sequenced 8,308,655,800 nucleotides and generated 26,048 unigenes amongst which 12,302 were annotated and 8,817 were characterized. The remainder, 13,746 (52.77%) unigenes, had unknown functions. These results will be applied as the reference transcriptome sequences for expanded transcriptome sequencing of the remaining three peanut botanical types (Valencia, Runner, and Virginia), which is currently in progress, RNA-seq, exome identification, and genomic markers development. It will also provide important tools and resources for other legumes and plant species genomic research.
Decolonizing the Histories of Helen Hunt Jackson (1830-1885) and Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (1876-1938)
Barbara Bilek, University of Central Oklahoma
What is decolonization and how does it work? The concept of decolonization surfaced during “the global Indigenous activism in the 1970s.” Although the idea is not new, it has been given little attention by mainstream western historians. In Native Historians Write Back, Susan A. Miller, and James Riding In, stated, “Decolonization is a process designed to shed and recover from the ill effects of colonization.” In this thesis, I utilize the case studies of two women to demonstrate how decolonizing history using an Indigenous lens can construct a new history producing a new narrative with a different perspective. Many literary scholars studied the lives of Jackson and Bonnin, but their work has been largely overlooked by western historians. This researcher saw the women as the progenitors of the modern day Native American rights movements. The object of this research project was to use an Indigenous perspective to observe and report whether the histories about Jackson and Bonnin would change as a result. The results have produced a manuscript that provides an example of how to apply the principles of Indigenous discourse, specifically regarding decolonization. Decolonizing the history of two very different women with synchronistic goals may encourage other historians whether Native American, western, or American to present alternative perspectives in the histories they write.
Deepwater Horizon: A Criticism of BP's Response
Colton Rowe, Cameron University
The purpose of this paper is to criticize British Petroleum's response to the events of April 20, 2010, and the subsequent oil spill. The main focus of this paper is Tony Hayward's testimony before Congress on the morning of June 17, 2010. Focusing on Hayward's testimony not only provides speeches of accusation and defense to analyze, it simplifies the critical process, as indeed, most of the accusations leveled against BP corporately were addressed before congress, and in Hayward's testimony. I will categorize BP's apology in terms of literature provided by Halford Ryan, Ware and Linkugel, and I will evaluate their response in light of research provided by Millar and Beck.
Demographic Differences in Employee Perceptions of Performance Based Evaluations: A Qualitative Analysis
Brandon Pickens, Robert Mather, University of Central Oklahoma
The research project seeks to discover if the gender, race, and age of a supervisor/manager has an impact or influence on the perceived value of a performance evaluation/appraisal. Data for this project will be collected through a confidential qualitative questionnaire on faculty and staff at the University of Central Oklahoma. It is expected that age and race will have the most impact on the judgments the individuals give in response to the questions asked. Age and race are the most controversial when it comes to demographics, but attention will be given to other demographics as well. This study is important because it has the ability to provide insight into an individual's perception regarding how to deal with people as it relates to work performance in a world where dealing with different ages, races and genders are a norm.
Demonic Possession: The Role View of the Self, Group Influence, and Ritualism Have on Those who are Dealing with Demons.
Jessica Smith, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this research is to explore possible social influences on the phenomenon of demonic possession. This research hypothesizes that the demonically possessed are people who have at least one emotional problem, that groups--such as deliverance ministries- can heavily influence the belief that one is possessed and once possession is established, rituals such as exorcisms, can help the possessed work through emotional issues and feel integrated into a group, even if the rituals themselves are not “curative.” Data is from an omnibus survey of 340 students attending a mid-sized, public, metropolitan university in Oklahoma. Inferential and descriptive statistics are utilized to explore this burgeoning topic, and future directions for research are discussed.
Design and Development of a Digital Impedance Analyzer
Baha Jassemnejad, University of Central Oklahoma
Today there are many commercially available impedance analyzers. These devices have many features and cater to a wide range of applications. They offer a wide range of test frequencies, and they can display many parameters such as phase shift. However, their major drawbacks are size and cost. Often, technicians in the field are only concerned with the real component of impedance measured at a specific frequency. The purpose of this project is to build a portable, handheld, digital impedance analyzer to be used by technicians in the field.
Design and Implementation of a Partical Image Velocimetry System for Fluid Dynamics.
Sultan Almaglooth, Andrew Henderson, Ane Muvadgah, Evan Lemley, Phd, Yunhao Lin, University of Central Oklahoma
This project is supported by the Department of Engineering and Physics at University of Central Oklahoma. The main goal of this project is to produce and design a functional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental apparatus with a lower cost compared to commercial apparatus and sufficient performance. This apparatus will be able to determine the fluid velocity profile which is flowing in a test section that consists of milli-sized junction to measure the pressure drop across the test section, and to find loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number using entropy generation concepts. The apparatus consists of six main components which are a camera, laser, cylindrical lens, laser lifting system, test section, PIV Lab software, and fluid driving system. The results of this project will yield four deliverables. First, PIV system for less than $1000. Second, two T-junctions with round and sharp edges to be used in experiments. Third, a system that will drive fluid through the test section at variable Reynold’s numbers with steady flow. Finally, a report detailing experimental data and entropy generation calculations, that compares the experimental results with simulated results.
Design and Optimization of a Modular System for Biofluids Research
Baha Jassemnejad, Evan Lemley, Phd, University of Central Oklahoma
Research over the renal artery network with (RAA) and without (RA) a deforming saccular aneurysm as well as on tissue PolyL-lactic acid ( PLL) scaffolds has been previously done by the University of Oklahoma. However confirmation of their computational fluid dynamic simulation of pressure drops for the renal artery network (2D) results needs to be obtained [1] as well as their porosity and flow characteristics for tissue scaffold . It is for that reason that 3D models have been created to run 3D simulations in Gambit 2.4.6 and Fluent 6.3.26 for both RA and RAA networks. According to our simulations results the pressure difference between the two types of arteries was 7.8 mmHg, this is different form their given results of 0.9 mmHg.
Design and Testing of Wireless Energy Transmission
Baha Jassemnejad, Weldon Wilson, University of Central Oklahoma
As time progresses technology increases at an exponential rate. Consumers want for the next big thing and manufactures keep up with this demand. We are living in the wireless age. People carry phones in their pockets, and computers that need no cables. Media devices such as game consoles have gone to a point where you are no longer tethered to the system with a cord. Everyone is wireless yet they still need to plug in to charge their electronic devices. The concept of wireless energy transmission has been available for over one-hundred years but only recently has its potential been realized.
Design of a Temperature Measurement and Acquisition Device to be Used in Conjunction with Laser Photothermal Therapy
Lance Straughn, Amanda Walker, Shayla Pearson, Wei Chen, University of Central Oklahoma
​Thermal therapy, with appropriate elevation of temperature in target tissue, can be a potential method for cancer treatment. Elevating and maintaining tissue temperature at a desired level during laser irradiation is crucial for the effectiveness of thermal therapy. Dr. Wei Chen, the leader of a research group who has developed laser immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer, has expressed a need for a temperature measurement device that is less costly and more mobile than his current equipment. Our project is aimed at designing a cost effective, portable, and highly precise temperature measurement device to be used in conjunction with laser photothermal therapy. The device currently provides a digital display of temperature readings from multiple sensor inputs and records these values into memory. The device will provide a notification to the user, indicating that the target tissue has reached a critical temperature that has been specified by the user. In future applications of our device, an automatic control of the laser to maintain a specified temperature of the target tissue will be developed based on the trigger of the notification. Our design provides an accurate temperature measurement device that is easily transported and at a fraction of the cost of current equipment.
Design of an Optical Tweezers Force Calibration Procedure
Niralee Raichura, Baha Jassemnejad, Erdoo Segher, Gang Xu, Jophine Abraham, University of Central Oklahoma
Optical Tweezers (OT) —which use tightly focused laser beams to trap and manipulate microscopic dielectric particles, tissue cells, and cellular organisms—have proven valuable in areas such as cell biology, biophysics, and materials science. A microsphere trapped in the OT can function as a soft mechanical spring to apply forces on the order of pico-Newtons (10^-12 N). The goal of this study is to design and develop the force calibration procedure for the OT in our department. First, we developed a numerical model to simulate the calibration of our OT system. For the simulation, the trapped microsphere is modeled as a sphere attached to a spring. The thermal fluctuations of a microsphere are mimicked by applying small random forces on the microsphere. We have developed MATLAB codes for this simulation to estimate the spring constant based on the similar fluctuations, and to confirm the tracking program that will be used for tracing the microsphere’s positions in real experiment which are needed for the calibration of our OT system. The calibration of our OT system would be useful in the future cellular and molecular bio-mechanical studies.
Design, construction, and launch of near space balloon
Blice Nuchka, Okome M'bika, Ahmed Alshbaan, Jerry Haubrick, Pankaj Karna, University of Central Oklahoma
The senior engineering project is to design and construct a research platform capable of conducting scientific measurements at very high altitudes. A 1500 g meteorological balloon will lift a 10 lbs payload until the balloon burst, and then a 9 ft recovery chute deploys and delivers the package to the surface. The minimum intended ceiling for the experiment will be approximately 60,000 ft. The capsule will contain a video camera, to record the balloon's journey for the duration of the flight. The research platform will measure cosmic ray levels, barometric pressure, relative humidity, temperature, and magnetic field intensity as functions of altitude during the flight. To conduct and data log the experiments, we have designed an on board flight computer utilizing the BASIC Stamp microcontroller. The flight computer will also transmit telemetry data to the research team live, via long range radio modems, so that the payload can be tracked to its landing site. The data obtained for magnetic field will be compared to simulated data. The findings will help understanding of 3 dimensional aspects of magnetic field intensity from the ground to the upper atmosphere. We used Solidworks to design the capsule and decided to use an insulated polyurethane case to keep the electronics at a safe temperature inside the capsule.
Design, Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate (PEGDA) for Tissue Engineering Applications
Baha Jassemnejad, Morshed Khandaker, University of Central Oklahoma
One of the principal challenges in tissue engineering, especially with the production of large tissue constructs, is the cell survivability within the scaffold. Several researchers developed porous 3D scaffold where oxygen and nutrients can slowly diffuse for the proper cell growth inside the scaffold. Due to limited diffusion of oxygen and nutrients, the cells placed at a certain depth (usually 3 mm) within the tissue construct do not receive adequate nutrients. For which the cells die at that depth which lead to improper tissue regeneration in the scaffold. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. In this study, tissue constructs having the nutrient conduit networks were designed and were fabricated with UV-photopolymerization process. Polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) was used as a fabrication material. After the design and fabrication was completed, mechanical characterization was conducted to examine the mechanical properties of the tissue constructs.
Design, Simulation, Fabrication, and Experimental Analysis of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
Lince Rumainum, Abdellah Ait Moussa, Jan Ronard Pinpin, Mohammed Almomen, University of Central Oklahoma
The design of heat-transfer equipment involves a trade-off between the two conflicting goals of low capital cost (high overall heat-transfer coefficient, small heat-transfer area) and low operating cost (small stream pressure drops). Optimal designs thus involve the constraints of capital and energy costs, which are constantly changing. In this project, we develop a computer interface similar to commercial computer software packages used for heat exchanger design, the underlying computer program calculates and optimize the size of heat exchangers within the constraints of capital and energy costs; particular emphasis is on the design of a double pipe heat exchanger. Heat transfer simulation using ANSYS Fluent, in addition to engineering experimentation were also conducted to confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed designs.
Desmodus rotundus (Vampire Bat) Salivary Plasminogen Activator as an Alternative Treatment for Ischemic Stroke
Ian Schalo, Frank Yau, Kevin Wang, Northeastern State University
Someone in the United States suffers a stroke every forty seconds; 85% are ischemic strokes. An ischemic stroke occurs via a clot impeding blood flow to the brain. To treat this dangerous condition, doctors must administer recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4.5 hours to dissolve the clot and restore blood flow to the brain. Although tPA is effective, it also bears significant neurotoxicity. As such, a more effective approach is sought. Desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator α 1 (DSPAα1), an anticoagulant in vampire bat saliva, is currently being investigated for its thrombolytic properties. DSPAα1 is known to antagonize vascular tPA-induced neurotoxicity by competitively binding to low-density lipoprotein related-receptors at the blood-brain barrier. DSPAα1 is currently undergoing clinical trials. DSPAα1 shares 345 identical amino acid positions with tPA, with an identity of 61.3%. Though DSPA α1 is in clinical trials, DSPAα2 is already being optimized for production in plants. DSPAα2 shares 427 amino acid positions with DSPAα1, maintaining a similarity identity of 89.5%. When comparing DSPAα2 to tPA, 354 amino acids are found to be shared with an identity of 62.87%. Due to the similarity, DSPAα2 may be an effective thrombolytic agent. The ability to produce this protein in plants could effectively lower the cost and risks associated with current strategies for treatment of ischemic stroke.
Deterioration of Various Cartridge Case Compositions in Selective Environments
Amanda Bevers, University of Central Oklahoma
Examiners in the field of firearm and toolmark analysis compare characteristics on bullets or cartridge cases to determine if a specific firearm was used. Examiners can encounter ammunition components that have been exposed to or damaged by various environments when left behind, which can obscure or obstruct those characteristics needed to conduct an analysis. The proposed study seeks to classify the levels of deterioration on cartridge cases in select environments. In addition, we seek an appropriate restorative technique that may be effective in restoring characteristics necessary to draw conclusions. Fired cartridge cases were placed in six environments and collected every 31 days. The cartridge cases were cleaned with water using a sonication instrument when needed, and analyzed using a comparison macroscope. A sample size of 9 cartridges per collection interval will be chosen based on composition and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to evaluate elements present due to corrosion over time. Should the author find suitable characteristics for comparison, conclusions of identification or unsuitable will be drawn. All comparisons will be conducted using known samples that originated from one of 2 selected pistols (9mm Beretta and 9mm Hi Point). Should the author reach a conclusion of unsuitable, the cartridge case will then be cleaned using one of the three selected restorative techniques and analyzed again.
Determining a Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Academic Performance in First Year University Students
Meagan Carter, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between sleep quality and academic performance in first-year college students. This study is significant because it is the goal of a university to educate their students and assist them in succeeding inside and outside of the classroom. Current research supports a relationship between sleep and academics, however few studies performed on sleep quality and academic performance are targeted at first-year students and without self-reported grade point averages. For the variable of academic performance, grade point averages (GPA) will be the utilized. A traditional 4.0 scale will be used to report the subjects’ grades for the semester. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) gives a standard measurement for sleep quality through a 19-item questionnaire requesting subjects to supply information about the previous month’s sleeping habits (Buysse et al., 1989). After grades have been posted for the semester, the participants’ transcripts will be collected in order to obtain the semester’s GPA for each participant. Once data collection is complete, a Pearson’s correlation analysis will be run to determine whether there is a significant relationship between sleep quality and academic performance variables.
Determining the breeding grounds of Henslow’s Sparrows using stable isotope analysis
Katrina Hucks, Chris Butler, University of Central Oklahoma
Henslow’s Sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii) are a declining grassland bird species. Although the decline in this species is presumably due to habitat loss, it is unclear whether this decline is being driven by habitat loss on the wintering grounds, breeding grounds or in both areas. It is important to determine whether wintering birds bred in a wide geographic area or a relatively narrow zone in order to manage for this species. Our goal was to determine the breeding location of Henslow’s Sparrows wintering along the Gulf coast. During 14 – 21 December 2012, we searched for Henslow’s Sparrows in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida. Birds were flushed using a rope-dragging technique and were caught in hand-held nets. A partial secondary feather was taken from each sparrow for a deuterium stable isotope analysis and the bird was then released. We were unsuccessful at banding Henslow’s Sparrows at two locations in southeastern Louisiana, but banded five Henslow’s Sparrows at Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, Mississippi as well as a single bird at Kissimmee Prairie Preserve State Park, FL. The feathers are currently being prepared for a deuterium stable isotope analysis.
Determining the Cause of Temporal Instability of Self-Assembled Gold Nanoparticle Thin Films
Kristen Worthen, Nolan Flynn, Cameron University
Gold nanoparticle thin films have many functions in biosensing and microelectronics. The gold nanoparticle thin films are formed by self-assembly on silicon dioxide glass microscope slides through a layer-by-layer immersion technique. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are employed to make these films because AuNPs have previously been shown be biocompatible, relatively inert, and form monolayers rather easily. However, the temporal degradation of the thin films in an aqueous medium prevents their widespread use in biological applications. The degradation of the thin films is quantified by measuring the contact angle. Previously, it had been assumed that the decrease in contact angle, and thus the degradation, was due to desorbtion of the AuNPs from the film. However, analysis by ICP-OES after a moderate time period did not indicate loss of AuNPs from the films, and instead indicated a desorbtion of the outer layer of dodecanethiol from the slides.
Deuterium Stable Isotope Analysis on Wintering Black Rails of Texas
Jeffrey Tibbits, Charles Brower, Chris Butler, Jeffrey Kelly, Jennifer Wilson, University of Central Oklahoma
The Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) is the smallest of the North American rails and one of the most secretive species on the continent. Birds breeding along the Gulf Coast and along the southeastern Atlantic coast are presumed to be year-round residents, but nothing is known about where interior birds winter. To date, 556 Black Rails have been banded but there has only been a single recovery. Another approach to studying bird movements is to use stable isotope analysis. Isotopic ratios vary spatially, and the tissues in an organism reflect these local isotopic ratios. Since Black Rails molt rectrices (tail feathers) shortly after breeding, the isotopic ratios in these metabolically inert feathers should reflect the isotopic ratios of the breeding grounds. The goal of this project was to determine the relative proportion of inland to coastal Black Rails wintering in Texas. Nine Black Rails were banded at San Bernard NWR between November 2009 and April 2010. A single rectrix (tail feather) was removed from each individual and subjected to a deuterium stable analysis. Three of the nine birds had deuterium values consistent with coastal Texas, indicating that they were residents. The remaining six birds had deuterium values consistent with inland North America, indicating that they were non-residents. The results of this study suggest that many of the Black Rails wintering along the Texas coast breed in the interior of North America.
Developing Autonomous Solutions for Hazardous Environments
Allen Goekler, University of Tulsa
The purpose of this project was to develop a solution to visual inspection and monitoring in remote environments. Some areas of the world are too remote or treacherous to access with conventional methods, in other cases, it is too hazardous. Using standard hobby planes and off-the-shelf electronics, we aimed to provide a small easy to use, long range unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This vehicle would be simple enough that anyone could learn the system in an hour, some faster. This system would also have to be self-reliant, in that if something were to happen with a radio signal, it would default to a failsafe and find its way home. Rather than use the tried and true approach for hobbyist UAVs, which utilized three radios of different frequencies for control, telemetry, and video; we aimed to develop a system that relied on only one Ethernet radio to stream both video and flight data back to the user. With this in mind, we were able to develop a vehicle that once in the air; we were able to stream video, read flight data, and control the device on a single radio frequency.
Developing Laboratory Experiments for General and Organic Chemistry Labs Using the Vernier LabQuest
Azeezatulai Oyebola, Elizabeth Nalley, Seth Geiger, Stewart Younger-Mertz, Cameron University
Nalley, Department of Physical Sciences, Cameron University, Lawton, OK 73505 Recently the Cameron University of Physical Sciences purchase Vernier Lab Quest Data Collecting Devices and associated instrumentation and sensors in order to facilitate data collection in our chemistry and physics laboratories. LabQuest is a standalone and computer interface for Vernier sensors or other data collecting devices. It uses its color touch screen to collect, graph, and analyze data in the classroom or in the field. In this project we were interested in developing experiments using the Vernier Polarimeter which could be adapted to general, organic or biochemistry laboratories. The polarimeter can be used to measure chiral properties of optically active samples without chemically modifying or destroying the sample. This poster will describe three experiments which were developed for our laboratories using the Vernier Polarimeter.
Developing Laboratory Experiments for General and Organic Chemistry Labs Using the Vernier LabQuest
Elizabeth Nalley, Cameron University
Recently the Cameron University of Physical Sciences purchase Vernier Lab Quest Data Collecting Devices and associated instrumentation and sensors in order to facilitate data collection in our chemistry and physics laboratories. LabQuest is a standalone and computer interface for Vernier sensors or other data collecting devices. It uses its color touch screen to collect, graph, and analyze data in the classroom or in the field. In this project we were interested in developing experiments using the Vernier Polarimeter which could be adapted to general, organic or biochemistry laboratories. The polarimeter can be used to measure chiral properties of optically active samples without chemically modifying or destroying the sample. This poster will describe three experiments which were developed for our laboratories using the Vernier Polarimeter.
Development of a Histoplasma Antigen Lateral Flow Assay (Hag LFA)
Candy Palmer, Oklahoma City Community College
Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. The most virulent form is disseminated histoplasmosis and is most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients. The disease is highly treatable. However, people in resource poor environments are dying of a treatable disease for lack of an easy rapid diagnostic tool. The goal of this project was to develop a Histoplasma antigen lateral flow assay that could be used in areas with minimal laboratory infrastructure. Histoplasma specific monoclonal antibody 26-10 was gown in Integra bioreactors. The antibody was purified using fast protein liquid chromatography with an affinity resin that binds IgG. The isolated antibody was used to “capture” Histoplasma antigen shed by infected patients. Strip appearance was optimized by varying antibody concentration, membrane speeds and dilution buffers. Strict antibody purification protocols were critical to the elimination of false positives. The research developed a lateral flow product that detected Histoplasma antigen at a concentration of 12.5 ng/mL. As such, it provides a highly specific, sensitive diagnostic tool that can be used during the initial point-of-care visit.
Development of a Paper-Based Biosensor for Antibodies in Serum
John Bowen, Barry Lavine, Mary Tappert, Nicolas Shaffer, University of Central Oklahoma
A test biosensor for antibodies in serum based on the microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Device (μ-PAD) pioneered by the Whitesides Group (Chemistry, Harvard University) was developed to detect and identify anti-Bovine Serum Albumin (anti-BSA) using BSA immobilized onto the cellulose of filter paper. The biosensor μ-PAD used wax microfluidic channels and the familiar BCIP/NBT microspot color change reaction for the detection scheme. After the complete testing of this test biosensor, a biosensor μ-PAD will be produced to detect antibodies in sheep blood generated in response to two viral deseases Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) and Blue Tongue Virus (BTV).
Development of Hybrid Format Upper-Level Chemistry Course
Joel Smith, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Alternative delivery methods to the traditional face-to-face college lecture have become a fixture in higher education. A hybrid delivery format course was developed and piloted for quantitative analysis (Chemical Analysis) at Southeastern Oklahoma State University in the Fall 2012. The hybrid format consisted of 2-3 hours of video lectures and one hour of traditional face-to-face meeting weekly. Video lectures were recorded using a SmartBoard and microphone which were then converted to a format suitable to be viewed on any computer or handheld device including smartphones. Video lectures are uploaded to a server and linked to the Blackboard page. Overall student performance will be compared to previous years using traditional face-to-face format. Statistics of student access to the video lectures will be discussed. A student survey of the piloted format will be present with student suggestions for improvement.
Development of Productivity-based Estimating Tool for Energy and Environmental Impact of Heavy Duty Diesel Construction Equipment
Apif Hajji, Phil Lewis, Oklahoma State University
Although there are already methods and models for estimating productivity rate and emissions for heavy duty diesel (HDD) construction equipment, there currently is not a means for doing all of these at once. This research presents the framework for a tool that can be used to estimate the production rate, activity duration, total fuel use, and total pollutant emissions from earthwork activities. A case study and sensitivity analysis for an excavator are presented. The tool is developed by combining a multiple linear regression (MLR) approach for modeling equipment productivity with the emissions calculation algorithm from EPA’s NONROAD model; pollutants estimated include NOx, PM, HC, CO, and CO2. Furthermore, the equipment fuel use rate is also estimated. Results indicate that the excavator productivity model had high precision and accuracy, low bias and R2 = 92%. The estimating tool proposed in this research will be an effective means for assessing the fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions of earthwork activities and will allow equipment owners, fleet managers, policy makers, and project stakeholders to evaluate the energy and environmental impact of their construction projects.
Difference in GPA with Major and Type of Sport in Division II Student Athletes
Chelsea Smith, University of Central Oklahoma
It has been suggested that the demand of competitive athletics in college can be detrimental to the academic success of a student athlete. Furthermore major selection may be dependent on the path of least resistance and lead to academic clustering within specific majors. The purpose of this study is to determine how student athlete’s sport and major effect their grade point average (GPA) at the University of Central Oklahoma. There has yet to be a study relating individual sports team’s division of majors and their academic success. This study used unidentified academic data from fall 2005 to fall 2012 of the University of Central Oklahoma student athletes. This study included 743 student athletes from seven major sports and represented all eight colleges at the university. The athlete’s GPA was compared to their team and major. There was a significant difference in GPA by team, GPA by major, and GPA by team by major. As a group, academic clustering was found in student athletes. The majority of student athletes had majors in the colleges of education, liberal arts, business or were undeclared. With these results the research aims to create recommendations for academic success to specific teams and majors.
Differences In Eating Schedules, Sitting Time, Steps per Day, and Amount of Physical Activity Between Staff and Faculty.
Alaura Ervin, Greg Farnell, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this study is to compare BMI, eating behaviors, steps per day, and exercise habits of faculty and staff on the UCO campus. The hypothesis of the current study is that faculty member will have lower BMI's, higher steps per day and greater amounts of physical activity (exercise habits). The current hypothesis is based on existing literature that found American's decline in physical activity and increase in energy consumption can be contributed to the boost in figures of obesity rates. From 1950 to 2000, the amount of people working in sedentary jobs was 76% (Brownson, R.C. et al., 2005). The results from this study may alert staff members who usually sit for longer than 6 hours during work, may result in an increased BMI and increased sedentary lifestyle habits, both negatively effecting their overall health. Employees will receive the survey to complete online using UCO's survey tool, Qualtrics. Once they have completed the survey, 16 participants (8 staff and 8 faculty) will be randomly selected to wear accelerometers. The 16 participants will wear the accelerometers for 4 weeks and record their steps daily. The participant will turn in a daily step log sheet every week for four weeks. This study may determine common trends between individuals who spend large amounts of time sitting compared to individuals whose job duties require more physical activity. This study will compare differences between length of time sitting at work between staff and faculty. The
Different Supplement Treatments for Lactating Meat Goat Does Grazing Grass/Forb Pastures
Arthur Goetsch, Glenn Detweiler, Jerry Hayes, Kesete Tesfai, Terry Gipson, Zaisen Wang, Langston University
Lactating meat goats grazing 0.4-ha grass/forb pastures were used to determine effects on performance of different supplement treatments. Boer does with one or two kids were used in a study with four 4-wk periods starting 22 d after birth. Treatments were no supplementation, access to a 20% protein supplement block, and placement in a supplement pasture with mimosa (Albizia julibrissin) trees for 6 h 1 d/wk or twice weekly for 3 h/d. Forage mass was high and forage samples averaged 15% protein. Treatment did not affect doe average daily gain (ADG), although that by kids in the first three periods differed between type of supplement and frequency of supplement pasture access. Spanish does nursing two kids were used in a study with three 4-wk periods starting 66 d after kidding. Access to supplement pastures was for 24 h 1 d/wk or 2 d for 6 h/d. Forage mass was relatively low (i.e., 750 to 1,530 kg/ha) and, thus, grass hay was supplemented. Forage composition was similar to that earlier. Kid ADG in periods 1 and 2 was not affected by treatment. Doe ADG was increased by supplementation and greater with access to mimosa trees than the supplement block, which resulted from effects in period 3 after weaning rather than earlier. In conclusion, use of the supplement block was not beneficial, and infrequent access to supplement pastures had relatively small effects on average daily gain, perhaps because forage availability and nutritive value were not severely limiting.
Dihydrodipicolate Synthase from E. coli: Mutagenesis of Threonine 44 to Valine
Russell Evans, Lilian Chooback, Yvonne Daugherty, University of Central Oklahoma
Dihydrodipicolate Synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme in plants and bacteria, is a component of the L-lysine biosynthesis pathway. DHDPS catalyzes the first committed step in this pathway. The first committed step in the pathway is the reaction of pyruvate and L-aspartate-β-semialdehyde (ASA) to produce dihydrodipicolinate. L-lysine, the final product of the pathway, inhibits DHDPS. Previous literature has shown that DHDPS follows the ping-pong kinetic mechanism. In the first step in this pathway, the ε-amino group of Lysine161 places a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl of pyruvate, producing a Schiff base. The Schiff base intermediate undergoes an irreversible dehydration step and forms an enamine intermediate. Next, ASA binds to the enzyme- enanime complex. Threonine 44 is located on the boundary of the active site of DHDPS. It is proposed that threonine 44 is involved in a proton shuttling process into and out of the active site. To determine the role of threonine 44, site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to develop the T44V mutant. To characterize the T44V mutant enzyme, kinetic studies will be performed. This work was supported by grant P20RR016478 from the National Center for Research Resources a component of the National Institutes of Health and a grant from the University of Central Oklahoma Office of Research and Grants.
Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase From E. coli: Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Arginine 138 and Lysine 133
Tyler Vann, Charles Nguyen, Lilian Chooback, William Karsten, University of Central Oklahoma
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the formation of dihydropicolinate from pyruvate and L-aspartate-R-semialdehyde(ASA). The enzyme catalyzes the first committed step for the biosynthesis of L-lysine in bacteria and plants. The enzyme from Escherichia coli is feedback inhibited by lysine, the end product of the pathway. A study of the pH dependence of the kinetic parameters was done to elucidate the acid-base chemical mechanism of the enzyme. The Σ-amino group of lysine 161 attacks the carbonyl of pyruvate and forms a Schiff base intermediate. The loss of a proton from this intermediate leads to the formation of an enamine intermediate. The second substrate, ASA binds to the enzyme:enamine covalent intermediate. Site-directed mutagenesis was done to investigate the role of the active site arginine 138 (R138), and lysine 133 (Y133). The R138A, R138K, and Y133F mutants were created and the identity of the mutants was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Kinetic studies will be done to characterize the mutant enzymes. This work was supported by grant P20RR016478 from the National Center for Research Resources a component of the National Institutes of Health and a grant from the University Central Oklahoma.
Discourses of the Mother Road: Geographic Themes Along Eastern and Central Route 66
Adam Payne, Douglas Hurt, Sara Hawk, University of Central Oklahoma
Connecting Chicago to Los Angeles, Route 66 is a symbol of American history as well as an economic resource for local communities and individuals who have opened a series of museums and interpretive sites near the highway. In order to explore what cultural heritage images Route 66 tourist sites convey to visitors, we assessed the information presented at museums and historic sites astride Route 66. Our preliminary qualitative analysis suggests similar and unique ways that the American past is viewed in the eastern, central, and western portions of the route.
Discovering Amplitude Quantization as an Elementary Property of Macroscopic Vibrating Systems through Doubochinski’s Pendulum
Jason Yeisley, Andrew McFarlin, Chris Conley, Chris Stewart, University of Central Oklahoma
A new class of vibratory processes known as “argumental oscillations” was established in the late 1960s. This was originally discovered by Danil Doubochinski, who noticed the occurrence of amplitude quantization in certain macroscopic oscillating systems. He was able to use these findings as a kind of “bridge” between classical and quantum physics. In our project, we are recreating one of Doubochinski’s experiments to further extend the knowledge of these quantized amplitudes and to gather new data. This pendulum uses the standard pendulum’s frame with a fixed arm and oscillates in a fixed plane. In contrast with a standard pendulum, Doubochinski’s pendulum has a permanent magnet as the pendulum bob and will interact with a magnetic field. The magnetic field in which the pendulum bob passes through is created by a solenoid placed directly under the pendulum bob. The solenoid is constructed by wrapping copper wire around an iron core and then connecting this device to an AC voltage source to produce an electromagnetic field. There are two main experiments that will be done when observing this pendulum; first, we will observe any effect the pendulum will experience if the length of the pendulum arm is changed. Next, we will adjust the frequency from our power source at these different arm lengths from a range of 10 Hz to 200 Hz. By performing these experiments, we can examine the effects these changes have on the quantized amplitudes
Dissolution Profile of Indomethacin Formulations with Complexation of Counter-ions in a PVP Matrix
Andrew Mansour, Hardeep Saluja, John Thompson, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Crystalline Indomethacin (IMC), a Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID), suffers from poor solubility in an aqueous environment. A strategy to increase the solubility of IMC and similar drugs has been to create an amorphous solid dispersion of the drug. The amorphous form of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) allows for a less ordered structure, and requires less energy to dissolve the solid form into the solvent. Amorphous formulations undergo a solid-state transformation, spontaneously converting back to the more stable crystalline form, decreasing solubility. A strategy to slow this process is to incorporate the API into complexes with polymers such as Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). In this study we compared the effect of adding an HCl salt to the PVP-indomethacin complex in an effort to improve solubility. Formulations were dissolved under heated solvent @ 50 C, and evaporated under vacuum with a Rotovap to solidify an amorphous solid. The solid formulation was scraped, oven-dried, and stored in a tightly sealed container at room temperature. Dissolution studies were performed using a Varian 7100 dissolution apparatus per USP methods. IR spectra of each sample were recorded in tandem with dissolution procedures to differentiate the absorption differences between the samples. The analysis of the data showed a more rapid initial solubility of the IMC-PVP-Counter-ion complex, but all compounds experienced a drop in concentration after the 3-hour mark.
Does the Use of the FITBIT Accelerometer Affect Physical Activity Levels?
Ryan Westrup, Greg Farnell, University of Central Oklahoma
Physical inactivity and obesity are global problems with increasing prevalence. Previous research has demonstrated that the use accelerometers increase physical activity levels. The purpose of this research project is to determine if the FITBIT accelerometer increases physical activity levels. This study will include 20 participants; ten in the treatment group who will wear the FITBIT for 6 weeks and 10 in the control group. Participants were recruited by email from the UCO Employee Wellness Program, UCO Wellness Center staff, and the Kinesiology Department faculty and staff. All participants will complete the Human Activity Profile (HAP) survey to determine physical activity levels pre and post. Data from the FITBIT accelerometer will be obtained weekly from the treatment group. The current hypothesis is that wearing the FITBIT will increase physical activity levels compared to those not wearing the FITBIT. The FITBIT has features that make tracking activity levels easy, allowing one to compete with oneself, and others. Future studies should look into if the FITBIT actually motivates individuals and what factors cause an increase in physical activity levels. Also, studies should look into whether the FITBIT accelerometer is more beneficial at increasing activity levels compared to other accelerometers.
Don't Leave, Stay in School: Developing a Predictive Model of Discontinuance
Maxwell Kwenda, Cameron University
This study was conducted with the goal of providing additional insights on student retention using administrative data at Cameron University. The study delivers scorable measures of discontinuance using multivariate methods. Using Cameron University’s administrative data collected on 774 students, this study found that remediation reduces the odds of discontinuance in later semesters. Students with higher GPAs have reduced odds of discontinuing school. Non-minorities have higher odds of discontinuance in the first semester; there are no significant differences between minorities and non-minorities after the first semester. Concurrently enrolled students stay at Cameron University for the first year and then have the highest odds of discontinuance. Based on these findings, the author recommends that Cameron University should use predictive analytics as part of the decision-making process associated with student retention. Models in this investigation have predictive accuracy ranging from 70% to 86%; this is more than chance occurrence. Discontinuance should be studied semester-to-semester because there are variables such as financial aid whose effects vary from one semester to the next. If discontinuance is systemic, future analyses should include the entire student population and as many available variables as possible. Qualitative research (e.g. focus groups and unstructured interviews) is needed to contextualize the findings of this study.
Drosophila N-Hydro-Terminator
Robert DuPriest, Northeastern State University
The gene CG10576 is a peptidase that is found in the organism Drosophila Melanogaster but is also reserved in Homo-sapiens, knowing the Drosophila is a model organism and that the gene is a homolog, we can alter the gene in the Drosophila and justifiably assume it will have similar results in humans.
Dynamic Coupling of Rotors and Axles in Rotaxanes
James Dechter, Kim Pham, William Garbe, University of Central Oklahoma
Supramolecular structures are held together by intermolecular forces rather than chemical bonds. They are of interest for purposes ranging from the construction of the various components of molecular machines in nanotechnology, to the study of the self-assembly of molecules. Our interest in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the dynamic coupling of supramolecular structures has led us to investigate “rotaxanes”, which derive their name from their description as a rotor molecule threaded onto an axle molecule. Our interest is to probe the effect of the diameter of the rotor molecule on the dynamic behavior of the axle molecule – an effect called dynamic coupling. We have chosen a series of cyclic polymers as the rotors which have the common name cucurbiturils. The series with 5-8 monomer units are commercially available, and the specific polymer is designated by the n in cucurbit[n]uril. The axle we have chosen is spermine tetrahydrochloride (SPM•4HCl). Evidence will be given for the formation of rotaxanes between the axle SPM•4HCl and the two rotors, cucurbit[6]uril and cucurbit[7]uril. Preliminary results for the dynamic coupling experiments for these systems will be presented. Also, we will present evidence confirming the formation of a charge-transfer complex in the interior of the cucurbit[8]uril rotor when methylviologen and hydroquinone are used together as rotors.
Dynamics of the Spread of Staph Infections in Hospitals
Princess Hays, Langston University
We investigate the in-hospital transmission dynamics of two Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, also referred to as staph: hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). We hypothesize that CA-MRSA will tend to have greatest population. To predict whether or not CA-MRSA will overtake HAMRSA, a compartmental model has been established. Under the assumption that patients can only be colonized with one strain of MRSA at a time, global results show that competitive exclusion occurs between HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA strains; the strain with the larger basic reproduction ratio will become endemic while the other is extinguished. Using the extended model, we explore the effect of co-colonization on competitive exclusion by determining the invasion reproduction ratios of the boundary equilibria.Further investigation into co-colonization, trends with antibiotic methods and health risk factors will be explored.
Early Rise Alarm
Rad Alrifai, Christopher Allen, Northeastern State University
Waking up on time is a problem many people struggle with on a day to day basis. Whether it be oversleeping or hitting snooze one too many times, many people could benefit from a more effective way to wake up each morning. The best place to implement a feature that would accomplish this would be the first thing most people interact with every morning, an alarm clock. With more and more people using alarm apps on smartphones, a good place to improve current alarm designs would be through mobile apps. When most alarms go off, usually no action is required other than choosing off or snoozes; this functionality can be improved. The Early Rise Alarm contains a math function feature contains a simple equation to be solved in order turn off the alarm. This web application was developed using objective C and Apple’s IOS platform.  
Earned Income Tax Credit: Does it Serve its Purpose?
Mary Sheets, Crystal Medell, Kelsey Thomas, University of Central Oklahoma
The EITC has been a part of US tax credits since 1975. It has played a major role to help assist low-income households. It has had major reforms and expansions throughout the decades. It started as temporary relief and has developed into one of the largest welfare programs in history. The EITC’s main purpose is to help low-income families with financial assistance and to encourage lower income families to work. Although it has had changes to help ensure that it would be utilized efficiently, it still has its faults. It is still currently being under utilized by those in need and over utilized by taxpayers that should not receive the credit. Even though the EITC has its critics, it provides more support for a welfare program than any other agency. The main concern with the credit is if it serves its intended purpose overall.
Eastern Medicine
Stephen Cates, Northeastern State University
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long history and its practice is still in use today. Different from Western Medicine that requires clinical trials to establish its usefulness, TCM has long been established through years of trial and error to find treatments that work. As the effectiveness of TCM treatments gain popularity in Western countries, research is being conducted in order to elucidate how this treatment works on a physiological and pathological level as well as how it can be applied to current Western treatments.
Eastern Medicine: Acupuncture
Ahmed Zendah, Northeastern State University
Eastern medicine is almost a widely accepted form of treatment and is popular with people of the western world today. Specifically, traditional Chinese medicine is one of the most common practices used in the United States. Chinese medicine concepts have been formulated and practiced for over 2,000 years, several forms of these medical practices include acupuncture, herbal medicine, and simple massage. Acupuncture treats patients by using small, thin needles and inserting them into stimulating points on the human body. There are studies that reveal that some acupuncture treatments help with some musculoskeletal conditions and pain, however, other studies say this form of treatment is nothing more than a placebo effect on humans, acupuncture is an ongoing controversial subject.
Education and Politics: The Battle Against Information Technology
Stephen Vines, East Central University
Information Technology is often oversold and underused in schools. Is this because the resources aren’t provided for schools or are our schools refusing to adopt Information Technology? The purpose of this study is to take a detailed look into the use of Information Technology in the classroom and the availability thereof. Through a series of interviews and surveys of educators, I will sample how often Information Technology is used in the classroom, and then attempt to find out if it’s enough or too much. I will then compare the results to nearby states to see if the State of Oklahoma is providing enough resources for Information Technology in educational institutions. My hypothesis is that the State of Oklahoma does provide enough financial resources, but not enough training and policy support. My goal is that the end product will provide insight into how Information Technology is used in the classroom and how the Department of Education can better implement Information Technology in the classroom.
Effect of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Concentration Gradient on Myofibroblast Differentiation
Mellisa Chigwedere, Melville Vaughan, Tobi Odejimi, University of Central Oklahoma
When a person incurs a wound fibroblasts are signaled to approach the wound, proliferate, and differentiate in order to help close the wound close. Fibroblasts differentiate into myofibroblasts. This occurs mainly by mechanical tension and Transforming Growth Factor Beta inducing the cytoskeleton to reorganize itself. It has been shown through research that Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 promotes the morphological changes and function of myofibroblasts. Transforming Growth Factor Beta is a protein secreted by certain cells that plays a large role in differentiation and proliferation in cells. There have been many experiments using Transforming Growth Factor Beta to induce fibroblast differentiation. In this experiment we plan to investigate what concentration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta is best for experiments with myofibroblasts. The usual dose used in our lab is 1 nanogram per micro liter because this is what has been experimentally found to be low but effective dose. This experiment varied the concentration in order to find if there was a certain concentration that yielded the best results.
Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on Viability of Haemonchus Contortus and Immune Responses in White Blood Cells of Goats In Vitro
Arthur Goetsch, Daowei Zhou, Rhongzhen Zhong, Tilahun Sahlu, Zaisen Wang, Langston University
Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; a polyphenol in green tea extracts) on viability of third-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus and cytokine gene expression in white blood cells (WBC) of goats were investigated. Viable L3 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were delivered to each well of a 96-well culture plate with EGCG at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 3000, or 5000 μg/ml. Viability of larvae was determined at 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after exposed to EGCG. Viability decreased with increasing dose of EGCG and with increasing time. The reduction of viability after 96 h was 3, 21, 41, 48, 45, 92, 100, and 100% for 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 3000, and 5000 μg/ml of EGCG, respectively. Isolated WBC were cultured. Treatments were control (without antigen or EGCG), antigen (20 μg protein/ml) only, antigen plus 5 μg/ml EGCG, and antigen plus 50 μg/ml EGCG. Cells were harvested at 0, 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 h after treatment. L3 antigen up-regulated expression of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, but depressed IL-2. EGCG synergistically up-regulated expression of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-17, but down-regulated IL-12 in the cells stimulated with L3 antigen. In conclusion, EGCG may have anthelmintic effect on H. contortus as well as indirect influence through regulating immune responses of lymphocytes. Further work is needed to investigate whether EGCG can exert anthelmintic effects in live animals.
Effects of Active Video Games (Wii Fit™) on Senior Adult Balance, Fitness and Mood
Darla Fent, Caitlin Little, Cynthia Murray, Jacob Todd, Kayla Garver, University of Central Oklahoma
The aim of this pilot study was to assess and compare balance, balance confidence, fitness levels, and mood in six senior adults (approximately 74 years old) recruited from a local retirement center. Two participants were assigned to one of three groups: a traditional balance class, a Wii Fit™ balance program and a control group who refrained from participating in additional daily physical activity. The seniors in the two balance classes participated in 35 minutes of activity consisting of 20 minutes of strength training exercises and 15 minutes of balance exercises twice a week for 6 months. Pre, mid and post assessments were conducted utilizing components of the Senior Fitness Test (chair stand, arm curl, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch and 8-ft. up-and-go) and grip strength to evaluate functional performance measures. Similarly, balance was evaluated utilizing the Berg Balance Scale and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. And, mood was assessed via the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Differences between pre, mid and post measurements, as well as differences between groups, were analyzed using analysis of variance (SAS) and effect size. There were very few instances in which significant differences (p<.05) occurred. However, the majority of comparisons indicated a large effect (η2p > .14). These findings imply that future studies with larger sample sizes may result in clarification of how Wii Fit™ impacts seniors' bal
Effects of Blood Sampling on Nestling Scissor-tailed Flycatchers (Tyrannus forficatus)
Michael Husak, Diane Landoll, Cameron University
Increases in the ease and efficiency of genetic work in birds using minimally invasive techniques, such as small blood samples, has opened the potential to ask a broad range of questions. Blood sampling among adult and nestling birds has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. While sampling protocols are well researched and monitored, there remain questions regarding the effects of blood sampling on survival and development in nestlings, especially in systems in which depredation rates are high. We compared survival and rates of development in nestling Scissor-tailed Flycatchers (Tyrannus forficatus) in southwestern Oklahoma. From 2008 through 2012 we collected 25-μl blood samples from a total of 291 nestlings from 80 nests while addressing patterns of extra-pair paternity. Obtaining blood samples from nestlings did not significantly affect rates of predation, abandonment, or development compared to control nests which were monitored in the same manner, but from which blood was not collected.
Effects of Climate Change on Biomass Allocation to Leaves and Specific Leaf Area Along an Elevation Gradient
Alexander Hardison, Evailaufaumalu Sala, Fern Lehman, Jacqueline Mohan, Shafkat Khan, Oklahoma State University
Tropical forests are globally important for biodiversity and ecosystem functions that affect global climate via carbon and water balances. However, we lack experimental understanding of how climate change will affect tropical forests. I studied two common tropical rainforest tree species in 17 common garden plots along an elevational gradient (6 high, 6 mid, 5 low; at 1350m, 1050m and 650m respectively), where conspecific individuals were planted downslope to mimic future changes in climate at the native elevation. I quantified leaf biomass by counting the number of leaves in each tree and taking leaf samples to determine individual leaf mass. Our results suggest that biomass allocation to leaves sensitive to climate change is species and population specific. Also, specific leaf area is affected by climate change differently across species, and for some species is related to both environmental and genotypic factors. As leaves are directly related to tree development and productivity, and also closely linked with primary production and consequently, carbon sequestration, this study helps shed important insight into how individuals within and across species respond to climate change in that specific leaf area will change, but leaf biomass is not affected.
Effects of Embrocation oil on Time to Exhaustion During Treadmill Running
Kyler Daugherty, Brady Redus, University of Central Oklahoma
Embrocation oil is a muscle warming oil that is applied to the skin and increases blood flow to the muscle. Athletes often use this oil as a replacement for a warm up before a training session or competition. Currently, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of embrocation oil. This study will examine if embrocation oil increases an individual’s muscular endurance (time to exhaustion). The participants will consist of twenty physically fit college age students (18-30 years). Both males and females will be studied. The participants will run on a treadmill that increases in intensity (2% grade) every minute until the subject cannot continue (exhaustion). The participants will be randomly assigned to two groups and will be given embrocation oil to self-massage into upper thighs and calves during one testing period and again without embrocation oil five (5) days later during the second testing period. A dependent T-test will be conducted on the data that is collected from participant’s time to exhaustion. It is expected that embrocation oil will increase time to exhaustion. The results from this study may be used by endurance athletes for performance enhancement.
Effects of glycated chitosan on interstitial laser immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic cancer
Cody Bahavar, Allie Sikes, Ellen Boarman, Jessica Goddard, Robert Nordquist, Wei Chen, University of Central Oklahoma
Metastatic cancer is the number one cause of cancer death. Interstitial laser immunotherapy (ILIT) is an innovative treatment used to treat metastatic cancer. ILIT combines both immunotherapy and phototherapy to create a long-term tumor suppression in the host’s immune system. An infrared laser with cylindrical diffusion is used to irradiate tumors and cause the release of tumor antigens. ILIT can induce a tumor-specific immunity in the body. Although ILIT is still being developed, its results in clinical trials have shown to be very beneficial for late-stage breast cancer and melanoma patients. Glycated chitosan (GC) is the immunological stimulant used for ILIT. Having an optimal dosage of GC is critical for maximizing the effects of our treatment. We have performed animal studies to test which dosage of GC is optimal. The results suggested that the optimal dose of glycated chitosan is in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 ml per rat tumor.
Effects of Level and Length of Supplementation on Body Weight and Harvest Characteristics of Yearling Boer and Spanish Wethers
Arthur Goetsch, Roger Merkel, Terry Gipson, Zaisen Wang, Langston University
Yearling Spanish and Boer wethers were used to determine effects of level and length of supplementation on body weight and harvest characteristics. The experiment started in January, with wethers residing in four pastures primarily with warm season grasses. Alfalfa hay was given free-choice and a pelleted diet was supplemented at 0.5 or 1.5% of body weight. Wethers were harvested at the beginning of the study and after 110 and 218 days. Live and carcass weight were greater initially for Boer than for Spanish wethers. Average daily gain was greater for Boer vs Spanish wethers in the first part of the study but was similar thereafter. Body weight was greater with the high than low level of supplementation, as was also true for weight of the carcass and noncarcass components. Digestive tract and mass relative to empty body weight were similar between breeds. Liver mass was lower for the high vs low level of supplementation and less at the end of period 2 than 1. Mass of internal fat was increased by the high level of supplementation in period 2 but not period 1. In summary, advantages of Boer in body weight and carcass weight were similar after period 1 and 2, breed had little effect on noncarcass components relative to empty body weight, and a long feeding period was required for effect of the high level of supplementation on mass of internal fat.
Effects of Lycopene in Watermelon Extracts on Tissue Culture Cells.
Teresa Golden, Cori Brannock, Rebekah Ritchie, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Lycopene is an antioxidant from the carotenoid family of phytochemicals produced in plants. It is recognizable as the red color in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and watermelon. Unlike many carotenoids it lacks a terminal beta-ionic ring and provitamin A activity. It is absorbed and distributed throughout the body by the circulatory system. It is the focus of nutritional and clinical studies for prevention of prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Antioxidant properties of lycopene are well known, but other mechanisms of action have been indicated. We are using tissue culture to further examine the roles of lycopene including the effects on cancer cell growth and potential protective roles in response to stress. In these experiments we applied watermelon extracts with known lycopene and carotenoid contents to lung carcinoma cells or normal human fibroblasts. Cells were stressed (UV or starvation) and then assayed for survival rate and protein signaling changes.
Effects of Mango Supplementation on Clinical Parameters of Obese Individuals
Shirley Evans, Brenda Smith, Edralin Lucas, Mark Payton, Maureen Meister, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Sandra Peterson, Stephen Clarke, Oklahoma State University
We have previously shown that mango (Mangifera indica L.) reduced body fat and improved blood glucose in mice fed high fat diet. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effects of supplementation of freeze-dried mango on body composition and clinical parameters in obese adults. Twenty adults (11 males and 9 females) with body mass index (BMI) of 30-45 kg/m2 participated in the study and were given 10 grams of freeze-dried mango daily for 12 weeks. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were measured at baseline and at the end of supplementation. There were no significant changes in body weight and composition in both genders after mango supplementation. However, BMI is significantly increased in female subjects but not male participants compared to baseline. Hip circumference is lower in male subjects but not female participants with mango supplementation. Similar to our animal findings, mango significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations in both male and female subjects. Our findings indicate that regular consumption of mango by obese individuals does not negatively impact their body weight but provides a positive effect on their blood glucose.
Effects of Meat Goat Breed, Gender, and Conditions Before and Between Measures on Behavior in Pens with Barb Wire and Electric Fence Strands
Arthur Goetsch, Glenn Detweiler, Terry Gipson, Tilahun Sahlu, Yoko Tsukahara, Langston University
Growing Boer and Spanish goats were used to evaluate conditions for a method to test efficacy of electric fence strand addition to barb wire fence for cattle to contain goats. Test pens included one side adjacent to a pasture with abundant vegetation with barb wire strands at 30, 56, 81, 107, and 132 cm from the ground. Fence treatments were electric strands at 15 and 43 (LH), 15 and 23, 15, 23, and 43 cm at 6 kV. Adaptation procedures entailed four sequential weekly exposures to test pens: no electric strands, one strand at 0 kV, LH, and LH. Two preliminary treatments were imposed the week before the first observation period in week 1: barb wire with no electric strands vs. LH. All sets were observed for 1 hour in week 1, and four sets were exposed to the same fence treatment in week 6. During the 5 weeks between observations, sets were exposed to two washout treatments while on pasture: without or with electric strands at ≥ 6 kV situated next to concentrate feeders. Differences among fence treatments in the percentage of animals exiting pens were as expected based on the number and position of strands. More goats received a shock in week 1 vs. 6. Behavior of Boer and Spanish goats differed; therefore, breed should be a consideration for the testing method being developed. Adaptation procedures employed appeared conducive to use of an experiment with one observation period, whereas repeated observations would necessitate evaluation of other washout treatments.
Effects of micro fibers on the fracture strength of implant-cement interfaces
Aayush Khadka, Morshed Khandaker, Sandip Banstola, Utsaha KC, University of Central Oklahoma
The interfacial mechanics at the implant-cement interfaces is a critical issue for implants fixation and the filling of tissue defects created by disease. Electrospinning is a process by which fibers with micron or nano diameters can be obtained from an electrostatically driven jet of polymer solution. The present study is based on the hypothesis that the differences of the surface properties at aluminum (Al)/cement interface due to incorporation of micron fiber may have significant influence on the quality of Al/cement union. The objectives of this study are to design and construct electrospinning unit for the fabrication of Polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber and to measure the interface fracture strengths of sandwiched Al/cement samples with unidirectional, bidirectional and random micron fibers at the interface under tension, mixed and shear forces. PCL beads were dissolved in acetone with concentrations varying from 5-15 wt.% using sonicator. The random distributed fibers were collected on carbon tape in the stationary XY. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used for viewing the fibers. Tension tests were conducted on Al/cement sandwiched specimen. The interface fracture strength of sandwiched samples was measured. Our preliminary study found that the values of KIC of Al/PMMA with fiber were higher when compared to the values of KIC of Al/PMMA without fiber under tension force. Results indicated that the addition of the fiber to Al improved the quality of Al/cement union.
Effects of microwave irradiation on the free-radically initiated microemulsion polymerization of styrene
Brent Roberts, Spence Pilcher, Northeastern State University
Microwave irradiation has been used to enhance various organic reactions, improving reaction times and yields. In this study, the effects of microwave irradiation, as compared to conventional heating, on the radically-initiated microemulsion polymerization of styrene were investigated using varying initiators, initiator weight percent, and surfactant. The free radical initiators potassium persulfate (KPS) and 2,2’-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V-50) were used at weight percents of 0.1 and 1.0% with either stearyl trimethylammonium chloride (STAC) or cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the surfactant. Polymerizations using conventional heating generally had slightly higher percent conversions over those identical procedures using microwave irradiation. However, the reaction that consistently had the highest percent conversion was initiated by 1.0 wt.% V-50 with CTAB using microwave irradiation. Polymerizations using V-50 consistently produced the most polymer at 1.0 wt.% when compared to KPS. The majority of trials initiated by 0.1 wt.% of initiator failed to produce polymer. The two surfactants yielded similar percent conversions with other parameters being the same. The molecular weight of the formed polystyrene was approximately 2x106 g/mol regardless of reaction parameters, and polydispersity indices were 2.0-2.5. Both microwave and conventional heating produced polymer samples having glass transition temperatures of approximately 10
Effects of Yoga on Balance Confidence
Kelsey Hubble, Ed Cunliff, Jacilyn Olson, Melissa Powers, University of Central Oklahoma
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if the combination of yoga, Tai Chi, and mindful meditation increased balance and balance confidence in older female adults. Methods: Ten female participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Experimental or Control. The Experimental Group received yoga, Tai Chi, and a guided mindful meditation, while the control group received Tai Chi and yoga. Both groups met for 30 minutes per session, twice a week for seven weeks. Balance was assessed with Timed Tandem Walk, Timed Tandem Stand, and Timed Up-and-Go; balance confidence was assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. All assessments took place at baseline and post-intervention. A 2 X 2 ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted for all variables. Descriptive statistics and effect sizes were calculated. Results: The Timed Tandem Walk Errors group by time interaction was significant with F of 6.639 (p = .037). The control group had a large effect size of -1.79. No significant differences from pre-test to post-test were found in the Timed Tandem Walk, Timed Tandem Stand, Timed Up-and-Go, and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (p > .05). Discussion: The control group had an increase in errors during the balance assessment of Timed Tandem Walk. Future research should include a longer intervention of at least 12 weeks in duration.
Efficacy of a Bovine Colostrum Replacement Product for Goat Kids
Arthur Goetsch, B Bah, D Haines, S Genova, Steven Hart, Langston University
When adequate doe colostrum is not available for neonatal goat kids an alternative source of colostrum is necessary. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a commercially available bovine colostrum replacement product (Land O'Lakes Colostrum Replacement manufactured by The Saskatoon Colostrum Co., Ltd., Saskatoon Canada) in neonatal goat kids. Goat kids were removed from the doe at birth and a jugular blood sample taken for analysis of serum IgG. The colostrum replacement was reconstituted with water. Kids were fed reconstituted colostrum replacement at 10% of their body weight divided into three feedings over a 16-hour period. Six hours after the last feeding another blood sample was collected for determination of serum IgG. Kids were observed for 10 minutes after each feeding for any adverse reactions. After the three feedings of colostrum kids were fed a milk replacer and offered starter feed. Health and weight gains were compared to other kids fed heat-treated goat colostrum up to 3 weeks of age. Postfeeding level of IgG was much greater than prefeeding, and the level post-feeding was the same for both colostrum treatments. There were no cases of scours or off-feed conditions. Weight gain was similar for both treatments as well. In conclusion, the bovine colostrum substitute resulted in satisfactory blood levels of IgG and kids that were equally healthy to cohorts and gained similarly.
Electrochemical redox mechanism analysis of Li2-xFeP2O7 (0≤x≤1) pyrophosphate cathode via IR spectroscopy
Chad Hollifield, Christopher Burba, Northeastern State University
Effective materials for assembling electrochemical cells are an important and rapidly advancing focus in the industrial and scientific world. Li2FeP2O7 has been structurally and electrochemically reported and confirmed, however more study on the redox mechanism is needed to advance the understanding of cathode performance. We are interested in the analysis of Li2FeP2O7 via infrared spectroscopy to deduce and contribute to plausible redox mechanisms. Electrochemical extraction of lithium ions from the cathode material affects the electron distribution within the P-O bonds, and thereby affects the vibrational frequencies and IR band intensities. Thus, IR spectroscopy provides insight into the delithiation process from the perspective of the P2O7 anions. Before the analysis could be carried out, the cathode material had to be synthesized through a solid-state procedure and precursor mixture modeled by previous work. Once the material was synthesized, powder x-ray diffraction was performed to verify the desired product was prepared. The chemical delithiation of Li2FeP2O7 was attempted with nitronium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile to produce cathode material that is free from conductive carbon and binder materials typically present in a battery cathode. Experimental data is presented demonstrating that the desired material has been obtained and the chemical oxidation may be an effective means to extract lithium ions from the compound to prepare a series of LixFeP2O7.
Electronic Signatures: The Time Has Come
Ernst Bekkering, David Madden, Northeastern State University
The use of signatures for entering into agreements and signing contracts has significantly evolved over the centuries. In the electronic age, digital signatures have legal status but are underutilized. The authors discuss the evolution of signatures over the ages and demonstrate how digital signatures are currently used by the Northeastern State University Institutional Review Board (IRB).
Emissions Solutions through Advancements in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems
Jeremy Massey, University of Tulsa
In today’s society, protecting the environment from dangerous pollutants is becoming ever more important. MIRATECH gave the researchers the opportunity to solve this issue by developing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. This technology has existed for quite some time and is instrumental in reducing the amount of nitrous oxides that are produced from combustive systems. The main objective was to install and test new applications for a SCR system that would potentially lead to simpler design and operation, while also improving the efficiency of the system. This assignment coexisted with several other projects including the design and installation of MIRATECH’s new Innovation Center, making them a world leader in emissions solutions testing. Nitrous oxides need to be removed from the environment because they are considered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as “criteria air pollutants” and ozone precursors. Further advancements in SCR systems will lead to a healthier population, greater potential for cities to meet the air quality standards set by the EPA, and a cleaner environment for generations to come.
Emotional Intelligence Differences in Athletic Training, Physical Education, and Health Promotion Undergraduate Students
Jennifer Volberding, John Sellers, Theresa Brown, Tim Baghurst, Oklahoma State University
Context: Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to monitor one’s own emotions as well as the ability to understand and manage people. This ability is essential for all individuals, especially those who have direct contact with patients/students. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the overall level of EI in undergraduate kinesiology students as well as compare differences amongst the majors due to patient/student exposures. Participants: The pool included undergraduate students enrolled in the Athletic Training (AT), Physical Education (PE), and Health Promotion (HP) programs (N = 94). Interventions: Students completed an online EI inventory of 33 statements, rated on a 5 point agreement scale. Analysis: Means and standard deviations were calculated for the overall EI score (out of 150) for all students and by degree. A one-way ANOVA was performed to determine differences. Results: EI scores were 124.95 + 12.92 for all students, 127.16 + 12.5 for AT, 121.08 + 11.32 for PE, and 127.56 + 12.92 for HP. ANOVA results (F(2,91) = 2.71, p =.072) demonstrated no significant differences between majors. Conclusions: It was expected that AT students have higher levels of EI as they are exposed to significant amounts of patient contact earlier and more often than PE and HP students. However, this study demonstrated that although patient/student contacts may differ between majors, there were no significant differences in kinesiology students EI.
Energy Losses in Microjunction Chains
Ane Muvadgah, Evan Lemley, Phd, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this project is to measure the energy losses (EL) in microjunction chains (MJCs). Three dimensional MJCs will be using computer-aid drafting (CAD) software, and several simulation runs will be carried out with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software to allow for the investigation of energy losses as a function of interconnection length, angle between exit branches for each duct, and number of branches.
Entering the Flow of Labyrinth Research
Dr. C. Rudebock, Katja Marquart, Kay Sandor, Lea Goode-Harris, Marion Dabney, University of Central Oklahoma
This poster describes various research projects focused on labyrinth research by members of an international organization, The Labyrinth Society. This group of researchers from across the United States shared their diverse research projects using the labyrinth, a circuitous, universal path designed as a walking mediation. The new field of labyrinth research provides many opportunities to collaborate with professionals across disciplines as well as those in the United States and across the world. Electronic media allows ‘real time’ conversations to occur which in years past may have taken countless weeks and months, thus making collaboration across disciplines and locations much easier. Quantitative and Qualitative examples of labyrinth research are used to demonstrate the labyrinth as a tool which can be used across disciplines for research opportunities in various disciplines involving students, staff and faculty on college campuses and in the community.
Epigenetic Analysis Quantifying Behavior Health Medical Services of Oklahoma
Summer Loveless, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this investigation is to identify the overall economic impact of behavioral, mental, and medical health services (specifically those provided by Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists LMFTs), Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs), and Licensed Alcohol and Drug Counselors (LADCs ) in the state of Oklahoma. Behavioral health medical services can encompass education, addiction, injury rehabilitation, stroke recovery and mental health. Evidence shows that behavioral health medical services increase academic performance, public safety, individual wellness and family strengths for the identified patient. The services provided by a LMFT encompass the treatment of the family as a unit in conjunction with the identified patient. LPCs and LADCS typically focus on the treatment of the individual, often leaving genetic propensities and relational influences unaddressed. To treat the individual is to prevent or protect the specific individual from further psychological, physical and or cognitive damage. However, without a familial/systemic treatment approach psychosocial and psycho pathologies continuums can be maintained as they are transmitted through family relationships. If these factors are not carefully assessed, important information can be missed with potentially heavy implications for treatment success. This investigation explores the current state of mental health treatment in Oklahoma and identifies economic implications of ignoring a more systemic approach.
ERP Consolidation Accounting Serial Exercise
Zane Swanson, Siegfried Chan, University of Central Oklahoma
This project develops a serial exercise in consolidation accounting. Consolidation accounting is a more challenging area for accounting students. The reason is that they must understand complete financial statements of the combination of more than one entity with more than one time period involved. In contrast with most accounting learning objectives which address one journal entry at a time, the consolidation problems require multiple entries. The benefit of the exercise for students is a logical development starting with relatively simple investments in subsidiaries up through the activities of inter-affiliate transfers of inventory, noncurrent assets and financial instruments. While spreadsheets are useful for learning purposes and are the principle means of explaining consolidation accounting, the “real world” uses Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to do the accounting cycle of an investor company and its subsidiary. Therefore, an education need exists to show students how to process accounting cycle information in multiple entities and “roll up” the information into consolidated reports which have applicable consolidation elimination entries. This serial exercise is portrayed with a spreadsheet (EXCEL) and with an ERP system (Great Plains Dynamics). The ERP information is entered in journal form and then aggregated with a report writer.
E-tools & Civic Engagement
Elizabeth Overman, University of Central Oklahoma
This paper considers the extent to which digital technologies can contribute to democratic government, governance and voting. Whether or not we solve the problems our increasingly complex democracy faces may well depend on our ability to continue to usefully adapt digital technologies. Although this may seem to be a given, the issues that surround these innovations range from the simply technical to the gravely moral and ethical and they deserve examination by an enlightened citizenry. This research explores three questions. First, what is e-government and how does it compare to e-governance? Second, is e-voting a solution to the problems voters face in the United States? And, third, how might digitally mediated political processes contribute to the sort of resilience necessary to support a vibrant democracy? Of the three, e-voting is the most crucial and will, most likely, be the most neglected by policy makers and government officials because elections have consequences and those in power are reluctant to truly empower the electorate without first devising mechanisms of control such as the anarchistic electoral college.
Eugene “Bull” Connor: The Inadvertent Effects of his Reign of Terror
Brock Marshall, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
In 1954, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that the segregation of public schools and reverses the 1896 decision of Plessy v. Ferguson. The court cited the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause as the basis for its decision that segregated schools are inherently not equal. The decision sent shockwaves throughout the country and especially the South. Outrage quickly set in throughout the South as Civil Rights leaders pushed for more reforms. Through events such as the Birmingham Campaign and the Freedom Riders, Civil Rights leaders set out to desegregate Birmingham, Al. This move outraged the Commissioner of Public Safety, Eugene “Bull” Connor who quickly became known as one of the staunchest opponents of Civil Rights. Connor became widely known for his tough and often violent responses to protest from Black Americans. Connor was even accused of collaborating with the infamous Klu Klux Klan. However, Bull Connor’s violent actions in protest of desegregation became a rallying cry for the movement. Also, the media extensively covered the Birmingham Campaign and opened the eyes of the world to the treatment of Black Americans in the southern United States. The media coverage led to public outcry for reform from supporters. Ironically, Bull Connor became a major player in the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 although in a significantly different manner than he had imagined
Evaluation of a Fitness-based Intergenerational Transformative Learning Experience
Terry Taylor, Darla Fent, Jacilyn Olson, Matthew Blair, Melissa Powers, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this study is to examine students’ attitudes toward older adults and community service before and after a senior fitness class assignment. The participants will be students enrolled in an undergraduate exercise programming class. For a class assignment, students will conduct fitness testing at a local retirement community, and then develop exercise recommendations based on the testing results. The students will be surveyed to assess attitudes from the beginning of the semester to end to monitor changes in attitudes/beliefs toward older adults and in the ability and confidence in working with this population. The potential outcome of this study is that the students will have a more positive attitude towards the elderly and be more likely to consider a career in working with geriatric individuals/clients. From this study the authors will show the benefit in sustaining this project as well as adding similar programs to the curriculum.
Evaluation of Solvents used to Extract Chlorophyll for Photovoltaic Cells
Chelsie Johnson, Jim Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma
An experiment was conducted to evaluate several solvents used to extract chlorophyll from spinach for eventual use in photovoltaic cells. These cells were constructed with tin-oxide coated plates; the cathode was treated with graphite and the anode contained chlorophyll extracts embedded in titanium dioxide. Once treated with titanium dioxide, each anode was soaked in chlorophyll preparations made with one of three different solvents including ethanol, acetone, and water, for a period of 4 to 10 days. After air-drying anodes, complete photovoltaic cells were assembled with a drop of iodine / potassium iodide conducting solution, sandwiched between the plates. The cells were first tested to ensure that they produced significantly higher voltage in the presence of light compared to complete darkness. Power curves (in light) were then constructed for these cells using a resistance replacement box and maximum power was used to determine which resistance should be used for cells to measure voltage over a period of 10 to 30 days. Preliminary results demonstrated that photovoltaic cells constructed with acetone-extracted and ethanol-extracted chlorophyll can produce up to 350 millivolts, whereas cells constructed with water-extracted chlorophyll are unstable and, generally produce about 298 millivolts. We are currently in the process of evaluating the longevity of these cells and whether or not the same treatment differences exist over a longer period of time.
Examining Acoustic Attenuation Coefficient In Salt Water Solution
Chiemi Standridge, East Central University
The experiment indicates the acoustic coefficient attenuation in salt water solution using 1Mhz and 4Mhz transducer. Two types of salt will be used in the experiment, rock and table salt. The values of attenuation coefficient will be plotted against the value of concentration of salt. This is an updated version, the same one I presented at Research Day.
Examining the Effects of Lanthionine Ketimine (LK) in Axonal Elongation in vivo
Caleb Hubbard, Andrea Holgado, Elizabeth St. John, Erica Benda, Kenneth Hensley, Taylor Baxter, Tyler Hardin, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are cytoskeletal adaptor molecules involved in axonal elongation, alteration of cell shape, pathological disorders and neurological diseases. To further evaluate the role of CRMP2 in health and disease, we began examining the effect of CRMP2 and potential binding partners in neuronal network formation. Moreover, we reasoned that if we target CRMP2 therapeutically, we may reverse or slow-down onsets of many neurodegenerative disorders. To this end, we began a study focused on the in vivo effects of lanthionine ketimine (LK), a natural brain metabolite that binds to CRMP2. Using the nematode C. elegans, which expresses UNC-33, a homolog of mammalian CRMP2, we studied CRMP2 biology. In our work, C. elegans were grown in the presence of the cell permeable LK-ester (LKE) and synaptic connections were examined structurally. Two unc-33 mutant strains, either expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in cholinergic neurons or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in GABAergic neurons were studied. Analysis and quantification of fluorescently labeled neuronal connectivity demonstrated that LKE positively affects the neuronal networks of these strains. For instance, animals treated with LKE showed significantly less gaps at their nerve cord and a greater percentage of fully terminated commisures. These data provide evidence for in vivo function of LKE and reveal new opportunities for therapy development when CRMP2 functionality is compromised.
Exiting the Life: Understanding Desistance From Methamphetamine
Shannon Jackson, Amanda Gautier, Elaine Bartgis, Emelia Chrisco, Kathryn Letourneau, Rashi Shukla, University of Central Oklahoma
Methamphetamine is one of the most serious illicit drug problems in the U.S. and internationally. Methamphetamine can result in devastating consequences to those who become heavily involved in the lifestyle that accompanies addiction. Little is known about the pathways out of involvement with methamphetamine and challenges of transitioning out of the methamphetamine lifestyle from an insiders’ perspective. This study examines how individuals with histories of extensive involvement with methamphetamine and manufacturing exit the lifestyle. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 33 former methamphetamine users. A majority of participants had histories of involvement with dealing/trafficking and manufacturing. While the individuals in this study escaped the methamphetamine-lifestyle, transitioning out was challenging and difficult on multiple levels. An insiders’ perspective on the processes and factors that influenced desistance from methamphetamine and specific challenges that were experienced will be discussed.
Exothermic Temperature Measurements of Novel PMMA Bone Cements
Morshed Khandaker, Zhaotong Meng, University of Central Oklahoma
Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement produce exothermic reaction during its polymerization process, which damage the surrounding bone tissue. Nanoparticles additives can be incorporated with the PMMA cement to reduce the exothermic reaction. The objectives of this project are to determine change of temperature during curing process of PMMA with different types and concentrations of nanoparticles. PMMA beads were added with 2wt%, 6wt%, and10wt% of nanoparticles (MgO, BaSO4, hydroxyapatite (HAp), SiO2, chitosan, chitin). The mixer was dissolved in benzoyl peroxide monomer using 2:1 solid: liquid ratio. PMMA cements were poured on ½ in. diameter and ¾ in height mold in an acrylic plate. A custom made temperature measurement system was used to determine the temperature changes of the different PMMA cements in the mold. The system consists of 4-channel thermocouple (InstruNet Inc.), data acquisition device, data acquisition software and laptop. This study found the curing time increased and the exothermic temperature slightly decreased, while the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. As concentration of the nanoparticle increased to 10wt%, some sample with certain nanoparticles needed more time to solidify. SiO2 took about 30mins to cure with 10wt%. MgO and chitosan have lower temperature changes. More data of samples with different concentration are currently being collected to get a better comparison of exothermic temperature created by different nanopar
Exothermic Temperature Measurements of Novel PMMA Bone Cements
Zhaotong Meng, University of Central Oklahoma
Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement produce exothermic reaction during its polymerization process, which damage the surrounding bone tissue. Nanoparticles additives can be incorporated with the PMMA cement to reduce the exothermic reaction. The objectives of this project are to determine change of temperature during curing process of PMMA with different types and concentrations of nanoparticles. PMMA beads were added with 2wt%, 6wt%, and10wt% of nanoparticles (MgO, BaSO4, hydroxyapatite (HAp), SiO2, chitosan, chitin). The mixer was dissolved in benzoyl peroxide monomer using 2:1 solid: liquid ratio. PMMA cements were poured on ½ in. diameter and ¾ in height mold in an acrylic plate. A custom made temperature measurement system was used to determine the temperature changes of the different PMMA cements in the mold. The system consists of 4-channel thermocouple (InstruNet Inc.), data acquisition device, data acquisition software and laptop. This study found the curing time increased and the exothermic temperature slightly decreased, while the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. As concentration of the nanoparticle increased to 10wt%, some sample with certain nanoparticles needed more time to solidify. SiO2 took about 30mins to cure with 10wt%. MgO and chitosan have lower temperature changes. More data of samples with different concentration are currently being collected to get a better comparison of exothermic temperature created by different nanopar
Expectations and Motivations of Alternatively Certified Teachers
Erin Fullenwider, Mike Nelson, University of Central Oklahoma
The goal of this phenomenological study is to identify and describe the motivations and expectations of pre-service teachers who are (or are going to be) alternatively certified. While there is little doubt that individuals choose teaching as a career with the intent of helping children and adolescents, it is less clear what other motives alternatively certified teachers might have for becoming a teacher. An initial questionnaire was given to 29 graduate students in their first semester of course work in the Secondary Education Program. The questionnaire included questions regarding (1) general demographic information, (2) information on work experience, teacher certification, school sites, and (3) and reasons for becoming a teacher. Four students were then selected for focus interviews. The participants were selected to represent the diversity of characteristics and perspectives within the survey group. The interviewees answered questions regarding: (1) motivations for wanting to be a teacher, (2) personal goals for teaching, (3) beliefs about the roles and responsibilities of teachers, (4) expectations regarding what he/she can accomplish as a teacher, (5) expectations regarding the impact he/she expects to have on students, and (6) perceptions of what it will take to work effectively with adolescents. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed to identify common themes. Preliminary findings will be presented.
Explaining the Role of Associative Networks in the Inoculation Process
Jeanetta Sims, Cierra Maddox, Jalea Shuff, Peggy Anderson, Sarah Neese, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this research project is to explore inoculation theory in the area of the mechanism of shifting networks and network structures to better understand how inoculation affects resistance through associative networks. Using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, which incorporates specific issues, inoculation messages and counterattitudinal attacks, the study will be conducted in three research phases, including Phase 1: pre screener and initial measures; Phase 2: inoculation message and measures; and Phase 3: counterattitudinal attack and measures. The assessment of associative networks across all three research phases will take place using concept maps, in order to measure the impact of inoculation upon the network structure.
Exploring News Media Contributions to Political Attitudes
Ashton Faries, Aubrey Tarantine, Paige Throneberry, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Using the 2008 National Annenberg Election Survey, this research examines the relationship between different news media and people’s perceptions of political efficacy. Using multiple regression analysis, it was found that accessing online information and watching television for information about the 2008 presidential campaign were strongly associated with “feeling that politics is too complicated.” This research also found a significant relationship between access to the Internet and “feeling that politics is too complicated” and “people like me have no say over government.”
Exploring News Media Contributions to Political Participation
Tyler Slawson, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
In examining the 2008 National Annenberg Election Survey, this research explored the relationship between media consumption and discussing politics, and voting in the last general election. After conducting a multiple regression analysis, it was found that watching television for political information and watching the Daily Show or Saturday Night Live were strongly associated with political discussions, while reading a newspaper was strongly associated with voting in the last general election.
Exploring the Dialectical Tensions Experienced by Racioethnic Female Executive Directors of Nonprofit Organizations
Jeanetta Sims, Cierra Maddox, University of Central Oklahoma
Using Baxter and Montgomery’s (1996) relational dialectics, this investigation explores the dialectical tensions experienced by racioethnic female Executive Directors of nonprofit organizations. Through 24 personal interviews, this project will contribute to the body of organizational diversity and public administration literatures by revealing the tensions that are negotiated in the areas of career progression, financing and management, and volunteerism and marketing. This understanding will improve the future success of females interested in careers with nonprofit organizations.
Exploring the Dialectical Tensions Negotiated by African American Male Entrepreneurs
Jeanetta Sims, Peggy Anderson, University of Central Oklahoma
Using Baxter and Montgomery’s (1996) relational dialectics, this investigation explores the dialectical tensions experienced by African American male entrepreneurs from a racioethnic and gendered perspective. Through 25 personal interviews, this project aims to contribute to the body of organizational diversity literature by understanding the tensions that are negotiated in the areas of business management, business financing, and business marketing from the perspectives of minority entrepreneurs.
Exploring the Relationship between Trunk Adiposity and Trunk Flexibility
TaNiqua Ward, Melissa Powers, University of Central Oklahoma
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between trunk adiposity and trunk flexibility among adults. Methods: A total of 29 participants, male (n=11) and female (n=18) participants between the ages of 19 and 84 years. The participants were recruited from the University of Central Oklahoma daily email news service. The bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA) was used to calculate percent body fat and body mass index (BMI). Three circumference measurements were taken on each participant: waist, abdomen, and hips. The two inclinometers were placed on the sacroiliac joint (S1) and thoracic 12 (T12) to measure trunk flexion and extension. Trunk flexibility was measured as the difference between the two readings at full flexion or extension. Results: The Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation was used to analyze the results. There was a significant negative relationship between trunk flexion correlated with abdomen circumference (r= -.49, p= .01) and hip circumference (r= -.39, p= .03). A significant relationship was found between trunk extension and BMI (r= .38, p= .04). Conclusion: Abdomen and hips are most beneficial when measuring circumferences for trunk adiposity. It was found that trunk flexion has a greater relationship with trunk adiposity than trunk extension.
Fabrication and Characterization of a Solid State Organic Photovoltaic for the Purpose of Improving Efficiency
Dane Scott, Cody Soden, Joshua Smith, Laura Blanco-Berdugo, East Central University
Solid Sate Organic solar cells are of interest because they are less expensive, can be fabricated by rolling or printing processes and made of renewable materials. However, low efficiency prevents mainstream use. This work examines the possibility of using charged layers in the solid state matrix of the solar cell in order to improve electron pair separation leading to improved efficiency. The cells have been constructed using a 100 nm Al anode with a conductive polyacrylonitrile electrolye and connecting to that a 14 ohms/square ITO slide with calcinated TiO2 which was dye sensitized with Copper Phthalocyanine. Cells were also constructed in which the conductive electrolyte layer was treated with HCl and PDDA. Both cells were illuminated using a 1.5 AM solar simulator and characterized using the Amprobe 600 Solar Analyzer.
Facial Perception and the Human Neural System
Alyssa Hendrex, Northeastern State University
The face takes a fundamental role in the human social interaction. It provides clues about a person’s characteristics such as age, race, emotion and gender. Investigators utilize a variety of methods to examine how humans perceive faces, from behavioral measures to neuroimage techniques. Empirical studies suggest that faces are processed differently than non-face objects. In addition, recent studies suggest that faces are processed in the brain differently based on the observers age, mental health, gender and familiarity of the faces presented. The proposed poster will present popular methods utilized in face research and discuss findings of recent and past studies. Emphasis will be placed on neural processes involved in facial perception, including social aspects of face processing.
Factors Affecting Behavior of Goats in Pens With Electric Strand Additions to Cattle Barb Wire Fence
Arthur Goetsch, Glenn Detweiler, Terry Gipson, Tilahun Sahlu, Yoko Tsukahara, Langston University
Effects of meat goat breed, gender, experimental period, and preliminary and washout treatments on behavior in pens with electric strand modifications to cattle barb wire fence were determined. Boer and Spanish wethers and doelings were assigned to 5×5 Latin squares. Test pens one side with barb wire strands at 30, 56, 81, 107, and 132 cm from the ground. Fence treatments were electric strands at 15 and 43 (LH), 15 and 23 (LM), 15 (L), 23 (M), and 43 cm (H) at 6 kV. During a 4-wk adaptation period, animals were sequentially exposed each week to test pens with different fence conditions. Two treatments were applied the week before the first measurement period. During the Latin square periods, animals were placed in test pens and observed for 1 h. Different treatments also were employed in the 1-wk interval between observation periods. There were no effects of gender or preliminary or interval treatment. Fence treatment affected the percentage of animals exiting test pens (31, 23, 16, 35, and 30% for LH, LM, L, H, and M, respectively). Breed also influenced exit (12 and 43% for Boer and Spanish, respectively). Exit decreased as period advanced (60, 35, 23, 10, and 8 % for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). In conclusion, meat goat breed needs to be considered in development of a method to evaluate electric fence additions to cattle barb wire fence, and differences in exit among periods indicates that a Latin square approach may not be suitable.
Factors Influencing Feed Intake, Growth Performance, and Behavior by Boer Wethers With an Automated Feeding System
Arthur Goetsch, Ryszard Puchala, Terry Gipson, Tilahun Sahlu, Yoko Tsukahara, Langston University
Effects of the number of Boer wethers per automated feeder and length and time of feeder access on feed intake, growth, and behavior were determined during a 10-wk period. Treatments were 6 and 12 wethers per pen and feeder with continuous access (C-6 and C-12, respectively); 2 and 4 wethers per feeder with 8 h/d access during daytime (D-2 and D-4, respectively); and 4 and 8 wethers per feeder with 16 h/d access at night (N-4 and N-8, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater for continuous vs restricted access and for N vs D (2.04, 2.01, 1.45, 1.50, 1.92, and 1.76 kg/d), and feeder occupancy time per wether tended to be greater for continuous access (1.83, 1.55, 1.23, 1.34, 1.51, and 1.25 h/d for C-6, C-12, D-2, D-4, N-4, and N-8, respectively). There were effects of continuous vs restricted and D vs. N on average daily gain (ADG) and a tendency for an interaction between time and length of restricted access (237, 252, 174, 207, 247, and 211 g for C-6, C-12, D-2, D-4, N-4, and N-8, respectively. ADG:DMI tended to be greater for N than for D (128, 130, 97, 117, 150, and 127 g/kg), although residual feed intake (RFI) was greater for continuous vs. restricted access and tended to be less for D vs N and for 2 vs. 4 h/d of maximal occupancy time per wether (121, 20, -63, -165, -16, and -14 for C-6, C-12, D-2, D-4, N-4, and N-8, respectively). In conclusion, restricting feeder access influenced feed intake, growth, and behavior, with results impacted by time of access.
Factors That Deter Young Adults From Pursuing Higher Education
Maria Perry, Lori Beasley, University of Central Oklahoma
The underrepresented groups that continue to rise in immediate college enrollment are minorities; disproportionately that of Hispanic and Black high school students. The researcher conducted voice recorded interviews in a Midwestern state with eight Inner-City high school graduates, ages 18 - 25 who chose to enter the work force or the military instead of immediate college enrollment. All participants were asked 12 questions pertaining to their high school experience, the level of college preparedness they received from educators and family members, and their views on the importance they placed on pursuing higher education for them specifically. This study yields valuable information on the thought process, opinions and perspectives behind participant's decision on higher education. The qualitative study examined the relationship between minimal to no college preparedness from schools, as well as minimal to no involvement from parents and the negative lasting affects it had on this predominantly lower socio-economic status (SES) study sample. Results showed that the lack of socialization that these participants received during their high school years from family and educators had a definite and discouraging correlation between immediate enrollment and circumventing college. In conclusion, this study highly indicated a need for more college preparedness and intervention with disadvantage students at the high school level.
Fairness Bandwidth Allocation in Multimedia's Multicast
Lie Qian, Sky Pettett, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Multicast is an efficient mechanism for delivering data to multiple receivers. Layered multicast schemes enable efficient distribution of real-time multimedia traffic over heterogeneous networks like the Internet. To achieve fair bandwidth allocation in layered multicast, different max-min fair allocation solutions were proposed. Our scalable distributed max-min fair bandwidth allocation algorithm does not maintain per-session information in core routers; therefore has O(1) storage complexity in core routers.
Fast Strong Planning for FOND Problems with Multi-Root DAGs
Andres Calderon Jaramillo, Jicheng Fu, University of Central Oklahoma
We present a planner for addressing a difficult, yet under-investigated class of planning problems: Fully Observable Non-Deterministic (FOND) planning problems with strong solutions. Our strong planner implements two novel ideas. First, we employ a new data structure, MRDAG (multi-root directed acyclic graph), to define how the solution space should be expanded. We further equip a MRDAG with two heuristics to ensure planning towards the relevant search direction. Results show that our strong algorithm achieves impressive performance on a variety of benchmark problems: it runs more than three orders of magnitude faster than MBP and Gamer and demonstrates significantly better scalability.
Fetal and Maternal Rights in the Media: Abortion in Fictional Television and Cable News
Samuel Merchant, University of Central Oklahoma
Previous research on “cultivation theory” has shown that the more time individuals spend watching television, the more likely they are to believe the social reality portrayed on television. These beliefs form moral and political perspectives, which can effect voting dispositions. Given this, my research tracks the portrayal of the topic of abortion in popular fictional television programming, and the coverage of abortion in contemporary cable news programming. The purpose of the study is to examine whether popular fictional programming represents reality with regard to the option of abortion, and to also examine the amount of pro-life, pro-choice, and/or neutral coverage of the topic of abortion in cable news programming. Although 22% of pregnancies end in abortion, only 1.1% of fictional television series include a serious consideration of abortion in plot lines. This study of the top cable news programs on CNN, FOX, and MSNBC found that objective journalism-based programming found disproportionate coverage of pro-life/pro-choice content, though significantly closer proportion when compared to opinion/commentary based programming. The 2012 Republican primary election must be taken into account, as a majority of the pro-life content on several shows involved Republican candidates for President promoting their pro-life positions.
Fibrinolysis: A Mathematical Approach
Brittany Bannish, Aaron Fogelson, James Keener, University of Central Oklahoma
Fibrinolysis is the enzymatic degradation of blood clots. Experiments have shown that coarse clots composed of thick fibers often lyse faster than fine clots composed of thin fibers. However, other experiments have shown the opposite result. We develop a mathematical model of fibrinolysis to elucidate the determinants of lysis speed. Specifically, we are interested in identifying when coarse clots degrade faster than fine clots. Analysis of our model shows that the experimental setup can affect which type of clot lyses faster; when the number of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) molecules exposed to the front of the clot is small, coarse clots lyse faster than fine. When there are many tPA molecules at the clot front, fine clots degrade more quickly than coarse.
Financial Analysis and the Statement of Cash Flows
Vaidya Krishnan, Allen Arnold, R. Barry Ellis, University of Central Oklahoma
The Financial Accounting Standards Board made the statement of cash flows (SCF) a required part financial reporting in 1987 and since 1988 companies have included the SCF in their quarterly and annual reports. However, our review of more than fifteen textbooks in Finance and Accounting show that financial analysis as seen in most of these textbooks is predominantly based on the income statement and the balance sheet. The SCF is typically discussed as an after-thought, if at all. Practically all the financial ratios are based on numbers drawn from either the income statement or balance sheet. The focus of the analysis is on income and assets/liabilities rather than cash flows. This paper develops an approach to financial analysis that uses the information provided by the SCF to supplement the extant financial analysis tools. The paper develops a common-size analysis framework as the starting point for the financial analysis using the SCF. We describe four different common-size models and compare the relative merits and disadvantage of these. The common-size statements are then shown as easy diagnostic tools to identify a firm’s relative strengths and weaknesses. The common-size SCF can also be used to examine the quality of a firm’s earnings as well its life cycle phase (growth, mature, declining, etc.) We develop a number of ratios based on components of the SCF and compare these as analytical tools against traditional financial ratios.
Flipping Classrooms In Higher Education
Chris Graff, Joselina Cheng, University of Central Oklahoma
Cyber security is a growing trend, and as such, requires new tools in order to engage learners in this field. This research focuses on finding new ways to engage students to best focus on their individual learning styles. Since the target is current collegiate students, the technology used focuses on what they currently have, or will have, available to them at the moment. The students in the study then answered questions in order to determine the effectiveness of the new teaching tools, and how they related to the learning satisfaction of the students overall. This shows us how the devices differed, and gives us insight into how comfortable students are with using new technology, instead of a traditional teaching method.
Foraging Strategies in the North American Honey Bee (Apis mellifera): Forensic Applications and Analyses
JeAnna Redd, Alexa Prim, Alexia Gonzalez, Emily Webb, Jessica Price, John Barthell, Jordyn Vargas, Michael Jordan, Thomas Jourdan, Wayne Lord, Yoselin Vallejos, University of Central Oklahoma
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have a remarkable sense of olfaction and are direct descendants of wasps. Wasps are predatory insects whose diets consist of other insects and carrion. This study sought to determine whether or not those odor detectors can be redirected from floral attractants to carrion. Cinnamon scent was used as a control and S-methylthiolacetate was used as the treatment carrion odor. For each odor, bees were trained by exposure to the scent in the mouth of the hive for one to two days prior to experimentation. Three feeding stations were set up equidistant from the hives and each other. Two of the feeders consisted of a 1.5M sucrose solution and scent was added to the third feeder with sucrose solution. Within 15 minute intervals, the number of bees feeding at each station was tallied. Upon conclusion of the timed intervals, the stations were moved to the next location. This was repeated until the scented station had been in each feeding location. Each trial was repeated at 25m and 50m. For both odors, the bees showed a trend of visiting the feeder containing the scent with which they were trained. This study has far reaching forensic/economic implications. Within forensic science, animals have long been used to detect carrion. However, none have been as inexpensive and as easy to train as honeybees have the potential to be. Training honey bees to detect carrion would alleviate much of the time, cost, end energy required to train other animals.
Forensic Analysis of Cigarette Ash: Brand Determination Through Trace-metal Analysis
Anja Groth, Cris Lewis, James Barnes, Thomas Jourdan, University of Central Oklahoma
Although cigarette ash is frequently encountered at crime scenes, it has largely been ignored in a forensic context. Few efforts have been made to utilize the information present in the form of trace-metal concentrations even though these could indicate the brand the ash originated from which could potentially help place suspects at crime scenes or assess how many people may have been present at a scene. This study aims to investigate the possibility of applying the distinction of cigarette brands based on the trace-metal concentrations in their ash in a forensic context. The most common American brands and the same brands purchased in different countries will be examined along with foreign brands. Cigarettes will be “smoked” using a variable-pressure peristaltic pump which allows for various smoking parameters reflecting the range of human smoking habits to be mimicked. Samples will be digested in a nitric-acid-based microwave digestion system and will then be analyzed using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). The resulting database of trace-metal concentrations will be analyzed statistically using principal component analysis (PCA) to detect intrinsic differences between brands. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) will then be used to create a discriminant model capable of determining from which brand an ash sample may have originated.
Forensic Linking of Y-Chromosome DNA
Tina Rainwater, Michael Wilds, Northeastern State University
This project examines the forensic applications of Y-Chromosome DNA that specifically target the male-specific portion of the human genome (the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome or NRY) in relationship to clearing unsolved crimes. Such forensic applications are especially important in solving crime scenes where only a small amount of male DNA is present such as sexual assaults, burglaries, and some homicide cases. The poster will present a longitudinal analysis of forensic linking of Y-Chromosome DNA to unsolved crimes, and address current constitutional issues related to such forensic applications.
Fourier Analysis of Musical Instruments
Sarah Schatz, Michael Fulkerson, University of Central Oklahoma
Fourier Analysis provides a way to break up normal sound signals into components of simple sine and cosine waves. Studying this process, known as the Fourier Transform, can provide a way to "see" why instruments sound so different, even when playing the same pitch. Plotting the Fourier Spectrum of an instrument makes it easier to comprehend these differences.
From linear equation to Secure communication using operational amplifier circuit
Quinten Walker, Langston University
Many attentions have been paid to the fundamental research of chaotic systems.Recent increase in its popularity is due to its proposed capability to benefit the field of communication, such as security and encryption and cryptography, multipath, and spectrum spreading. The main security goals are privacy and authenticity of the communicated data. The symmetric encryption setting considers two parties who share a key and will use this key to imbue communicated data with various security attributes. Chaotic systems have been proposed as an efficient encryption machine if synchronized.Through the synchronization of coupled chaotic circuits, information can be scrambled and descrambled effectively. However, most circuits presented are complex and difficult to implement experimentally. Recently, numerous researches have been devoted to design simpler chaotic circuit.This work focuses on jerk equations and their electronic circuit implementation. It presents a step-by-step approach of solving differential equations using inexpensive electronic components. The numerical solutions obtained using Scilab and simulations using Multisim 11 are compared to experimental results.Then it uses to build jerk circuit that exhibit chaotic behavior under certain conditions. It extends to synchronization of two independent jerk chaotic circuits. Chaotic signals are unpredictable, yet they can be synchronized in a way that can be beneficial to the encryption and secure communication field of study.
GC/MS Comparison Analysis of Wormwood Related Plants Serving as a Natural Way of Deworming Farm Animals Versus Current Deworming Products.
Megan Meek, Tiffany Maher, Northeastern State University
The increased utilization of natural resources is a growing trend among farm owners. The term “going green” doesn’t only help the environment, but it also helps many farmers substantially when it comes to controlling costs. Wormwood is an herb commonly used for farm animals to treat worm infections. Common ragweed, giant ragweed and serecea lespedeza are all relatives to wormwood that grow naturally in Oklahoma. The primary objective is to be able to use these natural growing plants as a dewormer for farm animals in place of deworming products currently on the market. The composition of hexane and ether extracts from branches, leaves and blooms of each were investigated. Samples were analyzed using GC/MS and compared against ivermectin, fenbendazole and moxidectin.
Genetic interaction studies with Drosophila Ard1 suggest a role in regulating alternative cell death pathways
Joseph Ahlander, Jackie Stephens, Northeastern State University
Cancer is a widespread problem, and an estimated 1.6 million people are diagnosed with cancer every year. The enzyme Ard1 is expressed in most tissues, but Ard1 has been found to be overexpressed in a wide range of cancers. Ard1 is the catalytic subunit of the NatA complex, an Nα-terminal acetyltransferase, which can alter the function of many proteins through acetylation. Our present study investigates how Ard1 plays a role in cell survival in Drosophila. Genetic crosses were performed to demonstrate that RNAi knockdown of Ard1 during eye development causes a small eye phenotype. Expression of DIAP1, a caspase inhibitor, mitigated the Ard1 loss-of-function phenotype. However, expression of caspase inhibitor p35 exacerbated the Ard1 RNAi mutant phenotype. Since DIAP1 is known to also regulate autophagic cell death, these genetic interactions suggest that Ard1 may play a role in regulating alternative cell death pathways. Our research into the function of Ard1 and the role it plays in cell survival may help to advance our understanding of cancer genetics.
Genetic Screening: Revealing the Components of the Cgi Reglataory System of Complementary Chromatic Acclimation in Fremyella Diplosiphon
Terry Phillips, Langston University
Some of the most prevalent organisms that use photosynthesis are plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. In order to efficiently harvest light energy to be used in photosynthesis, the cyanobacterium, Fremyella diplosiphon, undergoes cellular changes in response to varying environmental conditions. It has been known that F. diplosiphon adjusts its pigmentation in order to optimally absorb the environmental light color. This process is known as Complementary Chromatic Adaptation (CCA). The pigment change of the organism is due to a change in protein composition. In red light, the protein pycocyanin (PC) is produced and in green light, phycoerythrin (PE) is made. This is due to a change in gene expression and is controlled by two systems; the Rca and the Cgi systems. The Rca system is a signal transduction pathway in which RcaE senses red light and autophosphorylates. In turn, it is able to phosphorylate RcaF which phosphorylates RcaC. When phosphorylated, RcaC binds to a specific DNA sequence to activate PC related genes and repress PE related genes. However, in the absence of the Rca system, the levels of PE are still regulated. This additional regulation of PE is due to a second system called the Cgi system. We are conducting a mutant screen to find components of the Cgi system by using a transposon mutagenesis of cells lacking Rca system. The site of transposon insertion has been evaluated for four brown mutants of F. diplosiphon.
Genetic Variation in PPARγ at Nucleotide 1431 Impairs Obesity Related Phenotypes in Response to Exercise Training
Martell Mckinney, Langston University
Obesity is now the second leading cause of death in the United States, and is likely to become the first. Exercise can significantly reduce body mass and decrease BMI, a measurement used to determine obesity. However, not all overweight patients respond suitably to exercise. Research supports a “possible” candidate gene that may affect responses to exercise training in obese patients: Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ activates certain genes in a fat cell, resulting in the storage or burning of fat. Changes in PPARγ gene polymorphism may have potential functional effects. Thus, we chose to determine whether the C1431T polymorphism influences the response to aerobic exercise training. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify only DNA segments with PPARγ. PCR products were subjected to restriction digestion by HpyCH41V which cleaved at 5'-ACGT-3‘ which included nucleotide 1431 and allowed us to recognize PPARγ nucleotide specific genotypes and polymorphisms via a DNA gel. Results demonstrated significantly lower post- exercise BMI scores for carriers of thymine at PPARγ nucleotide 1431 in response to exercise training when compared to carriers of cytosine PPARγ nucleotide 1431. Our data contributes to supporting PPARγ is a promising candidate gene for therapeutic treatment against obesity.
Genetic variation within striped skunks in the northern and soutern areas of the united states.
Sharonda Carson, University of Central Oklahoma
Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are found throughout the United States, in southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Skunks are vectors for rabies, of which there are three known rabies variants: one in the south central US, one in the north central US, and another in California. Research conducted on striped skunks has only studied isolated geographical standpoints, rather than comparing the skunks from all geographical areas simultaneously. Few genetic studies have been performed on Mephitis mephitis, and none have looked at the potential genetic subspecies. We hypothesized that infected Mephitis mephitis in the north and south represent more than one distinct genetic variant of skunks. DNA Tissue samples were collected from both the northern and the southern areas and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial DNA D-loop are being analyzed. Northern areas include WY, MO, IA, ND, and NE; southern areas include AZ, TX, KS, OK, and CA. Preliminary data does not appear to show a distinct demarcation between northern and southern skunks, although additional data is still being generated
Genetically-Programmed Plant Marker Gene Deletion with Bxb1-att Site-Specific Recombination System
Frank Yau, Kevin Wang, Mona Easterling, Northeastern State University
An important tool for the production of GM crops is the selectable marker gene (SMG), which allows for the identification of a few transformed plants from among the bulk of non-transformed plants. The SMG, usually an antibiotic or herbicide-resistance gene, remains in the genome of GM crops. Regulatory agencies and the public have raised concerns about the presence of SMGs due to food safety and environmental issues. Several strategies have been employed in plant genetic transformation to remove SMGs, including site-specific recombination (SSR) systems. The mycobacteriophage Bxb1 SSR system has been used in plant transgenesis to excise SMGs. The objective of this research is to use Bxb1, a uni-directional SSR system, to excise the SMG and render it unable to reinsert into the genome of the tobacco plant. The Bxb1 recombinase is codon-optimized to express in plants and is driven by a tissue-specific seed promoter. The binary vector was designed to allow the SSR system to delete both the SMG and the recombinase-coding region from the genome of the tobacco plant. The vector was transformed into tobacco, and T0 putative transgenic plants were obtained. GUS-positive T0 lines were transferred to soil for setting T1 seeds and used for excision analysis. Bxb1-mediated excision was preliminarily identified in T1 seeds, and T1 plants through junction PCR analysis. Sequencing has confirmed successful excision results.
Genocide Decoded: A History Lesson to Raise Awareness
Carrie Sanchez, Northeastern State University
Throughout the ages mass pillaging, rape, and murder has plagued the world. A recent study (CLG, 2013), examines the approaches of studying genocide. Another researcher (Gale, 2005) raises challenges in understanding genocide, and the implications in the dangers of coining acts of violence as genocide. Based on these findings, “Genocide Decoded: A History Lesson to Raise Awareness,” will take an in-depth look into the momentum of genocide and the incitement in international law. This poster will discuss the stages of genocide, historical timelines and comparisons of genocide, and recommended actions individuals can take to help end genocide worldwide.
GIS Grid Analysis of Utilization of Adjacent Pastures by Two Herds of Goats
Arthur Goetsch, R Heinemann, Steven Hart, Terry Gipson, Langston University
A 15.8-ha pasture was stocked with 36 Spanish goats and 12 Angus cows (GC), and a 14.1-ha pasture was stocked with 36 Spanish goats without cattle (GO) to observe spatial patterns. The pastures consisted of fescue, bermudagrass, various Panicum such as switchgrass, bahiagrass, and broomsedge bluestem, but areas were reverting to woody plant species such as sapling-sized trees of pecan, elm, and honey locust. GPS collars used recorded a fix every 5 minutes in the first 2 weeks. A GIS point-in-polygon analysis using a 10 × 10 m grid was conducted for each pasture. The GO had greater explored space compared with GC. Of the grids explored, GO had a higher percentage with a density of 100 or more fixes than did GC, indicating a wider area of methodical exploration or habituation. Goats in GO preferred pasture locations closer to the water point than did GC; however, GC came to the water point earlier than did GO. The favored location in the morning for each pasture was near the water point in the eastern intersection of the pastures. During the remainder of the day GC favored the southwestern-most corner of their pasture near a central fence line. In the afternoon, GO preferred the location near GC but also had a favorite location shaded by trees in the center of the pasture. The spatial behavior of the groups of goats appeared to be influenced by each other, and presence of cattle may have inhibited GC from fully exploring their pasture.
Global Grids and Volunteering Computing
Warren Moseley, Mary Phillips, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
There are hundreds of thousands of personal computing devices that sit idle each day. This translates in to many machine cycles that go to driving screen savers. The BOINC Project at Berkley was a groundbreaking experiment in the area of volunteer computing setting the groundwork for allowing people to volunteer machine cycles to a joint computer effort. The BOINC project of Berkeley University is one that can revolutionize the way that we solve problems. According to the BOINC website, you can “Use the idle time on your computer (Windows, Mac, or Linux) to cure diseases, study global warming, discover pulsars, and do many other types of scientific research. It's safe, secure, and easy. The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing is an open source middleware system for volunteer and grid computing. An open source middleware system is software that the developing company makes easily available to the public; the software is the bridge between multiple applications, often on different operating systems, such as with messaging and queuing software. According to Wikipedia, The BOINC project started in February 2002 and the first version was released on 10 April 2002. Using the power of personal computers from all around the world, solving large problems such as climate control or even searching for extra-terrestrial life are in our reach.
Globalization, Undergraduate Research, and Persistence to Graduate School
John Barthell, Charles Abramson, H. Wells, J.M. Hranitz, J.R. Redd, William Radke, University of Central Oklahoma
Kuh’s introduction of High-Impact Educational Practices (2008) has encouraged a nation-wide convergence of efforts to align institutional missions with best practices in higher education in order to increase persistence by students toward their career goals. However, achieving the alignment with the effective collaboration of administration, faculty, and students can be challenging during the implementation process. We detail a seven-year process of incorporating experiential learning activities, termed Transformative Learning, into the university mainstream, citing an example of the integration of global competency activities with an international research program.
Going For It…What Factors Contribute to a Fourth Down Conversion?
Yuting Wang, Tracy Morris, University of Central Oklahoma
It’s fourth down and two yards to go. The ball is on your own 40 yard line. Do you go for the first down or punt? Coaches have to consider so many factors when making this decision, and must do so in a matter of seconds. Consequently, coaches tend to make the conservative decision to punt. In this research, data was collected from concerning all fourth downs during the 2011 college football season. Only fourth downs for which the ball was either passed or rushed were included in the data set. Logistic regression was used to construct a model for estimating the probability of converting a fourth down based on a variety of variables including yards to go, score, home or away, and quarter.
Gold Dust Sisterhood: The Shadowy World of Prostitution in Mining Towns of Southwest Colorado, 1880-1920
Sherri Duncan, University of Central Oklahoma
Building on the work of historian’s Ann Butler, Duane Smith, and Alan Bird, Gold Dust Sisterhood examines prostitution in mining towns of Southwest Colorado focusing on their unmistakable contributions to the development of frontier society. After the Pikes Peak gold rush in 1858, immigrants flooded the Rocky Mountains establishing overnight boomtowns. During this brief phenomenon of rapid growth, an intricate stratification pattern developed reflecting differences in class, race, and sex. Prostitutes and madams flocked to these temporary towns of riches becoming engaged in the trade that eventually shaped the town’s reputation and geographical layouts. This work includes primary sources from the Animas County Historical Society, San Juan Historical Society, and the Center for Southwest Studies. Newspaper articles revealing conduct and arrest, and death notifications of prostitutes were taken from the La Plata Miner, The Silverton Standard, and the Durango Democrat. Today, tourist visit mining towns of Durango and Silverton, Colorado to experience the days where just-paid boisterous miners relieved the boredom of long days in the mines with the company of frontier prostitutes. Their streets are lined with an ever present reminder of how thousands of women who worked the steamy brothels and saloons shaped social landscapes and contributed to their development. Sherri Duncan, Graduate student, University of Central Oklahoma Dr. Patti Loughlin, Faculty Advisor
Good Versus Evill: Why Harry Potter Won
Casey Brown, Cameron University
A major theme in the Harry Potter series by JK Rowing is good versus evil. The protagonist and antagonist play a major role in developing that theme. It is useful to examine why good triumphs over evil in this particular case. The objective of this research is to better understand the Hegelian Master-Slave dialectic itself and how it applies to the Harry Potter series. The thesis is two-part: 1)Applying the Hegelian dialectic to examine the relationship—and struggle for power and recognition—between the protagonist and antagonist opens a new door in understanding why the series is so compelling to many readers. 2)Considering the dialectic, it is clear that the antagonist attempts to live above the system of the dialectic which leads to his defeat. The method of this research was three-fold. 1)Study the source text of Hegel’s work, Phenomology of the Spirit. 2)Study the source texts of the Harry Potter series and the relationship between Harry and Lord Voldemort within those seven novels. 3)Applying the major concepts of Hegel’s dialectic to the novels. The findings of this research are that the key tenets of Hegel’s Master-Slave dialectic are applicable to the series itself, in general, as well as the protagonist-antagonist relationship, in specific. The dialectic illuminates why Harry Potter was successful, through the framework of the dialectic, and why Lord Voldemort was defeated, through taking the dialectic for granted in his quest for absol
Greek Life and its Effect on Persistence of College Students: A Comparison of Inter-Fraternal Council/PanHellenic and National Pan-Hellenic Council
Patrick Harrel, Allen Arnold, Victoria Campbell, University of Central Oklahoma
This study is designed to determine the correlation, if any, between Greek affiliation and student persistence from one academic year to the next. The relationship between student involvement and academic persistence will be addressed within both traditionally Caucasian and traditionally African-American Greek organizations. The purpose of this study is to focus on the relationship between social involvement, in the form of Greek affiliation, and academic success, as measured by persistence from one academic year to the next. The goal of this study is to determine if being a part of a fraternal (brotherhood) or sisterly (sisterhood) organization impacts the persistence of students at the collegiate level. To keep biases at a minimum, the study will include individuals from both the traditionally Caucasian fraternities and sororities and those from traditionally African-American fraternities and sororities. The participants in this study will come from students who identify themselves as “Greek”. Greek refers to those who belong to a Greek-lettered organization belonging to Inter-Fraternal Council (IFC), Panhellenic, or (National Pan-Hellenic Council) NPHC. The survey that will be given will contain questions that pertain to persistence from one academic year to the next. According to Sutton and Terrell (1997) there was evidence shown that supported involvement within NPHC fraternities and sororities helps with the retention of their members in school.
Grid Computing for 3d images and animation.
Warren Moseley, Aaron Wilson, Hayden Harrington, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
This project consisted of studying different hardware and software configurations for utilizing parallel and network configurations to produce high quality photorealistic pictures and animated sequences. This project produced a series of short animated clips and put the results into a consistent story. The current approach to animation and digital image sequencing parallels the activities found in the Software Life Cycle and the Software Processes of the late eighties and early nineties. It became evident in this time period that there was a need to apply proven Object Oriented Analysis and Design Techniques to support the generation of robust and repeatable Software Systems. This project demonstrated that the same cognitive functions found in the Object Oriented Software Development Process can be readily applied to the creation of digital storytelling and digital animation. Computer Animation and Digital Storytelling require time-intensive and space consuming algorithms to accomplish the task. Rendering is the process of generating an image through computer programs from a mathematical or graphical model that describes 3-D objects. Rendering is a computationally intensive process, and parallel processing is required to complete rendering jobs in reasonable time. We have installed, configured and evaluated some of the proprietary software and some of the available open source software for rendering.
Group Differences in Relationship Education Programming Preferences
Holly Shockley, Brandon Burr, University of Central Oklahoma
Couple relationship education (CRE) is generally a preventative measure designed to teach relationship skills to couples and individuals. Although CRE has been active for many years, very little is known about public opinion of CRE services, and recruitment challenges to CRE programs persist. Current literature on best practices in CRE emphasizes the importance of tailoring program content, as well as program advertising and marketing efforts to fit with the needs and desires of the target audience. Some research suggests that individual and demographic characteristics may influence attitudes about attending CRE. Thus, investigating marketing and advertising techniques designed for specific audiences may lead to enhanced practice and increased program attendance. The objective of this study was to examine attitudinal differences in potential CRE program titles, venue preference, and disagreement in attending patterns in men vs. women, married vs. unmarried, highly religious vs. non-religious, and lower-income vs. higher income in a sample of 198 individuals. A series of T-tests were used to detect significant differences by group using SPSS version 18.0. The main study hypothesis was that significant differences would be detected by group. Results showed some differences were detected by gender, religiosity, and marital status. No differences were detected by income level. Discussion will be provided for those who work with couples and families based on study results.
Hard Times for a Weedy Vine: Cyclanthera dissecta Population Fluctuations in Drought
Lisa Castle, Ariel Seward, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Cyclanthera dissecta (Cucurbitaceae) is a weedy annual wine native to western Oklahoma. This species has been poorly studied, but is closely related to medicinal and edible species, including Cyclanthera pedata and agricultural weeds. We have tracked changes in a population of Cyclanthera dissecta near Weatherford, Oklahoma for over three years in order to determine baseline population size and effects of unusual weather conditions on this plant. There is not much research to look to, but we hope to learn about the effects of drought in southwestern Oklahoma. The horrid drought in this area caused a sharp decline in plant life in 2011 compared to 2010, and has made a comeback in 2012. These initial results provide a glimpse at the effects of climate change on plant populations in southwestern Oklahoma and will allow us to further investigate potential edible and medicinal compounds.
Harvesting Foreign Chloroplasts for Acquired Phototrophy
Stephen Fields, Angie Thapa, Brent Biddy, Josh Belcher, Sadiksha Khadka, Taryn Young, East Central University
Gymnodinium acidotum is a nonphotosynthetic, aplastidic dinoflagellate that ingests and sequesters the organelles of blue-green cryptophycean algae. The sequestered cryptophycean chloroplasts remain photosynthetically active and actually support the dinophycean cells in an obligate symbiosis. Other sequestered cryptophycean organelles, including the nucleus and nucleomorph (a reduced nucleus-like structure), presumably play a role in maintaining the sequestered chloroplasts. We are currently sequencing and analyzing the transcriptome of the free-living cryptomonad and have found gene expression patterns (including nucleomorph genes) common to most eukaryotic metabolic pathways. Future studies will compare the transcriptome of free-living cryptomonads with that of dinoflagellate-sequestered cryptomonad organelles. This will aid in identifying genes that are important for the maintenance of chloroplasts in a foreign environment. We have also found that free living cryptomonads show an enhanced growth rate when cultured in the presence of supernatants from G. acidotum cultures. This raises the possibility that G. acidotum secretes stimulatory compounds for the purpose of “harvesting” cryptomonads. Specific fractions from the dinoflagellate cultures, obtained by HPLC, significantly increase cryptomonad growth. Compounds that enhance algal growth would directly impact the phytoculture technology currently used in biofuels production, improving both efficiency and yield
Health Behaviors Leading to a Higher Risk of Morbidity, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Disease Among People From India and Pakistan Living in the United States for at least 10 Years
Amreen Hemani, Dr. C. Rudebock, University of Central Oklahoma
Cardiovascular disease is the first and third leading cause of death among men and women respectively in the United States. According to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, within the next 10 to 15 years, Asian-Indians will account for 40 to 60 percent of people around the world with cardiovascular disease, of which 12 percent will be in the U.S. Asian Indians have been identified as one group who has a higher rate of cardiovascular disease compared to other minorities. There has been little research conducted identifying reasons why Asian Indians have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. These rates have severe public health and financial implications. The purpose of this research is to determine what health behaviors lead to this high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. The hypothesis is that lack of physical activity and length of time living in the U.S. contribute the most to a higher risk of morbidity, mortality, and cardiovascular disease among people from India and Pakistan. A survey with questions relating to physical activity, cardiovascular health, food and vegetable consumption, and level of acculturation was given to a group of Indian and Pakistani people residing in the U.S. for at least 10 years. Preliminary findings suggest that lack of physical activity may be a contributing factor to cardiovascular disease and/or related conditions. No findings indicate that acculturation to an American diet is related.
Health Challenges in Tanzania: Report of Public Health Screening Initiative
Linda Rider, University of Central Oklahoma
A team of healthcare workers traveled to Tanzania to facilitate a primary health screening initiative with citizens of Tanzania. In Tanzania the culture is rich and diverse, and there are numerous challenges to effective health care. Findings both from experience and from other resources are compared and contrasted between health experiences in the United States and Tanzania. This poster is a presentation of the challenges and findings of the health screening activities. The most common findings were hypertension, high blood sugar (diabetes), anemia, and heart murmurs in children.
Height and Biomass of a Barley - Soybean Rotation Subjected to Gibberellic and Jasmonic Acid Treatments
Matthew Johnson, Anna Graves, Dillon McDaniel, Hunter Porter, Jim Bidlack, Jonna Whetsel, Matthew Naifeh, University of Central Oklahoma
An experiment was conducted using gibberellic acid (GA), jasmonic acid (JA), and combinations thereof, to determine their potential in altering height and biomass of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown during the winter, followed by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] grown during the summer. Treatments included 0.0 mM, 0.5 mM, 1.5 mM, and 3.0 mM applications of GA and JA, and combinations thereof, applied exogenously shortly after emergence for barley during the winter/spring and soybean during the summer/fall growing seasons. Plants were harvested at maturity and several measurements, including plant height, and weight of plant and plant components, were taken to assess responses to treatments. In general, GA increased height of soybean and JA decreased height of both barley and soybean. Although there were few significant differences among treatments in plant biomass, a trend demonstrated that JA consistently decreased biomass in both species. These results suggest that that GA and JA can be used to manipulate height in barley and soybean without substantial loss in biomass yield.
Heterosexism: Can It Predict Homosexual Discrimination in Adoption?
Evelyn Stratmoen, Thomas Hancock, University of Central Oklahoma
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 24% of homes are a traditional family, and 165,000 children are waiting to be adopted. Adoption agencies report that 25% of rejections are due to the sexual orientation of the couple. Previous research has indicated that a child is not harmed when raised by same-sex parents. Perhaps the persistence of these rejections is due to heterosexism. A significant aspect of heterosexism is in the compliance of strict gender roles, the enforcement of traditional family structures, and granting special privileges and rights to heterosexuals over lesbians and gay men. Hence, it might be the heterosexist beliefs of adoption professionals that are a hindrance to same-sex couples in the adoption process. It is our hypothesis that the level of heterosexism would affect the number of rejections to a same-sex couple, regardless of the household income. Four different adoption scenarios were developed for the study. The scenarios differed only by income and gender of the couples. Participants were asked whether they would accept or reject the adoption, confidence level in the decision, and to provide explanation. They took the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gays (ATLG; Herek, 1988), a 20-item scale that is designed to measure the level of heterosexism. The results showed that 92% of the participants accepted the adoption. Analyses on individual groups as well as content analyses on the themes of the explanations will be displayed, as well as reference
Hierarchy of GAAP vs. IFRS--The Case of Bankruptcy Accounting
Daniel Haskin, Teresa Haskin, University of Central Oklahoma
With increased movement toward convergence of major accounting principles between U.S. GAAP and IFRS, the issue of which authoritative source should be referenced becomes increasingly important. An important question is: what is the hierarchy of authority for pronouncements and documents under U.S. GAAP and IFRS? FASB Accounting Standards Codification is the single official source of authoritative U.S. GAAP. The hierarchy under international standards is less clear. The IASB promulgated a hierarchy in IAS 8, but interpretation concerning many issues is required. There are several issues not addressed at all by IFRS and one of these is bankruptcy accounting. ASC 852 is the guidance for bankruptcy accounting under U.S. GAAP. This study will investigate whether companies in countries which use IFRS are influenced by the guidance of ASC 852 when confronted with bankruptcy. A review of the financial statements of bankrupt companies in countries using or converting to IFRS was conducted into the reporting of reorganization-type bankruptcies. (Thanks to the UCO Office of Research and Grants for providing support for this research).
Hobby vs. Business
Mary Sheets, Eno Anwanwan, Gia Madole, University of Central Oklahoma
Every taxpayer has a different tax situation. Some situations are simple and easy to interpret, while others are complex and could have different interpretations depending on how the situation is viewed. One issue that frequently comes up in this situation is whether an activity an individual is engaged in is a hobby or a business. When an activity is a hobby, the taxpayer can deduct expenses only up to the income generated by the activity. Whereas, when the activity is a business, the taxpayer can deduct all expenses, regardless of activity income for that year. The Tax Court has developed nine guidelines to decide if a taxpayer activity should be classified as a hobby or a business. Most activities will not pass or fail every guideline, so the court looks at the big picture to see if the activity passes or fails the guidelines overall. Taxpayers can learn what the court is looking for by viewing past cases and analyzing why the court ruled an activity as a hobby or a business.
How Kalman filter can help us?
Yuqing Yan, Jicheng Fu, University of Central Oklahoma
Kalman filter is an algorithm designed to reduce the noise of data collected in some process over time. It is a set of mathematical equations which can be easily implemented to provide an efficient computational means to estimate the state of a process. It works in a two-step manner. In the prediction step, the Kalman filter produces estimates of the current state variables, along with their uncertainties. Once the outcome of the next measurement is observed, these estimates are updated using a weighted average, with more weight being given to the estimates with higher certainty. Because of the algorithm's recursive nature, it can run in real time using only the current input measurements and the previously calculated state; no additional past information is required. We applied Kalman filter in our research to filter out the noise associated with acceleration data collected by accelerometer sensors. Our experimental results show that Kalman filter did smooth out the noise and yield smoother curves for subsequent analysis.
How Play Affects the Brain!
Jennifer Turner, University of Central Oklahoma
The brain is the most complex organ in the human body. It is comprised of over 100 billion neurons which generate mechanisms that stimulate the brain development through play. What functions of the brain does Play affect and why is it an integral part of the process of growth? Throughout this presentation we will discover the early Play Theorists Philosophies' and how they can be incorporated in brain development.
How Politics and Corruption Affect Society: A Comparative Analysis
Elis Matoshi, East Central University
Politicians all over the world possess prestige, authority and power. It's true that politicans make laws and regulate people's lives. However, many times politicans have been accused of corruption and misuse of duty. Corrupted politicans are a huge issue in every society, they cause economic decline, the increase the criminality, and create chaos in every country. I hypothesize that increasing politicians' wages and creating laws that punish corruption will be a huge step in curbing corruption.
Humor as an exposure stimuli: A physiological investigation of the response to different types of humor in the socially anxious.
Chad McCoy, Bethany Barnett, Caleb Lack, Deon Hall, Jade Porter, Sean McMillan, University of Central Oklahoma
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, in particular exposure and response prevention, is the gold-standard treatment for anxiety disorders. However, there are numerous difficulties in conducting exposures, not the least of which is obtaining the proper triggers for a person’s anxiety. This project investigates if and how persons with high social anxiety and a control group differ in their physiological reactivity to three different forms of video humor and a non-arousing control. This is being done to determine the usefulness of humorous stimuli in exposure therapy. Initial pilot results on a small sample of subjects is promising. While no baseline differences are being seen between groups on the control video, higher galvanic skin response and heart rate is seen in the socially anxious group. The two groups appear to have some differences based on the examination of means. This is particularly evidence in the GSR across all videos, where the non-anxious scores are twice the size of the anxious. There are also apparently large differences in the HR. Due to the small sample size our power appeared to be too low to detect such differences in an ANOVA, as the only statistically significant difference between the groups was seen on the heart rate in response to the “gross-out” video. Despite the low numbers, the initial study warrants further investigation with on-going data collection to determine the possibility of humorous videos for treatment of anxiety.
Hyperglycemia Affects IL-6R Function in Skin
Megsn Bowlin, Langston University
Non-healing wounds are a significant problem for health professionals. Diabetic wounds appear to be a self-sustaining inflammatory phase. Interestingly, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 is necessary for wound healing. While it is known that IL-6 is dysregulated in diabetes, little is known concerning the function of IL-6 or its receptor in diabetic wound healing. Gene expression was determined by QPCR, Western blot, or ELISA. ERK ½ phosphorylation was determined by ELISA. L-6 and IL-6 expression are disparately modulated in wounds from diabetic animals. Conversely, neither RAGE mRNA nor protein is induced by RAW cells cultured in low glucose at >1 ng/ml rmIL-6. However, 25 mM glucose exposed RAW cells induce Rage mRNA and protein less than or greater to 10 ng/ml rmIL-6. In conclusion, Hyperglycemia alters the function of the IL-r while not affecting its expression in skin cells. IL-6 and hyperglycemia can modulate RAGE expression in fibroblast and RAW cells. This interaction may affect IL-6R function in diabetic wounds.
Hyphenated Citizen: How American Federation of Labor Organizer Clemente Idar Fought for Labor and Citizenship Rights for Mexicans and Mexican Americans in South Texas, 1918-1934
Stephanie Diaz, University of Central Oklahoma
Based on primary research conducted at the University of Texas, this paper explores Clemente Idar’s career as a general labor organizer for the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and his work on behalf of Mexican nationals and Mexican Americans in the borderlands of Texas and Northern Mexico during the early 20th century. Originally from Laredo, Texas, and fluent in English and Spanish, Idar came from a large Mexican American family of activists shaped by the social and geographical ramifications of the Mexican Revolution. His father, Nicasio, gained regional notoriety for his newspaper, La Cronica, and his involvement in El Primer Congreso Mexicanista of 1911 brought Clemente, to the attention of Samuel Gompers as a potential employee able to walk between two worlds. Idar’s rise to fame was quickly stalled, however, by the relationships between the Mexican Revolution & American Labor; Mexican & US governments; and the relationship between the AFL & US government.
Icumbency: How The Delegate Becomes a Trustee.
Wesley Robertson, East Central University
How does the incumbency status of a United States Congressman affect the role he or she plays in representing his or her constituency? I hypothesize that after the third consecutive re-election, members may change from more of a delegate role to their constituency to a trustee role. This is demonstrated by how sensitive he or she is to the constituent desire despite whether it is in the best interest of the constituency. Most research that looks at the incumbency effect shows the relationship between between re-election and incumbency advantage. My research contributes to the body of knowledge by showing how the behavior of the elected official can change, be tolerated, and even respected based on a track record that is considered "proven" by the people that vote.
Identification of Proliferative Myofibroblasts of Dupuytren's Contracture Cells
Tobi Odejimi, Melville Vaughan, University of Central Oklahoma
Myofibroblasts are granular tissue fibroblasts that play a big role in wound contraction and synthesis of extracellular matrix components(Lorena et., al 2002). Dupuytren's contracture is a painless thickening and contracture of tissue beneath the skin on the palm of the hand and fingers. It is known that granular tissue proliferates but the goal of this experiment is to see if pathological fibroblasts proliferate, myofibroblasts proliferate, or if both undergo proliferation. This will be accomplished by using 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) to better understand the process of proliferation in Dupuytren's contracture(DP) myofibroblasts. By treating different Dupuytren's contracture cells with EdU one is able to identify if the DNA replicated and thus the Dupuytren's contracture myofibroblasts proliferated.
Identifying Ada City Water Leaks by Measuring Ca, Mg, and Total Hardness
Destiney Shouse, East Central University
The source of the Ada, OK water supply is Byrd's Mill Spring which comes from the Arbuckle Simpson aquifer. The calcium to magnesium to hardness ratios in this aquifer have been shown to be consistent over time (1) and can serve in distinguishing water pipeline leaks from natural seeps throughout the city. Water samples were collected and analyzed for calcium and hardness to determine their source. The initial plan called for sampling in the Ada metropolitan area to distinguish natrual seeps from Ada city water with the use of two USEPA titrimetric methods. This plan was modified due to difficulty with the calcium procedure and the summer drought. The results clearly showed the distinction between Ada city water and samplles from other sources.
Impact of Hand Washing Instructions on Hand Washing Practices at the University of Central Oklahoma.
Robert Brennan, Allison Coleman, Amber Bragg, Brendon Yuill, Chelsea Smith, Emily Shackelford, Jayci Fleming, Jing Herwig, Joseph Proffer, Kalen Cesar, Khabbab Amin, Mike Braden, Peter Drevets, Quinn Gorges, Shey Ramsey, Veronica Smith, University of Central Oklahoma
Washing hands with soap and water has long been considered an effective way to reduce the spread of infectious disease, yet hand washing compliance has historically been low, even in health care institutions. Studies conducted in health care institutions have shown that compliance can be improved with intervention, principally through the potential for punishment. In a public setting, the threat of punishment is not a viable option; therefore other methods are employed to promote hand washing compliance. The hypothesis was that placing instructions in the rest rooms would significantly improve hand washing practices on the UCO campus. Over a period of two months students from the course observed hand washing practices in various restrooms on the UCO campus before and after hand washing instructions were placed in the restrooms. The percentage of subjects who washed their hands according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommendations improved from 23% to 27% after hand washing instructions were placed in designated restrooms. This improvement was not statistically significant and indicates that placing signs in restrooms is not sufficient to improve hand washing practices on the UCO campus. This study was carried out as part of an active learning exercise in a Microbiology for Majors course in the fall of 2012 after students had completed the NIH training for Protecting Human Research Participants and under IRB approval.
Impact of Sustainability on Performance: Case Study
Julia Kwok, Elizabeth Rabe, Northeastern State University
Sustainability involves three major components: ecological, economic and social aspects. Current literature on sustainability performance assessment focuses mainly on qualitative description of the extent of sustainable efforts. Majority of the quantitative analysis is in the ecological area due to government regulations. The traditional discounting method may significantly underestimate the financial impact on sustainable companies since effects of current sustainability efforts may only become apparent in the distant future. A more efficient approach to estimating the impact of sustainable practices is to review a company's operating performance. The lack of literature in the non-ecological areas is a result of limited access to company’s internal operating data. This paper proposes a case study approach which allows us to examine those fore-running firms that are willing to self-disclose detailed internal operational data through CSR. The study examines impacts of sustainable practices on company's operating performance. Through detailed examination of the CSR and operating performance of those companies, we are able to identify additional reporting areas that can improve the existing CSR reporting requirement.
Impact off Rootstock and Plant Spacing on Leaf Area Index (LAI) of Noiret Grape Vines During the First Year of Establishment
William Phillips, Ashton Fisher, Redlands Community College
Grape growers can choose the rootstock (RS) and plant spacing for their vineyards. Their goal is to maximize plant canopy development, fill the fruiting zone as soon as possible and capture as much solar energy as possible to increase productivity. The objective of this research was to compare canopy development during the first year of establishment of Noiret grapes planted on three RS and spaced either 2.5 or 3.1 m apart in a split-plot design. The vineyard was established (April 10, 2012) at the Darlington Applied Agricultural Research Center (Lat. 35.58 N Long. 98.00 W) in the spring of 2012 on Canadian soils. Rows were a 50 m in length and 3.1 m apart. Noiret vines grafted on ‘Riparian’ or grown on ‘Own’ RS (three rows; Exper. 1) and vines grafted on ‘Riparian’ or ‘101’ RS (two rows; Exper. 2) were spaced 2.5 m or 3.1 m apart within the row. Spacing within row was the main plot and RS was the subplot. Ceptometer readings (AccuPar model LP-80; Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) to measure photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on August 8. Four above and below canopy PAR readings were made for each plant. In Exper. 1, spacing vines closer together tended (P =0.15) to decrease individual plant canopy size. In Exper. 2, vines grafted on ‘101’ RS developed greater (P < 0.09) canopy size than vines grafted onto ‘Riparian’ RS. Canopy developed during the first year of growth can be impacted by within row sp
Improving Crime Analysis Through an Examination of Auto Burglary: Edmond, Oklahoma
Emelia Chrisco, University of Central Oklahoma
The city of Edmond, Oklahoma presented with a problem of auto burglary. It is a crime that has gone unevaluated and not suitably dealt with due to a lack of resources within Oklahoma law enforcement. The Edmond Police Department currently has plans to expand into a new building with the possibility of developing the Crime Analysis Department, which currently consists of only one officer. It has come to the attention of researchers that there is a high potential for strategic growth that would bring a structured allocation of resources which would in turn boost efficiency, effectiveness of manpower, and productivity. A review of the literature suggests that police departments of all sizes benefit from having a dedicated crime analysis department. The literature stresses department effectiveness through educated individuals working with the proper tools. With the use of data mining and geospatial software, an educated Crime Analyst can create tactical strategies that are more efficient. Utilizing the Automated Tactical Analysis of Crime software (ATAC), which features custom filters and advanced data mining technology, researchers will locate the three main hot spots of auto burglary. Once those hot spots are identified, further geographical analysis will be conducted. Aspects of the environment will be evaluated to find trends that might promote or create the opportunity for auto burglary.
Increasing the Experimental Speed by Automating Data Generation
Paul Wiechmann, Jicheng Fu, University of Central Oklahoma
In this work, we attempt to automate the generation of experiment data, which can help find the most relevant set of attributes, from a set of twelve available attributes, for determining optimal power wheelchair tilt and recline settings for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury. Attributes are added one at a time to a set of core attributes and are evaluated using four well-known classification algorithms, namely, artificial neural network, support vector machine, J48 decision tree, and random forest. The process is performed iteratively, using the attribute set with the highest percentage of correct predictions as the new core set, until the accuracy stops improving. The program was implemented in Java, using the machine learning software WEKA for the classification algorithms. File generation was implemented in C++.
Increasing the Number of Native Americans in Natural Science and Medicine through Field Paleontology
Tanya Chapman, East Central University
Statistics taken by the US Census Bureau and the National Science Foundation indicate that the number of Native Americans earning degrees is the lowest among all ethnic groups. In 2008, Native Americans earned only 0.4% out of 533 doctorates in the Earth Sciences and 0.4% out of 5,135 doctorates in the Biological Sciences. Can exposure to these sciences increase the numbers of Native Americans earning degrees in these fields? The Native explorer Foundation gives Native American Students an opportunity to experience some of what the natural sciences has to offer. This research began at OSU College of Health Sciences followed by 1 week in the Oklahoma panhandle Field work in the techniques utilized in field Paleontology. Working side by side with scientists that have real world experience in field research. It concludes at East Central University in Ada Oklahoma. It will take numerous semesters to be able to fairly determine the Number of Native American students that will be affected through this experience.
Increasing the precision of measurements for tension generation by precancerous cells, Ker-CT-Ras
Jessica Webb, Anna Graves, Melville Vaughan, University of Central Oklahoma
Recent research activity has focused on the tumor stroma, the microenvironment surrounding cancers. Tumor stromas are typically connective tissues containing fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, cells that are elsewhere required for wound healing responses. There is evidence that myofibroblast presence in tumor stromas leads to poor prognosis. Factors that enhance differentiation of myofibroblasts include TGF-β, ED-A fibronectin, and mechanical tension. Our study focuses on the ability of Ker-CT-Ras to generate tension in a dermis-like environment and compares that ability when the cells are treated with TGF-β. This study used Grinnell’s stress relaxation collagen matrix model, a model that acts like a wounded dermis; that is, it provides the necessary microenvironment for myofibroblasts. Its use is mostly for looking into the properties of fibroblasts, cells native to the dermis. Our lab has also taken to using it in the research of invasive cells, called Ker-CT-Ras. The release method for these cells is more tasking. Ker-CT-Ras lattices have higher occurrence of wrinkling and folding. In this study, I look for an optimal day for release of lattices with half the cell concentration previously used.
Indigo Blue: Connecting its Chemistry with History
Dene Betz, Caleb Wood, Dr. A.K. Fazlur Rahman, Ethan Wood, Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics
This presentation illustrates the intriguing connection of the chemistry of Indigo blue and its history in the context of chemical synthesis and agricultural production centuries ago in British India. Indigo blue was cultivated in India for almost two hundred years. It started about 1780 and continued until World War I. Von Baeyer, a German Chemist synthetically produced Indigo blue in 1890, and it was not heavily commercialized until 1913. The agricultural production of Indigo in India has its own story. From the confiscation of agricultural land to an extensive labor oriented extraction process, indigo production took a human toll. The natural extraction process, the laboratory synthesis and its usage in the past and present are described in this presentation.
Influence of historic coffee cultivation on terrestrial snail communities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico
Craig Zimmermann, Nadia Kyrylova, Renee Morse-Heenan, Rogers State University
This study investigated the influence of historic coffee cultivation on snail communities in the Luquillo Forest, Puerto Rico. Snails were surveyed in an area known to farm coffee until 1928. Snails were sampled during three summers along transects running across to plantation lines. Each transect consisted of 10 plots with 5 plots in old coffee and 5 plots in adjacent undisturbed forest. Though no difference in species richness or diversity was found between land uses, overall snail abundance was higher on the old coffee. Two common snails, Caracolus caracolla and Nenia tridens were 2-5x more abundant on old coffee. C. caracolla on old coffee also had more juveniles. Land use factors may explain these differences. Previous floristic surveys found distinct differences in tree composition and soil properties between land uses types. Soils calcium, nitrogen, and pH were also elevated in old coffee. Limestone, applied to coffee fields to raise pH, is still present and would provide calcium needed by snails for shell growth. Higher pH would hasten litter decomposition and increase available food for detritivorous snails. Higher soil N likely arose from Inga vera trees planted to shade coffee plants. Higher soil fertility would promote faster forest growth and greater litter production. Increased detrital inputs coupled with faster decomposition would enhance snail habitat.
Influence of the Onset of First Egg Production on the Number of Multiple Clutches in Female Collared Lizards
Jarrod Hertzler, Troy Baird, University of Central Oklahoma
The number of eggs produced is a strong correlate of fitness in oviparous female squamates (lizards and snakes). Within individual clutches, the number of eggs generally increases with body size, but some female squamates may also increase reproductive output by producing multiple clutches each season. Female collared lizards (Crotaphytus collaris) emerge from hibernacula when ambient temperatures and day length increase to acceptable levels, which in central Oklahoma can be as early as mid-March, and as late as the end of April. They produce multiple clutches seasonally, and number of clutches produced is positively correlated with body condition at the beginning of the season, and stored energy. Until 2012, the maximum number of clutches produced during 22 years of previous study was three. In 2012, females began emerging from hibernacula early (March 25), and the 2012 spring/summer was the warmest ever recorded in Oklahoma. For the first time, we observed the production of four clutches of eggs by 20% of females, and most females that survived the entire season produced three. These results suggest that the number of clutches produced is influenced by environmental conditions that influence the onset of first egg production. We are testing this hypothesis further by examining the number and schedule of egg production in individual collared lizard females at Arcadia Lake, over the last 23 seasons during which climatic variables have varied markedly.
Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Replication and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Cell Markers by Resveratrol
Charles Nguyen, Asim Ali, Courtney Houchen, Hari Kotturi, Naushad Ali, University of Central Oklahoma
Chronic infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a prominent risk factor for the development of liver cancer. Current FDA-approved therapy is not effective and well tolerated in many patients, and those cured of HCV still remain at risk for developing cancer. Therefore, finding a novel therapeutic that targets both HCV and HCV-induced cancer is a high priority. Resveratrol (RES) is a polyphenol that has been widely studied for its pleiotropic effects, including anticancer and antiviral activity. Since the molecular mechanism of RES is not known, our aim is to determine the effects of RES on HCV replication and HCV-induced carcinogenesis. We have used a GS5 hepatoma cell line that harbors a subgenomic HCV replicon to investigate our goal. Cells were treated with RES or DMSO vehicle. Total HCV RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Western blot was carried out to analyze viral and cellular proteins including hepatic markers and cancer stem cell-related proteins. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay, and cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry with PI staining. Confocal microscopy was performed to examine cytoskeletal changes. RES significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and reduced HCV polymerase expression and total HCV RNA. Additionally, RES downregulated the expression of alpha-fetoprotein, a liver cancer stem cell marker. Our findings suggest that RES may be a promising therapeutic agent for HCV and HCV-induced carcinogenesis.
Interior Design and Historic Preservation – Allies in Environmentally Responsible Design
Valerie Settles, University of Central Oklahoma
Interior design education often focuses on developing new spaces; however, it is increasingly important for designers to utilize existing building stock as part of environmentally responsible design strategies. Students who work with existing buildings gain valuable expertise in historic preservation, which is one element of a sustainable design strategy, while learning about a field of expertise for practicing designers, a critical concern in the difficult job market into which our design graduates are emerging. To expose interior design students to historic preservation and its relevance to interior design and sustainability, a capstone project asked students to rehabilitate a historic building for a new community art center. The project required students to incorporate appropriate spaces into the existing building, utilizing such sustainable strategies as daylighting and recycled materials. Students researched the history of the building, and were required to follow documented standards with regard to the arrangement of interior spaces and the selection of new finishes in those areas with existing surfaces remaining. The resulting designs not only exposed students to the rigors and rewards of connecting interior design and historic preservation; it also helped them develop valuable skills in historical research while developing awareness that environmentally responsible design involved a broader scope than simply specifying recycled materials for new construction.
Invasive Plants of the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge, Comanche County, Oklahoma: A Service Learning Project
Frank Urbanski, Michael Dunn, Cameron University
The Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge is arguably the largest remaining tract of southern mixed grass prairie in existence. It consists of grasslands and post oak savanna, and is home to 50 species of mammals, 240 birds, 64 reptiles and amphibians and 36 fish species, as well as almost 900 plant species. However, this repository of the natural history of the Southern Great Plains is under constant threat of invasion by non-native plants. This project takes the list of 52 plants, identified by refuge biologists as the greatest potential threats, and prepares a pamphlet for distribution to the general public. This pamphlet has two pages for each species, one for images and one for text. The text page includes family, binomial and common name, as well as field characters for the family and species, natural history, and selected points of interest for each plant. The image page shows important features, such as growth architecture, leaf, flower and fruit characters for identification by non-professionals. This project reinforces the strong research, learning, and service relationship between Cameron University and the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. And provides a valuable service for the residents of southwestern Oklahoma, by identifying important invasive plants of the region. As a student research project (FJU), under the supervision of a research mentor (MTD), this project is an excellent illustration of fulfilling Cameron University’s mission of experiential learn
Invasive, not Heavenly: Students Track Ailanthus altissima Populations in Weatherford
Lisa Castle, Tanner Wheeler, Zella Classen, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima, has been considered both a problematic invasive and a desirable ornamental tree. Increased numbers of trees descended from intentionally planted ornamental trees may signal the start of an invasion in areas where the species has not previously been considered problematic. To test whether or not neighborhood trees were intentionally planted, students at Southwestern Oklahoma State University in Weatherford,OK counted and measured the trees or heaven and compared the distribution to that of known ornamentals. Based on the numbers of small individual trees, trees growing close together and trees growing close to human structures, we concluded that the majority of trees of heaven in Weatherford, OK were not intentionally planted. As students we hope to use the resulting baseline map to monitor population growth and track success of control measures, and to perform genetic testing to determine the source of the invasion around our campus community.
Investigation of Artificial Gravity Habitat Dynamics
Geoffrey Kibble, Alyssa Avery, Brian Delano, Calvin Brown, Carolina Vega, Chase Colvin, Jake Hathaway, Jamey Jacob, Ph.D., Jaymie Jordan, Kale Woosley, Reyhan Eusufzai, Shane Spear, Shea Fehrenbach, Steven Asplin, Thomas Verschelden, Zach Barbeau, Oklahoma State University
Future envisioned missions to deep space elicit problems and challenges not fully investigated by the world’s spaceflight organizations. One of the most prominent issues is prolonged exposure to weightlessness. The human body functions day-to-day with the resistance and force of gravity; in the absence of this phenomenon, bones/muscles swiftly atrophy. Another alarming effect, which has been acknowledged in recent years, is loss of vision due to prolonged spaceflight. Researchers hypothesize that lack of gravity increases pressure on the optic nerve, thus causing vision loss. An effective way to generate a force similar to gravity is to rotate a body to produce centrifugal force. For a small scale investigation of this concept, the Oklahoma State University Space Cowboys team has designed an inflatable beam-rotating experiment. The effects of various internal pressures on the beam’s stiffness and rotational stability will be examined. Inflatable structures are lightweight, have a high ratio of deployed to packed volume, and could provide sufficient support for a rotating spacecraft that produces an artificial gravity force. The experiment is designed to allow the deployment pressure to be altered between test runs (parabolas). As spaceflight becomes more ambitious and missions of longer duration become both desirable and possible, spacecraft designs must provide crew members with an Earth-like gravity environment.
Investigation of differential habitat use by lizards in the Wichita Mountains
Jetta Trammell, Matthew Van Sant, Cameron University
Previous work has shown the prairie lizard Sceloporus consobrinus and collared lizard Crotaphytus collaris prefer different microhabitats within the Wichita Mountains. These two lizard species might prefer different optimal temperatures. Alternatively, Sceloporus consobrinus may be selecting a habitat away from Crotaphytus collaris to avoid predation. Even though lizards are ectothermic organisms, they do thermoregulate using behavioral means and careful microhabitat selection to maintain a preferred body temperature. The body temperature of lizards is influenced by factors including air temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, conduction and organismal anatomy. Operative temperature is a thermal parameter that accounts for all of these factors. We have obtained life-sized copper lizard models and will use them as operative temperature thermometers to create a thermal map of the environment and predict which microhabitats lizards should use based on their thermal preferences. This will allow us to compare our data with previously collected data in order to describe patterns of microhabitat use of prairie lizards and collared lizards. We will use this data to test whether microhabitat selection in Sceloporus consobrinus and Crotaphytus collaris is due to differences in thermal preferences or due to an alternative hypothesis, such as predator avoidance.
Investigation of Indigenous Actinomycetes as Chlordane Remediation Agents
Paul Olson, BrieAunna Webster, Felicia Osburn, James Green, Jocelyn Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma
Actinomycetes bacteria are promising remediation agents capable of dechlorination and degradation of many organochlorine pesticide contaminants. In this study, Actinomycetes strains were isolated from soil samples collected from a chlordane-contaminated site. Fifty-four strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics referenced in Bergey’s Manual. A tolerance assay was conducted to identify strains exhibiting normal growth in the presence of high concentrations of the toxic chlordane compound. Twelve actinomycetes strains were identified as tolerant, candidate remediation agents. The candidate strains were subjected to a mixture of a-chlordane and g-chlordane in solution to evaluate the strains’ capacity to degrade the isomeric compounds either as a sole carbon source or by co-metabolism with lignin as the primary carbon source. Metabolic residues are currently being analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to determine the extent of chlordane degradation and the identity of the metabolic degradation products. The goal of the research is to provide needed information toward a cost-effective remedial approach to persistent contaminants in the environment.
Investigation of the Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks Modulated by Acupuncture
Zinar Simsek, Northeastern State University
Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese healing technique, used to treat various illnesses for thousands of years. Fine, sterile needles are applied to specific areas of the body, or acupoints, to stimulate energy flow (or "chi). The needles are usually left in place for a few minutes (skilled acupuncturist causes virtually no pain). Energy is believed to circulate throughout the body along specific pathways called meridians. When energy is flowing freely through the meridians, the immune system is stimulated, which is thought to bring on a healing response and balance. In recent years, it has gained great popularity as an alternative and complementary therapeutic intervention in the Western medicine. Noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have provided new insights into the anatomy and physiological function underlying acupuncture. This study investigated the functional correlations throughout the entire brain during the post stimulus resting period following acupuncture at acupointST36 (ACUP) in comparison with acupuncture at nearby non acupoint (SHAM). It divided the whole brain into 90 cortical and subcortical regions and constructed functional brain network for each condition. Then work hubs were examined, and statistically significant differences were identified by comparing the correlation coefficients of each pair between two conditions [17,19,20]. This allowed exploration of how the large-scale resting brain networks are modulated by acupunc
Issai Schur
Charlotte Simmons, Jesse Byrne, University of Central Oklahoma
Issai Schur (1875-1941) belongs “to those scattered over the earth” by the “Nazi storm,” as Hirzebruch put it in his 1998 address to the International Congress of Mathematicians. This talk will examine the life and death of this remarkable mathematician whose lectures at the time of his dismissal from Berlin drew between 400 and 500 students; one student who had to be content with a seat in the back of the room reported, “I used a pair of opera glasses to get at least a glimpse of the speaker.” In addition, we will also investigate the role that German emigrants such as Issai’s son Georg played on the development of the actuarial profession in Israel.
Italian Renaissance Vocal Improvisation
Sion Honea, University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this project is to make available to professional musicians, performers and educators, the corpus of texts on the tradition of Italian Renaissance Vocal Improvisation. Vocal Improvisation in the renaissance was a standard technique applied to both solo and ensemble vocal music. This practice rendered music in performance far different from the bare musical texts that we possess. The understanding and practice of this skill has lagged far behind other areas of the expanding field of historical performance, mainly for the reason that the relevant instructional materials, both literary and musical texts, have seldom been translated or issued in new editions. In fact, only one text, literary and musical, has ever been made available in entirety. Even in this case, the literary text of this new 2009 edition is only an updating of a 17th-century translation. In the remainder of cases, at most only fragments and excerpts of the literary and musical texts have been made available in English. This project aims to produce new English translations of all relevant literary texts, accompanied by exemplary musical material sufficient to provide a modern performer or educator with access to acquiring the skill.
Kamrooz Aram: People just want the ones that look good
Erica Eppler, East Central University
As an Iranian American, Kamrooz Arams' art allows him to explore the intersection of Eastern and Western culture. He explores issues of nationalism, religion, identity, and exoticism by layering familiar images from both cultures in his work. Arams' paintings are playful and serious, magical and scholarly, spiritual and secular and they open up a discourse about the complexities of human nature that few are willing to discuss openly. A flat landscape comparable to the Super Mario Bros. video games are used in most of his paintings and he connects with the modern culture through these references. In this setting he places burning vegetation, clouds, and birds of prey found in Persian carpets and miniatures. Through these motifs he asks his audience to reflect on their own preconceived ideas and to confront cultural issues. That is what makes his work stand out from others whose work deals with identity, nationalism, religion, and Orientalism. He sees problems faced by society, but does not let these oppressive subjects overcome him from all the beauty that is in this world.
Knowledge Management for Small to Medium sized Businesses in Rural Western Oklahoma.
Warren Moseley, David Britton, Michael Brinkley, Patrick Spears, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
This project is about applying the Dynamics of Research in Knowledge Management from Corporation on a Large Scale to Small to Medium size businesses in Rural Oklahoma. In addition to the Knowledge Sharing and Research Sharing the goal was to apply the foundations and principles of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award to small businesses. This project provides, training, consulting,and a framework for tools to support the ability to innovate by allowing Knowledge to become an asset and treating as such. What makes this project unique is the focus on quality as a result of using the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Excellence as provided by the National Institue of Standrards.
Knowledge of Physical Activity on Campus
TaNiqua Ward, Melissa Powers, University of Central Oklahoma
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the knowledge of physical activity and current physical activity levels among college students. Methods: The study will be conducted through two surveys. One survey will be true or false asking questions about the knowledge of physical activity. The other survey is the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) that will ask questions pertaining to the student's current physical activity level. All the participants will be students at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO). Pearson's product moment coefficients will be calculated to determine the relationship between knowledge of physical activity and current physical activity levels using SPSS software. Results: College students that are knowledgeable of physical activity are expected to be more physically active than those that are not as knowledgeable. The results found from this study will be used by UCO health educators to identify target areas for physical activity promotion among UCO students. Conclusion: This study will be beneficial for future studies because it can assist UCO with educating students about the importance of physical activity for health. UCO can begin an intervention with students to target the health consequences of an inactive lifestyle. This will help make students more self aware of their own health and allow students to have healthy lifestyles now and in the future.
La Salle de Classe sur scène: Evolving cinematic depictions of French schools.
Catherine Webster, University of Central Oklahoma
The objective of this research is to determine how the cinematic depiction of French schools and instructors has changed over the course of the past century. As French society has become more open to class mobility and diversity, these changes are similarly reflected through depictions in French film. A longitudinal study of French cinema, from the early sound period (Jean Vigo’s Zéro de conduite) through 2008’s Entre les murs and touching on several versions of Topaze, Louie Malle’s Au revoir les enfants, as well as Les Choristes and a number of films set in contemporary school settings: Être et avoir, L’esquive and L’École pour tous. The sheer number of these recent films suggests a great interest in the topic and the vivid transformation of the French classroom. Detailed analysis of these films yields historically relevant commentary on social class and pedagogical attitudes.
Laser immunotherapy in the treatment of late-stage, metastatic melanoma patients
Wei Chen, University of Central Oklahoma
Melanoma is a deadly skin cancer. While it only accounts for about 4% of all skin cancer occurrences, it causes more than 70% skin cancer related deaths. Melanoma is closely related to the host immune system. Therefore, immunotherapy is arguably the most effective way of treating advanced melanoma. The ideal immunotherapy methods should not only effectively eradicate the local tumors, but also control and eliminate the metastatic tumors at distant sites. A special immunotherapy was developed for treating advanced (stage III/IV) melanoma and other solid tumors, using a combination of laser irradiation and application of immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan, both locally. This new method, called laser immunotherapy, involves in situ treatments of tumor deposits to enhance local immunity and concomitantly, system-wide anti-tumor responses. This treatment paradigm is likely the basis for the abscopal effect observed following laser immunotherapy. One specific approach in laser immunotherapy is percutaneous insertion of laser fibers that can be used to reach any location in the body. Recent case reports demonstrate the step-wise development of this technology for the purpose of demonstrating for the first time, its practical application. Other immunotherapeutic agents such as anti-CTLA4 antibodies can also be used to multiply and enhance these local immune responses induced by laser immunotherapy, to provide more potent system-wide immunological anti-tumor effects that translat
Lawn Gnomie: An Android Application
Rad Alrifai, Bridgette Cowden, Northeastern State University
Most Android games are too hard for children to play which quickly makes them lose interest in the game. Lawn Gnomie is a game that is simple, child friendly and gives the child a character that would pique their interest in the game right away. Lawn Gnomie is an easy to play game that is based on the classic 1970s game ‘Snake’. The game gives a colorful child-friendly atmosphere and simple game mechanics. The gameplay mechanics are two buttons, a left turn and a right turn, making it very easy for a child to pick up and understand how to play. The gameplay logic is simple in itself. Because children love cartoons, the game was built in a cartoony style including the background, font, character, items and even sound. The theme was created to pull the child into not only the gameplay but the images surrounding it. The impact of its use is to give children an entertaining Android game that they can understand.
Lessac Centered BFA--Performance Program
Daisy Nystul, University of Central Oklahoma
At the University of Central Oklahoma the Department of Theatre Arts incorporates Authur Lessac’s work into voice, movement, and acting lesson plans. The training also enhances students' personal lives by giving them the skills necessary to reduce stress, improve communication, and add to their overall physical well-being.
Letterpress And The Digital Era
Amanda Horton, University of Central Oklahoma
survey of the development of the history of typography from Gutenberg to the modern era and covers new digital technology as it relates to typography. This course covers the tools, materials and machines used in the development of type over time. In order to help students learn about historical methods an assignment was created that utilized new digital technology. This paper asks the question: Can new technology help students to understand the past? The technology used for this course is LetterMpress and is available on Mac and iPad. This is a digital tool that simulates what it would be like to create printed pieces on a letterpress machine. With digital advances, some of the traditional printing methods such as letterpress are becoming less and less prevalent. LetterMpress is a unique tool that allows you to learn about this traditional printing method in a digital format. This project helps students to determine the historical significance of traditional and digital typography and to understand the lasting effects that traditional typography still holds on us today.  
Light Rhythm Influence on the Growth and Perithecia Synthesis of Chaetomium Globosum, A Common Indoor Mold
Shubhra Poudyal, Charles Biles, East Central University
Chaetomium globosum is a fungus commonly found in water-damaged buildings and was one of the most prevalent fungi associated with damage resulting from the Katrina hurricane. The ascospores and hyphae produced by C. globosum can be highly allergenic to immuno-compromised people and has been reported to cause more severe respiratory health problems. Light plays a major role in growth and reproduction in several organisms and is a major determinate in circadian rhythms of mammals. Chaetomium globosum 5 mm hyphal plugs were transferred to potato dextrose agar media plate. Isolates of C. globosum were exposed to light rhythms; continuous dark, continuous light, 12 h light/12 h dark, 6 h light/18 h dark, and 3 h light/21 h dark. Growth was measured every 7 days. The ascospores and perithecia were measured after 21 days. Results indicated that growth was not significantly influenced by different light rhythms, but ascospore and perithecia synthesis was greater in the dark when compared to light treatments. Ring patterns of fungal perithecia growth was evident on the 12 h light/12 h dark, 6 h light/18 h dark, and 3 h light/21 h dark, suggesting that light/dark cycles stimulate a circadian-like rhythm. Proteins were extracted from C. globosum grown on PD broth cultures exposed to the light rhythms previously described. The continuous light treatment stimulated a unique protein that was approximately 25 kD. All treatments that included a dark sequence showed unique bands at 15 kD.
Limited Liability Companies: Choose Your Tax Fate
Bambi Hora, Christopher Ryan, University of Central Oklahoma
Limited liability companies are strange and wonderful things. They are hybrid entities which provide limited liability for their owners, reasonably protecting their personal assets from loss and lawsuit; their members’ ownership is divided into “units” similar to shares of stock in a corporation; and they can be taxed as a sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation. In order to better understand the taxation of LLCs and why the owner(s’) of LLCs might or might not select a given entity’s rules under which to be taxed, we must first understand the various tax statues and regulations.
Linking immunology and epidemiology with mathematical models: effects on individual disease and public health
Sean Laverty, University of Central Oklahoma
We use a mathematical model that includes the dynamic nature of the host immune response, and explore the interactions between the immune system of the individual and the spread of infectious disease in the population. In particular, we identify features of the host immune response that yield the emergence of 'disease cycles' in the host population. We show that the immunogenicity of the pathogen and the rate at which immunity wanes in the host are key determinants of oscillations. Using the human rhinoviruses as a model system, we explore the dynamics of a diverse collection of co-circulating viruses, whose transmission in the population is mediated by the immunological history of the individuals.
Linking Types of Loyalty Programs to Firms' Performance
Kanghyun Yoon, Minh Ha, University of Central Oklahoma
In recent years, customers have faced various kinds of loyalty or reward programs offered by companies in a wide range of industries such as frequently mileage programs from airline companies, cash back programs for credit-card companies, free refills at the retail coffee stores, among others. When implementing these loyalty programs, marketers have expected that the programs are supposed to be an important key to the company’s profit. However, there have been little prior empirical works studying how the loyalty programs affect company profitability. To fill this gap, the goals of this study are 1) to develop a conceptual framework which describes how the marketing efforts with loyalty programs can be led to the firm’s profitability and 2) empirically test the relationship between the behavioral outcomes of loyalty programs and the profitability as an indicator of company performance. As the key features, this study incorporates the concepts of return on investment (ROI), customer lifetime value (CLV), and consumer heterogeneity in the perspective of loyalty marketing with the ultimate goal of making any customer loyal. It is found that this study provides new insights to marketers, who are in charge of designing and implementing various types of loyalty programs, when attempting to maximize the company performance using the loyalty programs.
Literary Archetypes: the Relationship of Gilgamesh and Enkidu
Wesley Jones, Cameron University
My objective in this research is to examine the various characteristics of literary archetypes from the most ancient to more modern versions. Therefore, I will show how many modern heroes are based on antiquated archetypes which arise in the earliest of civilizations. However, my primary focus is on the tale of Gilgamesh, specifically the relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu. I believe that there are key differences concerning this relationship which make Gilgamesh and Enkidu unique among epic heroes. At the same time, I acknowledge that Gilgamesh is the original archetype for a hero. In order to prove my hypothesis, I will study the epic of Gilgamesh, as well as the tales of other archetypal heroes, while drawing evidence and inspiration from different sources concerned with the examination of heroes. Finally, I will show how Gilgamesh and Enkidu differ from all other archetypal heroes, and that the basis of this difference lies in the nature of their relationship.
Little Miss vs. Mr. Man: A look at Women and Men in the Media During Congressional Campaigns
Kaylin Cullum, East Central University
Women face much different social scrutiny when running for public office than men do. They are hounded with questions very different than their male counterparts, including focus on apparel and overall style as opposed to a stance on the issues. This paper will study the effect of media portrayal of women who run for congress in three states: Oklahoma, New York and Pennsylvania. A number of stories on women verses men running for congress will be compared through content analysis to determine the differences, if any, in questions asked, issues focused on and over all media portrayal. Also studied is how female politicians react to the media attention, and whether it helps or hinders their campaign. Finally, it looks at how the media attention affects the voters, in a positive or negative way.
Local Election's Fight Against Low Voter Turnout: The Battle of Ada
Marsha Coyle, Stephen Vines, Will Irwin, East Central University
When we think of small towns, we picture close knit communities where everyone knows everyone and issues are resolved with group effort. This is Ada, Oklahoma. But Ada has one problem that has not been addressed, low voter turnout. The purpose of this study will be to find out why voter turnout is so low and how this correlates with satisfaction of the municipal government. If citizens are not giving the government feedback, then how does the municipal government know what the needs are of the citizens? We will use surveys to measure satisfaction of municipal government and compare the results. Our hypothesis is that communities with higher political participation are more satisfied with the municipal government and when political participation is low the needs of the citizens are not met. Our end goal is to provide insight into the correlations between political participation and municipal satisfaction. Possible outcomes could include policy suggestions for the City of Ada and similar townships across Oklahoma.
Loss Coefficient Calculation Using Entropy Generation with an Inexpensive Particle Image Velocimetry System
Brock Ring, Andrew Henderson, Daniel Atkinson, Evan Lemley, Phd, University of Central Oklahoma
An essential concept in fluid dynamics is the energy losses of a fluid as it flows through junctions or bends. These losses can be generalized for junction geometries and used to drastically simplify calculations. The objective of this research was to determine if an inexpensive Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system could be used to calculate the loss coefficient in a test section using the entropy generation of a fluid. This was done by performing PIV analysis on a steady state, laminar, fully developed flow through a straight tube. This type of flow allows the calculations to easily be checked by pressure measurements up and down the stream. A computer code was then written to analyze the flow profile and perform the necessary calculations. Our findings showed that the loss coefficient from the entropy generation code could be calculated to within 3%-10% difference of the calculations made by taking pressure measurements.
Loss Coefficient Determination of an Acrylic Bifurcation.
Andrew Henderson, Aric Gillispie, Brock Ring, University of Central Oklahoma
This proposed research is a part of a cooperative project in coordination with Dr. Herwig and Dr. Schmandt of the Hamburg University of Technology. Our research group consisting of myself and Dr. Evan Lemley of the University of Central Oklahoma are tasked with designing, setting-up, and performing experiments on the proposed bifurcation or y-junction. A bifurcation/junction is a division of flow. Dr. Herwig and Dr. Schmandt have conducted Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the proposed bifurcation. The proposed Y-junction has been designed using 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) software SolidWorks. The inlet and outlet diameters are 3.175mm and the angle between the outlets will be 〖45〗^0. The Y-junction will be fabricated out of acrylic using the university's in-house Roland milling machine. Pressure drop and volume flow rate data will be collected and used to determine the loss coeffiencent as a function of Reynolds number for the proposed Y-junction. Finally, the experimental results will be Validated and Verified (V&V) to that of the planned simulated results.
Macroinvertebrate Assemblages and Water Quality Analysis of Spring Systems Associated with the Pontotoc Ridge Nature Preserve, Oklahoma
Kambridge Brown, David Bass, University of Central Oklahoma
A study of springs in the Pontotoc Ridge Nature Preserve was conducted in 2011. This investigation compares the similarities between a 1995 survey (Bass 2000) and the 2011 survey, as well as between individual spring communities within that study. Quantitative samples of macroinvertebrates were collected using a Surber net, preserved, and returned to the laboratory for sorting, identification, and counting. In addition, qualitative samples were taken to capture species missed in the Surber net by using a D-ring net. Water quality analyses were used to test for ammonia, alkalinity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, nitrites, orthophosphates, and specific conductivity. Only quantitative data was used to calculate the Shannon-Wiener Species Diversity Index and those results are as follows: Smith Spring, 1.934 (2011) and 2.69 (1995); Cave Spring, 0.410 (2011) and 3.31 (1995); and Canyon Spring, 0.327 (2011). Similarities in species compositions, based on both quantitative and qualitative samples, was calculated using Sorenson’s Index of Similarity and the following results were found: Smith Spring (1995 v. 2011), 0.5; Cave Spring (1995 v. 2011), 0.077. Species composition similarities were also compared between the springhead and downstream samples resulting in a value of 0.692 for Smith Spring, 0.714 for Canyon Spring, and 1.00 for Cave Spring. These data will be useful as baseline information to compare future observations in these spring communities.
Making the Grade in Physical Education: Why Effort and Participation Should Not Count
Tim Baghurst, Oklahoma State University
Assessment in physical education is not a new topic, yet opinions regarding how physical education should be assessed vary greatly. Although some argue for skills-driven measures of competency, others believe that attributes such as attitude, effort, and participation are equally or even more important. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current literature surrounding effort and participation as a component of grading in physical education. Using an historical approach, this presentation will explain how grading in physical education has changed over time, yet remains steeped in tradition, sometimes to the cost of the profession. Discourse on the impact that varying methods for assessment have on the physical education profession is provided, followed by a best-practice method for including effort and participation in assessment.
Managing Change: Faculty Perceptions of a Transformative Learning Initiative
Danielle Hernandez, Christy Vincent, University of Central Oklahoma
While many theories address the topic of change management, an organization’s ability to integrate changes effectively still presents a significant challenge. The myriad of perceptions of the organizational members contribute to their responses when they learn of planned changes in the organization. Using Everett Rogers’s (1983, 1995) Diffusion of Innovations theory as the foundation, this research sheds light on the integration of initiatives into organizations. Specifically, this paper describes faculty members’ responses to a major change initiative—Transformative Learning (TL)—at a local university. The research questions concern faculty members’ 1) understanding of the TL initiative; 2) level of adoption of the TL initiative; 3) implementation of transformative learning; and 4) perceptions of benefits and barriers of the TL initiative. A series of in-depth interviews with several faculty members provided answers to the research questions. There was neither consensus among the participants on the purpose of transformative learning nor on best practices for its application. Responses ranged from positive—willingness to embrace TL but uncertainty regarding incorporating it into the classroom—to negative—complete rejection of the idea of transformative learning. Results of this study provide information that may help university leaders focus their change management efforts and address the issues that hinder the im
Mapping Interaction Domains on Mcm10 and Mrc1 in Budding Yeast
Drew Breedlove, Chance Hendrix, Sapna Das-Bradoo, Northeastern State University
Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) is essential for chromosome replication in eukaryotic cells and has been shown to link the helicase activity (Mcm2-7 protein complex) to polymerase activity (DNA polymerase alpha) at the replication forks. All previous studies on Mcm10 implicate its importance in normal DNA replication. Our preliminary studies indicate a novel role of Mcm10 in maintaining genome stability under replication stress conditions. We have observed that Mcm10 interacts very strongly with mediator of replication checkpoint (Mrc1) in budding yeast. Mrc1 functions as a replication fork stabilizer under unperturbed replication and also as a mediator of S-phase checkpoint during replication stress. In order to better understand the role of this interaction, we have mapped the interaction domains on both these proteins. Truncations of Mcm10 and Mrc1 were constructed in yeast two-hybrid vectors. Both proteins were systematically truncated to preserve their conserved domains and interaction was studied using yeast-two hybrid assays. Our results indicate that Mcm10 interacts through its N-terminus while Mrc1 interacts through its conserved C-terminus. These results lead us to believe Mcm10 may possibly function in DNA damage response by interacting with Mrc1 on the replication fork during replication stress.
Mapping Invaders From Heaven: the Ailanthus altissima Population Illustrated
Lisa Castle, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Ailanthus altissima, also known as Tree of Heaven, is a rapidly growing non-native tree. Increased numbers of trees descended from intentionally planted ornamental trees may signal the start of an invasion in areas where the species has not previously been considered problematic. Student scientists ventured into the residential areas of Weatherford, OK in order to determine if Trees of Heaven are a problem in our community. Trees of Heaven were censused, mapped, measured and we concluded that the majority of the Trees of Heaven in Weatherford, OK were not intentionally planted. On-going data collection is involving more students in monitoring and conservation around the campus community.
Mapping the Education of a Pre-Service Urban Teacher
Diana Meek, Mike Nelson, University of Central Oklahoma
The vast majority of pre-service teacher education occurs in the university classroom away from environments in which teachers will actually be practicing their craft. Therefore, there is a necessarily theoretical attribute to pre-service teacher training. One of the issues that educators of future teachers are concerned with is the effectiveness and utility of the coursework that pre-service teachers receive. This study attempts to explore whether classroom teachers who have graduated from the Urban Teacher Preparatory Academy (UTPA) at the University of Central Oklahoma are utilizing the knowledge that they receive both from their university classrooms and from the professional development provided through the UTPA. Here, I present the first piece of this study. This will be an exploration of the knowledge, goals, and objectives that are presented within the Professional Teacher Education Sequence at the University of Central Oklahoma as well as within the professional development and mentorships provided by the UTPA.
Mapping the Winter Distribution of the Eastern Whip-poor-will
Britney Temple, Chris Butler, University of Central Oklahoma
The Eastern Whip-poor-will, (Antrostomus vociferus), is declining at a rate of 2.6% annually. The objective of this study is to model the winter distribution of the Eastern Whip-poor-will and examine how the range may shift under different climate change scenarios. We obtained the locality data from ORNIS and Christmas Bird Counts, for the months December, January, and February. Twenty ecogeographical variables were obtained from WorldClim. Maxent was used to model the distribution of this species. The models show that the winter range is far smaller than the breeding range, with the greatest concentration of highly suitable habitat during winter is in Florida. This suggests that habitat destruction in Florida may have a disproportionate effect on the population of Eastern Whip-poor-wills. In addition, the models suggest that climate change may negatively impact this species.
Marker Free Genetically Modified (GM) Crops
Bobby Bezinque, Northeastern State University
The use of selectable marker genes in genetically modified crops have been vital in their research and development. The other methods used to introduce foreign DNA in a plant cell, either by microinjection, particle gun, electroporation or agrobacterium, are relatively inefficient. Many of the markers used today are antibiotic resistant, such as hygromycin, kanamycin, and ampicilin. These antibiotic resistant genes are used during the genetic modification process, the genes are inserted into genetically modified plants as a marker, which is linked to the new gene with a desirable trait usually herbicide resistant or insecticide production. The use of these marker genes that are resistant to certain antibiotics are raising concerns among the public. The possible transfer of these antibiotic resistant genes into humans and animals has sparked many new studies into bio-safety and bio-monitoring.
Matching Service Learning Opportunities to Diverse Student Populations
Glee Bertram, University of Central Oklahoma
Service-learning is identified as an effective way to help students understand aging adults. One of my main goals as an instructor is to help students see older adults as people much like themselves with possibly a few more challenges. Once students realize this, they are much more willing to explore this area of development and how the aging process works. My students are very diverse. Some are traditional students but the majority have families, work, and carry a full course load. Also, most are commuter students ranging in age from 18 to 74. We also have many international students and an ethnically diverse population. Our university is near the metro and attracts many single parents who are receiving financial aid trying to improve their lifestyle for them and their child/children. Because of this diversity, the service-learning opportunities need to be done in a variety of ways. The purpose of this study was to compare methods of facilitating service learning projects and how to meet the needs of diverse student populations. Methods included open-ended interviews with older adults and reflection papers provided as part of student assessment for class work. Students preferred having options in when and where to fulfill their service learing hours to best fit their schedules and interests.
Mathematical Models of Synchronizations of Yeast Cell Glycolytic Oscillations.
Nathan Pezant, Brittany Bannish, Sean Laverty, University of Central Oklahoma
Glycolytic oscillations of yeast cells in particular environments have been observed for some time. Recently it has been shown that yeast cells in this environment that are out of phase with one another, if put into contact, will synchronize their oscillations. Models have been constructed to simulate this observation. Our research is on the sensitivity of parameters in the existing two-cell model and expansion of the model to include three or more cells.
Measuring Brand Equity in Accounting Service Industry
Kanghyun Yoon, Feng Ouyang, University of Central Oklahoma
Given the definition of brand equity as “the set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand’s name and symbol that adds to or subtracts from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firm’s customers” (Keller 1996), marketing scholars and industry practitioners have devoted lots of their efforts on developing various types of measurement metrics for brand equity and investigating the linkages between brand equity and company performances. However, little efforts have been done in accounting service industry. As expected, the nature and aspects of brand equity, along with its measurement approach, in accounting service industry are different from those in other industries. The way of measuring the brand equity in accounting service industry should be treated differently since it—i.e., the added value endowed on services (Keller 1993)—comes from the services driven by reliable and useful accounting information. In this regard, the goal of this study is to develop an effective way of measuring brand equity (BE) which is useful in the accounting service industry after reviewing the current literature in brand equity. After we conduct our review of literature on brand equity, it is found that the aspects of our measurement metrics are unique and easily applicable to the accounting service industry.
Measuring Temperature Dependence on Charge Organization in Ionic Liquids
Gage Coltrain, Christopher Burba, Northeastern State University
Room temperature ionic liquids exhibit substantial amounts of charge organization in the liquid phase. Charge organization plays a significant role in defining the properties of ionic liquids and there are several coordinated solvation shells localized around cations. A central goal of research in this field is characterizing the degree of charge organization in an ionic liquid and correlating those values to properties of the materials that make them attractive as solvents. We propose a cost-effective method for investigating charge organization in a family of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethansulfonate ionic liquids using simple FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. Charge organization of the ionic liquids is measured as a function of temperature with the proposed method. Increased temperatures should increase the thermal motion of the ions composing an ionic liquid, disrupting any long-range charge organization. Furthermore, longer alkyl side chains attached to the imidazolium ring are expected to frustrate charge organization and further decrease the level of observed charge organization. FT-IR spectroscopic measurements confirm both of these hypotheses.
Mechanical effectiveness of polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVA/PVP) as an Intervertebral Disc Polymer
Khiet Tran, Ashton Williams, Kooroush Azartash-Namin, Morshed Khandaker, Zheila Azartash-Namin, University of Central Oklahoma
The intervertebral disc(IVD) provides support and enables six degree of freedom motions(6DOF): flexion, extension, right/left lateral bending, compression, and axial rotation. When individuals suffer from degenerative disc, the nucleus pulposus(NP) deteriorates, causing loss of articulation in the IVD. However, replacements for the NP can be used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical performances of a potential NP replacement consisting of polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl pyrrolidone(PVA/PVP) polymer. The hydrogel was synthesized by physically cross-linking with 95%-weight PVA and 5%-weight PVP. Using a dynamic rheometer, elastic(G’) and viscous(G’’) moduli of the hydrogel can be determined by calculating the complex shear modulus(G*) under low-frequency oscillating shear deformation. A slider-crank mechanism was assembled with a Universal Mechanical Testing System to evaluate the mechanical effectiveness of the hydrogel in a bovine spine (BS) under physiological 6DOF motions. The experimental setup consists of displacement sensor, plate force sensor, and a 6-axis force/moment sensor. The G’ of the hydrogel was tested at parameters 5%, 10%, and 15%(228.6 Pa, 988.8 Pa, and 1793 Pa). The G’ for the natural bovine specimen at 5%, 10%, and 15%(712.9 Pa, 522.1 Pa, and 363.3 Pa). Position, velocity, acceleration, and force of the experimental model at 6DOF motions were verified using a dynamic simulation model.
Mechanism of laser immunotherapy in treatment of late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients
Wei Chen, University of Central Oklahoma
Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is a local intervention for late-stage, metastatic cancers. It combines tumor irradiation by a near-infrared laser light and immunological stimulation by a novel immunomodifier. In the past 18 years, LIT has been developed from a simple concept to clinical trials with promising pre-clinical and preliminary clinical results. The hypothesized mechanism of LIT is the activation of dendritic cells (DCs), enhancement of uptake and the presentation of antigens, and activation of a tumor-specific T-cell response. Specifically, two overseas (Peru and the Bahamas) clinical studies using LIT were conducted. We have followed the treated patients during the past several years. Here we report the survival data of the treated patients. We also report the development of tumors after LIT treatment using different imaging modalities, such as CT, PET-CT, and MRI. A number of no-option patients have had complete responses after LIT. In a number of patients, the distant metastases, such as in the lungs, have been reported shrinking or disappearing. Overall, the preliminary results of LIT in our clinical trials are promising. We also report the results of our studies in support of the hypothesized mechanism of LIT.
Melatonin Sensitivity Mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans
Stephen Fields, Khalilah Watson, Krishna Bhattarai, Rajya Maharjan, East Central University
The Caenorhabditis elegans genetic system would be a valuable tool in determining the impact of melatonin on neuronal plasticity and long term potentiation. However, components of the melatonin signaling pathway in C. elegans remain ambiguous. The purpose of this study is to identify the C. elegans melatonin receptor(s). Worm G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with homology to human melatonin receptors (hMRs) were identified through BLAST searches of the GenBank database. Multiple sequence alignment of homologous protein regions was also performed using ClustalW2 software. The field was narrowed down to less than 25 genes by limiting bioinformatic analyses of C. elegans GPCRs to regions of functional importance. A locomotion assay was developed to determine crawling rates of appropriate strains before and after exposure to melatonin. Wild type worms demonstrated significantly slowed locomotion after exposure to melatonin, but several GPCR mutant strains carrying mutations in potential homologues to hMRs were insensitive to melatonin. A GFP transgene marking all neurons allowed measurement of tissue cultured axons in response to melatonin. C. elegans neurons in tissue culture have longer axons when exposed to 1 mM melatonin. Worm mutants do not exist for some potential hMR homologues, so RNAi will be used to analyze the effects of melatonin on their behavior. Of special interest will be the srh-135 and srh-287 GPCR genes, which have the same NRY motif that is unique to hMRs.
Mercury Robot
Blair Baldridge, Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University has annually hosted the Mercury Robotics competition since 2010. “The challenge is to design, build and remotely operate a robot. The robot must be capable of navigating a maze while being controlled from a great distance. The robot must be able to detect communications problems and provide position information to the operator." The stated ultimate goal of the mercury robot is to increase the students’ interested in engineering science and technology. Each team has to drive the robot over the internet from a location of 100 miles away. They are given 15 minutes to navigate the maze as many times as they need; whichever team achieves the fastest lap wins the competition. Time penalties are given for whatever team strikes obstacles found in the maze. In case of losing the WiFi signal during navigation of the track, the robot needs to clearly indicate a loss of signal condition. Also, the robot has to be able to park in an allocated parking spot that measures 12 inches in width, and climb up and down a 30 degree angle ramp.
Mesocarnivore mammals in the Mountain Pine Ridge of Belize: Report from a camera trap survey in 2010
Erik Terdal, Ronaldi Martinez, Northeastern State University
We present results of a camera-trap survey of mammals in the mesocarnivore guild in the Mountain Pine Ridge area of the Maya Mountains in the Cayo District of Belize, Central America. This is largely a tropical pine savanna habitat managed for commercial timber production. Our research purpose is to determine which mammalian mesocarnivore species use managed tropical pine forest as habitat. Mesocarnivores receive less attention in tropical forests than do large felids such as jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) but may be of at least comparable ecological significance if their relative abundance is high. Little information is available on relative abundance of mesocarnivores in tropical pine forests. We present the first comprehensive camera-trap survey of mesocarnivores in a commercially logged tropical pine forest. We placed camera traps at 15 sites approximately three km apart in a loose grid covering ~40000 hectares. Camera traps consisted of pairs of motion-activated digital cameras on opposite sides of logging roads. We examined images of 1520 mammals taken between 18 January 2010 and 11 January 2011. The mammal fauna recognizable in the images encompassed 7 orders, 13 families, 21+ genera and 23+ species. Large carnivores included jaguar and puma. Potential mammalian prey for mesocarnivores included several species of rodents and marsupials. The most commonly photographed mammal was the grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), at 78% of the mammal total. We exa
Microwave Synthesis of Ti- and Y-Doped BIMEVOX Compounds
Dwight Myers, Chandra Thapaliya, East Central University
Oxide ion conductors such as the BIMEVOX series of bismuth vanadium oxides are proposed as solid electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)[1]. These are synthesized by substituting small amounts of a different metallic ion for vanadium in Bi4V2O11 to give Bi4V1-xMexO11-3x/2. Microwave assisted synthesis of BIMEVOX phases can greatly speed reaction times[2]. We have prepared the titanium and yttrium doped BIMEVOX phases with x = 0.1-0.3. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the formation of high purity products. The effects of degree of compaction and different crucible materials have been examined. 1. F. Abraham, J.C. Boivin, G. Mairesse, and G. Nowogrocki, Solid State Ionics 40/41 (1990) 934-937 2. Vaidhyanathan, K. Balaji, and K. J. Rao, Chem. Mater. 1998, 10, 3400-3404
Migratory Connectivity in Yellow Rails and Le Conte’s Sparrows
Chris Butler, University of Central Oklahoma
The objective of this project was to determine the breeding grounds of two poorly-studied bird species: Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) and Le Conte’s Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii). Both species were banded at Red Slough Wildlife Management Area in McCurtain County, Oklahoma during November through March. Yellow Rails were banded from 2008 – 2013, while Le Conte’s Sparrows were banded from 2010 – 2013. Preliminary deuterium analyses on feathers collected from Yellow Rails suggests that Yellow Rails wintering in Oklahoma are breeding primarily in the western half of their range. Preliminary deuterium analyses on feathers conducted on Le Conte’s Sparrows likewise suggest that they are breeding in the western half of their range. However, the deuterium values obtained for Le Conte’s Sparrows show less variation than feathers collected from Yellow Rails. This suggests that Le Conte’s Sparrows have relatively strong migratory connectivity while Yellow Rails have moderate connectivity.
Model-Driven Development: Where Does the Code Come From?
Jicheng Fu, Jianbin Wu, University of Central Oklahoma
Model-driven development (MDD) drastically changes the traditional view of software modeling, which no longer serves merely as documentation that will be put aside at a certain point during the development. Instead, MDD has made models a part of the development process. As a result, software designers and developers can focus on high-level problem solving instead of low-level implementation details. However, the current research focus is on model transformations and overlooks the importance of code generation, which includes the generation of infrastructural code and business code. In this study, we analyzed the root cause about why existing MDD approaches are only good at generating the infrastructural code, which is the static aspects of the system. Then, we proposed a comprehensive approach that considers functional, dynamic, and object modeling. Our approach is able to generate both infrastructural and business code. Finally, we conducted a case study to evaluate the proposed approach. Through this case study, we identified some insights on automated code generation in MDD. Our results demonstrate that it is not only likely, but also possible to fully automate the code generation process in MDD.
Modeling Jazz Artist Similarities Mathematically
Andres Calderon Jaramillo, Larry Lucas, University of Central Oklahoma
This project attempts to quantitatively model similarities among jazz piano artists by building a relatively simple probabilistic system. We limit our study to monophonic melodies which we assume retain much of the essence of an artist’s style. Our current model makes use of Markov chains to capture the substance and structure of a musical piece. At the initial stage, the system extracts information about attributes such as the transition of pitches, note durations, and phrase lengths. At its later stages, the model uses logistic regression to quantitatively compare a piece by one artist to the style of another artist.
Modeling the Hybrid Zone for Black-chinned and Ruby-throated Hummingbirds
Lindsay Jones, Chris Butler, Daniel Whalen, University of Central Oklahoma
Black-chinned Hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) and Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (A. colubris) hybridize in Oklahoma and Texas. The extent of the hybrid zone has not previously been described and the goal of our study was to describe the spatial extent of the hybrid zone and project how the zone may change under different climate change scenarios. Locality data for breeding Black-chinned Hummingbirds and Ruby-throated Hummingbirds was obtained from ORNIS, while locality data for hybrids was obtained from a literature review. Bioclimatic variables for the model were obtained from WorldClim. We used Maxent to model the extent of the hybrid zone. The hybrid zone is currently restricted to the southern Great Plains. Under all three climate change scenarios considered, the hybrid zone remained centered in the southern Great Plains, with a moderate northward shift. These results suggest that, although climate change may affect the distribution of each hummingbird species, the zone of overlap is expected to remain largely static.
Modeling the Structural Mechanics of Cilia and Flagella
Gang Xu, Miciah Guy, University of Central Oklahoma
The goal of this study is to use computational engineering methods to characterize the structural mechanics of cilia and flagella. The ultimate objective is to contribute to providing novel methods for diagnosis and treatment of a number of cilia-related disorders (ciliopathies). Cilia and flagella are nanoscale hair-like structures that bend actively to propel cells or move fluid and materials in airways and other passages. The cytoskeletons of cilia and flagella are composed of nine outer microtubule doublets encircling a central pair of singlet microtubules. Cilia and flagella undergo large bending deformations that are driven by molecular dynein motors fueled by ATP reactions. In this study, we built computational finite element models to simulate our micromechanical testing experiments on the flagella of unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, including bending a single flagellum at its tip or middle length. We found that the apparent flexural rigidity of flagella depends not only on the bending stiffness of microtubules, but also on the mechanical properties of interconnecting components. With proper combinations of mechanical properties of different structural components, the model can reproduce the behavior of actual flagella. Our structural mechanics models combined with experimental techniques provide a powerful approach for improving the understanding of the structural basis for the motile function of flagella and cilia.
Molecular Components Controlling Synapses in Nematodes
Ashley Rodriguez, Andrea Holgado, Josiah Dittrich, Kody McKay, Melanie Graham, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
A synapse is a cellular junction that is formed by the presynaptic terminal of the signaling cell and the postsynaptic terminal of the target cell. A neuron communicates to other neurons by secreting neurotransmitters into synapses, which then bind to receptors on the target cell. Previous studies have shown that a protein, VSM-1, regulates the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Additionally, vsm-1 mutants have shown an increase in synaptogenesis. We hypothesized that genes are expressed in vsm-1 mutants that enhances synaptogenesis. In order to analyze the genes of interest we utilized the tools of microarray. In our experiments, we first isolated the total RNA from young-adult wild-type and vsm-1 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans. Next, we synthesized cDNA from reverse transcription of the isolated RNA. Hybridization of the cDNA to a microarray was performed to facilitate gene expression profiling. Fluorescently labeled microarrays were analyzed and the identities of induced and repressed genes were uncovered using the open source software called Magic tool. Microarray experiments were performed using three biological replicas and two technical dye swaps. Preliminary work showed over-expression of genes coding for major sperm proteins in a vsm-1 mutant containing increased synaptic signaling. Microarray results were validated using real time PCR. Further research includes analysis of RNAi phenotypes after expression of major sperm protein family is knocked out.
Molecular Coordination of Iron Homeostasis by microRNAs
McKale Davis, Brenda Smith, Edralin Lucas, Elizabeth Rendina, Grant Tinsley, Ramanjula Sunkar, Stephen Clarke, Yun Zheng, Oklahoma State University
Iron is an essential nutrient critical for oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, ATP generation, and cellular proliferation. At the molecular level, iron deficiency (ID) elicits a cascade of cellular events aimed at conserving iron for the maintenance of these life-preserving functions, but tissue-specific responses and metabolic adaptations to ID are not fully understood. Recently, small regulatory RNA molecules called miRNAs have been identified as an important mechanism for regulating various cellular processes. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which expression of miRNA is regulated in response to dietary ID and to examine their potential regulatory capacity in the adaptive response to ID. To do this, we first characterized the expression of miRNA in the livers of iron-sufficient and iron-deficient animals using a deep-sequencing approach. Results compiled from three different analyses indicate that at least ten miRNAs are differentially expressed in the liver of ID rats. Further bioinformatic analyses showed that at least two of these miRNA have predicted targets directly involved in maintenance of iron homeostasis or the metabolic adaptations to iron deficiency. Ongoing studies include in vitro validation of predicted miRNA targets using luciferase-reporter assays, and miRNA gain/loss of function analyses on the impact of cellular iron metabolism.
Molecular evidence for hybridization between Neotoma floridana and Neotoma micropus in multiple areas of sympatry
Michelle Haynie, Matthew Mauldin, Robert Bradley, University of Central Oklahoma
The southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) and the eastern woodrat (N. floridana) have a parapatric distribution that extends ~2,200 km from the Gulf of Mexico to southeastern Colorado. In 1968, and again in 1973, an area of sympatry where hybridization occurred was reported in western Oklahoma; hybridization was determined based on morphological measurements and laboratory breeding experiments. The objectives of this research are to 1) evaluate the known hybrid zone using molecular markers and 2) determine if additional areas of sympatry and hybridization occur. To date, 103 samples from the western Oklahoma hybrid zone (collected in 1988) have been genotyped at multiple loci and a high degree of hybridization (~85%) has been detected. Thirty-six localities outside the original zone of sympatry were surveyed and preliminary data indicates additional putative areas of hybridization between these two species. Future research will focus on further defining the boundaries of hybridization between the two species as well as determining the dynamics that maintain the zones.
Molecular Pharming with Transgenic Plants
Zach Zaaza, Northeastern State University
The field of molecular pharming is a vastly growing field in terms of research and popularity. Molecular pharming is a breakthrough because it allows researchers to develop affordable medicines with easy availability for the rest of the world, primarily in under-developed countries where the acquisition of medicine and medical treatment is rare. Researchers at St. George Medical School Hospital in London are working feverishly to find different ways to develop these medicines and vaccinations to provide to those parts of the world. In this presentation, we will discuss the current progress that has been made in the field of molecular pharming with transgenic plants, and the research that will be conducted in the future.
Molecular Scatology Using DNA Barcoding: Genetic Identification of Zoological Specimen and Diet Using Mitochondrial and Plastid Loci
Diana Spencer, Andrew Brown, Bobby Daugherty, Hunter Bearden, Mang Chang, Minji Sohn, Tulsa Community College
Identification of species through noninvasive sampling removes the need to handle free-living organisms, and is particularly valuable for large carnivores or elusive species. Determination of diet and species identification success is critical to understanding the ecosystem. DNA barcoding has emerged as a powerful tool to supplement traditional methods of taxonomy. Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI), a highly conserved 650 base pair segment of the mitochondrial genome, has become a ‘global standard’ to sort out broad taxonomic diversity in animals. This region is not ideal for botanical specimen as it has a slower mutation rate in plants. The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) recommended the 2-locus combination of rbcLa and matK for plant barcoding. Our research goal was to compare a variety of DNA from feces samples to identify the organism and evaluate diet content. The DNA was extracted using a fecal DNA kit and quantified using spectrophotometry. Following PCR and gel quantification, the amplified DNA was purified and sequenced. The sequence analysis was performed by Clustal W and divergence was calculated using MEGA. Our findings show that the regions and methods chosen can effectively identify species and diet content while some prey contamination compromising the overall performance was indicated.
Cale Fulps, Northeastern State University
Traditional Chinese Medicine is very different from the Western Medicine to which the people in the United States are accustomed. Some of the techniques implemented are herbal medicine and acupuncture. There is also a technique that is a mixture of both herbal medicine and acupuncture called moxibustion. Moxibustion is done by placing a spongy herb called mugwort, or wormwood, on acupuncture points on the body and setting the herb on fire. There are two different methods of moxibustion: direct and indirect. In direct moxibustion, the mugwort is allowed to touch the skin. In indirect moxibustion, the burning mugwort is held near the skin without touching the skin. The mugwort is supposed to promote blood flow in the body. There are no hard results proving that moxibustion is the cure of any sickness or disease, but many ongoing studies are taking place.
Mu Suppression in the Premotor Cortex for Recognition and Inference
Jennifer Hancock, Robert Mather, University of Central Oklahoma
Mirroring is a learning function necessary for social cognitive processing that relies on intricate neural networks including the mirror neuron system. Mirror neurons (MN) are specialized neurons that activate when an organism facilitates movement or observes an activity. Modeling behaviors, linked to an efficient mirror neuron system, are important to social cognitive development. Social behavior is dependent on action recognition, visual analysis of the action, and intermittent inference of perceived action context. Skill acquisition and language development involve mimicry as a mechanism for interpreting sensory information. An inefficient or malfunctioning mirror neuron system has potential for pervasive ramifications concerning social interaction and development. Mu wave suppression, recorded by EEG, is a reliable method for evaluating the mirror neuron system. The expected outcome was mu wave suppression because of MN activity would display reduced mu wave capacity in each condition compared to baseline; with inference energizing MN activity in the same capacity as action observation and object recognition. A mixed factorial repeated-measures design evaluated mirror neuron activation indicated by mu wave suppression in the premotor cortex. Although mu suppression was not obvious, the difference in response for each condition suggests a variance in neural activity.
Multisensory Mathematics: A Tactile Approach to Concepts Found in Introductory Proofs
Kristi Karber, Courtney Simmons, University of Central Oklahoma
Many students find the transition from computational mathematics to the rigor of proof work difficult. By introducing tangible, colorful objects into traditional lectures, instructors can engage visual and kinetic learners and help demystify perplexing topics. Using this tactile approach, we've developed a collection of objects that can be used to illustrate fundamental definitions and theorems commonly used in mathematics courses. Students will be able to discover these concepts are not as complicated as they might expect, while having fun in the process.
Native American Indian Women In Tribal Politics
Donna Iti Tupa, East Central University
Historically, Native American Indian Women have been consulted by tribal leaders; however, in modern society and politics their opinions and influence have decreased. The research will aim towards cause and effect Native American Indian Women in leadership position within tribes.
Natural Compounds and Antibacterial Activity in a Species of Mentha
Lindsay Davis, Morgan James, Eliza Payne, Langston University
Natural compounds from plants are used in medicine every day. Efforts are made to study antibacterial compounds from different sources including plants. The major predominant active chemicals in plants tested were phenolics that showed a great deal of medicinal effect. Past research on antibacterial activity were examined using several different methods and has not been consistent. The objective of this research was to analyze the leaves of a species of Mentha for antimicrobial activity. Mentha plants are also known as mint and are aromatic and grown in wet environmental conditions. The hypothesis is that the compounds from Mentha will exhibit antibacterial activity. Leaves of the plant were dried and extracted with Methyl alcohol using the soxhlet apparatus. Crude methanol extracts were added to culture medium and assayed against Escherichia coli. Though antibacterial activity was not very evident, further tests will have to be done using different solvent extracts. Screening of the compounds will also be followed using chromatographic techniques.
Necessary Authorship: Examining Michel Foucault's Author-Function Theory and Go Ask Alice
Lindsey Huckaby, Cameron University
In contemporary literary studies, definitive authorship is often taken for granted. We hardly question the interpretational value of authorship, and it is only when we are confronted with the absence of an author in a literary work that we begin to consider the author’s name as necessary. Michel Foucault’s essay, “What is an Author?” offers the theory of the author-function, examining the relationship between an author and his or her work, as well as the interpretational effects of that relationship. By selecting the fairly well-read and anonymously published novel, Go Ask Alice, we can evaluate the ways in which modern authorship is taken for granted, as well as clearly explain the necessity of the author and his or her relation to our interpretation of the novel. Foucault’s theory insists that readers demand authorship in order to classify a work based upon its relation to its author, assign culpability to an individual responsible for the work, authenticate the value and meaning of that work, and gauge that individual’s creativity.
NED Practices and Role Stressors
Jeffrey Slattery, Northeastern State University
Objective of the study: In this study, when investigating temporary employees, we sought to examine the relationships between new employee development (NED) practices, role stressors, and work-related attitudes. Hypothesized Relationships: It was hypothesized that NED practices would be negatively related to role stressor variables and that role stressor variables are related to employee work-related attitudes. Found at both the client organization and temporary agency Details of the Study: Data were collected from temporary employees across the U.S.; Survey was developed using various well tested measures and sent to temporary employees. Findings: The more NED practices are used, the lower the levels of both role conflict and role ambiguity. This in turn leads to higher levels of organizational commitment and job satisfaction and, ultimately less turnover intention.
Neuroprotective Effects of a New Skin Care Formulation Following Ultraviolet Radiation
Kimberly Pahsetopah, Northeastern State University
Ultraviolet radiation is an environmental factor that has major effects on the human body. Not only is it associated with photo-ageing, but prolonged UV exposure is responsible for significantly reducing the number of nerve fibers in the skin. Both sympathetic and sensory innervation in the skin originate from post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons and neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. Damage to these nerves is associated with sensorimotor neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and neuritis. In order to combat this observation, B. L Fonseca and a team of researchers developed a formulation from Echinacea purpurea. They used E. purpurea extract enriched with antioxidants to evaluate its protective effects against UV irradiation (ex vivo). Skin samples were treated and exposed to UVA and UVB. Results indicated that nerve densities in the placebo group significantly reduced in number whereas samples treated with the test emulsion completely blocked UV related effects
Nintendo® Wii FitTM Balance and Cognitive Function in Older Adults Kristin Bogda, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK.
Kristin Bogda, University of Central Oklahoma
Fear of falling is highly prevalent among older adults. It is important to find ways to decrease the fear of falling and improve the confidence one has in their own balance when doing daily activities. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a balance training intervention using the Nintendo Wii Fit on balance confidence and cognitive function, specifically executive function, in older adults. METHODS: Twelve adults over the age of 65 years were assigned to a treatment group or control group to complete an eight-week balance training intervention. Balance confidence was measured using the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Trail Making Test (TMT), Part A and Part B. Center of mass was measured using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board. All assessments were taken at baseline and after eight weeks of training. The data were analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures for each outcome (α = .025). RESULTS: No significant interaction or time effects were observed for any variable. The group effect for TMT Part A approached significance (F = 7.034, p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that using the Nintendo Wii Fit as a balance training tool will not improve balance confidence or cognitive function, particularly executive function, in older adults. Future studies should look at testing other components of cognitive function to see if the Nintendo Wii Fit is a useful device for older adult
Nitric oxide production in macrophages induced by tumor cells after high-fluence low power laser irradiation
Wei Chen, University of Central Oklahoma
High-fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) provides simulation to cell death. It is well known that dead cells or dying cells provide antigens to trigger recognition of the specific cells by the immune system. In order to determine the effect of HF-LPLI on antigen-presenting cells, we investigated the effect of HF-LPLI treated tumor cells on macrophages phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) production. Our results showed that HF-LPLI induced EMT6 tumor cell death. We also observed that HF-LPLI treated EMT6 tumor cells could be phagocyted by macrophage cells and could induce NO production in macrophages. Our study shows that HF-LPLI-treated tumor cells can effectively regulate immune system and HF-LPLI can be used for tumor treatment.
Njord: A web application Controller
Rad Alrifai, Justin Smith, Northeastern State University
As the Interne is growing and new tools are emerging such as AJAX, HTML5 and WebGL, the need to rapidly and efficiently develop web applications is becoming increasingly critical to almost every business. Njord is a web application controller developed to increase the reuse of the interface between backend application software and web applications. By reducing the amount of time spent on coding, programmers can concentrate more on the software functionality rather than implementation. This web application Controller was developed using several technologies including: to handle routing and access to HTTP environment, PyMysql to extend the functionality of MySQL database, MySQL to mange relational data, Mongo to manage NoSQL database, and Git to control the various revisions of source code.
Novel Cyclen Based Antimalarials: Synthesis and In Vitro Metabolism Studies
Prince Amoyaw, Jamie Anderson, Josiah Dittrich, M. Omar Khan, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
N-Substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Models for Organic Switches
Dwight Myers, Daniel McInnes, East Central University
N-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are proposed for use as organic solid state transistors or switches[1]. Simple molecules of this sort include phenazine and dibenzo[b,i]phenazine. Using these molecules as simple model compounds, we have begun an ab initio computational study of these compounds and the effect of electron withdrawing or donating groups in place of hydrogens on the aromatic rings. Calculations have been made for phenazine and dibenzo[b,i]phenazine and their corresponding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and phenazine. Work in progress and future directions will be discussed. 1. Wu, Y., Yin, Z., Xiao, J., Liu, Y., Wei, F., Tan K. J., Kloc, C., Huang, L., Yan, Q., Hu,. F., Zhang, H., and Zhang, Q., “Crystal Structure and Phototransistor Behavior of N-substituted Heptacenes, Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2012, 4, 1883-1886.
Nutritional Benefits of Different Tomato Strains: A Look at Glucose, Fructose and Vitamin C.
Tyler Vann, Lilian Chooback, University of Central Oklahoma
Depending on the strain and freshness, the nutritional content of tomato may vary. Using anthrone reagent the total concentration of carbohydrates in the tomato can be measured. The anthrone dehydrates monosaccharides to form furfural derivatives. The formation of the furfural derivatives were evident by appearance of brown color and the intensity of the color was proportional to the concentration of fructose. To distinguish between glucose and fructose the sample was exposed to resorcinol , which reacts much quicker with ketoses as compared to aldoses. Using spectroscopy and monosaccharide standard the glucose and fructose content of different tomato sample were found. It was discovered that the Grape and Romano strains had a higher concentration of fructose when compared to the Cluster and Campari strains. We are in the process of measuring the ascorbic acid contents of the same tomato samples using test strips.
Nutritional Knowledge Among Division I Collegiate Athletes
John Sellers, Andrew Hall, Bert Jacobson, Dalton Delaney, Natalya Nikitina-Helvey, Oklahoma State University
Context: Basic nutrition knowledge provides the proper framework from which sound dietary choices can be made. The physical and mental strain endured by collegiate athletes increase their need for proper dietary intake in order to maximize their performance both on the field and in the classroom. Objective: This study will determine the nutritional knowledge of Division I collegiate athletes through the use of a survey. This will help identify the extent of nutritional information among collegiate athletes as well as the sources currently being used to obtain their information. Participants: Division I student-athletes currently participating in a collegiate sport. Interventions: Student-athletes completed a 20 question survey containing question related to basic nutritional knowledge and current sources of nutrition information. Results: 58, 22, and 62% responded correctly when asked about the recommended percent of total calories from carbohydrates, fats, and protein, respectively. 92% of the athletes responded saying they received nutritional information from their strength and conditioning coach with 62% identifying their strength and conditioning coach as their sole source for nutritional information. Conclusion: Based on the responses, nutritional knowledge is not as strong as it needs to be within collegiate athletes. Greater emphasis should be placed on providing nutritional resources including, but not limited, to registered dieticians, lectures, and handouts.
Oklahoma Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics
Joshua King, University of Central Oklahoma
The Oklahoma Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics attempts to assess Oklahoma businesses and their entrepreneurs to form a better scientific understanding of the process of starting a business in Oklahoma. With the data we are collecting we hope to provide guidance for future generations of Oklahoman entrepreneurs as well as advance the field of entrepreneurial studies. Our specific study of Oklahoma is and will be based around the study and methodology conducted by the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan in their nation-wide study. We hope to conduct a more refined study of exclusively Oklahoma businesses. Since November we have focused on collecting business data from various government agencies as a foundation for future surveys and interviews. Recently we have started creating questionnaires for a future survey of Oklahoma business entrepreneurs that we will contact using contact information received through the Oklahoma Secretary of State.
On the Structure of Measurement Noise in Eye-Tracking with Ambiguous Figures
Trey Ridlen, Mickie Vanhoy, Yaser Dorri, University of Central Oklahoma
Recent and past research has discovered fractal structures within human eye movements (Aks & Sprott, 2003; Aks, Zelinsky, & Sprott, 2002; Stephen & Mirman, 2010; Stephen, Mirman, Magnuson, & Dixon, 2009). However, until recently no research has investigated how the eye-tracking instrument might affect the accuracy of the measurement of eye-tracking variability (Coey, Wallot, Richardson, & Orden, 2012). The results of the study revealed that the structure variability from a fake eye to a real human, displaying that real human eyes have self-similar properties (multifractal structures), whereas fake eyes have random variability (monofractal structures). Fractal patterns are shown in the strong relationship between power (P) and frequency (f) of observed variation in a time-series of measurements. The pattern of variability in the behavior is self-similar and scale-invariant; displaying that large-scale changes occur in relative frequency to small-scale changes. The degree which a dataset approximates the ideal relationship between power and frequency is summarized in the scaling exponent, a. Random fluctuations (i.e. white noise) those associated with the measurement of fake eyes, produce a flat line on the spectral plot. The study proposed is an extension of Coey, et al., 2012 and will show how measurement can affect the measuring of variability of within eye movements, when those measurements are applied with the same data averaging to ambiguous figures.
Online Database Research on Marfan Syndrome
Ashley Hopkins, Dawn Bender, Katherine Coppenger, Kathi McDowell, Lasay Castellanos, William Dyson, Northeastern State University
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Genbank, Basic Local Alignment Tool (BLAST), Spidey, and Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) are all databases used in research of genetic disorders such as Marfan Syndrome, or MFS. MFS is a complex multisystem connective tissue disorder with a highly variable phenotype. This somewhat rare disorder is attributed to a defect in Fibrillin-1 (FBN1). FBN1 is an essential component of connective tissue, and binds to calcium. OMIM provided the phenotype (#154700) for MFS. This search displays the chromosomal locus of FBN1 to be 15q21.1. OMIM also provides the mRNA RefSeq Identifier of NM_000138.4 and a protein designation of NP_000129.3. Through GenBank we were able to find that the sequence length of the gene is 11695 base pairs. Through BLAST we were able to identify similar genomic sequence to mRNA found in Pygmy Chimpanzees, Western Lowland Gorillas, and Northern White-Cheeked Gibbons. Through Spidey we aligned XM_004056150.1 a gorilla mRNA, and NM_000138.4 a Homo sapiens mRNA. The results displays a highly conserved sequence with 99.4% overall identity. MMDB indicated the gene is 1828 amino acids long and the Protein Database (PDB) number is 2W86. MMDB and the protein software known as Cn3D displays the structure of the FBN1 Homo sapiens protein.
Online Education and Cheating
Jane Calvert, University of Central Oklahoma
Cheating methods have evolved with the progression of online distance education. Students have found new and creative technologically based methods to cheat on assignments and tests. It is important when designing online curriculum to be aware of these obstacles and plan ahead for prevention. Educators must take a defensive mode in order to preserve the academic inegrity and quality of online instruction.
Optimization of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and Diesel Particulate Filter System
Matt Coffman, University of Tulsa
Combustion engine exhaust gases are one of the largest sources of pollutants in the United States. Emissions standards are aimed at limiting the quantity of harmful pollutants contained in exhaust gas from stationary, mobile, and area sources. Criteria levels for exhaust are consistently made more stringent every several years at both the state and federal level, meaning emissions solutions companies need to adapt quickly to meet the ever changing demand. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and diesel particulate filters (DPF) were tested on a 150 kW engine to improve the exhaust chemistry of compounds emitted to the atmosphere. It was hypothesized that a more economical DOC-DPF system could be optimized to yield less than a 20% increase in oxides of nitrogen and maintain the ability to actively burn off particulate matter below 250 °C. Various DOC-DPF combinations were tested, sequentially varying several parameters like precious metal ratios, wash coat loading, cell density, DPF coating, and space velocity. This batch of testing did not yield a more cost-efficient DOC-DPF system than those currently used in the commercial industry; however, it did produce results helpful for understanding the interplay in these dynamic process reactors.
Optimization of Protocol for Histidine-Tag Specific Capture for Standard Biosensor Surface
Jordan Evans, Skylar Snowden, University of Central Oklahoma
Presented here is the optimization of the solid state linkage of a chelating agent for the reversible immobilization of a poly-histidine tagged protein using the SensiQ Pioneer SPR (surface plasmon resonace) biosensor. NTA ligand [Nα, Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)- L-Lysine hydrate] was covalently linked to carboxymethylated dextran on the biosensor chip and treated with Ni2+ prior to injection of a hexa-histidine peptide and a his-tagged protein. Various conditions were tested to optimize both the linkage of NTA to the surface and of peptide/protein capture amounts, including: pH, buffer components, NTA concentration, surface activation contact time, and wash conditions. Each condition exerted some influence on the covalent attachment of NTA to the dextran surface, with the most potent conditions being activation contact time and pH of the NTA solution. Peptide/protein capture response was positively correlated to the amount of active NTA ligand conjugated to the dextran surface. An optimized protocol for the construction of a stable and repeatable chelating agent for his-tagged protein immobilization was established, thus enhancing a methodology of biomolecular interaction analysis for SPR biosensors.
Ornaments: A Historical, Chronological Digest
Sion Honea, University of Central Oklahoma
At present many treatments of musical ornamentation exist but are limited in one or more ways. Some are scholarly treatments that are difficult for practical use. Others are limited to individual performing mediums such as keyboard or string instruments, while others are limited by historical period. The purpose of this project is to produce a practical guide to ornamentation that gives access by (1) type of ornament (2) historical period, and (3) performing medium. The procedure is to survey primary sources from approximately 1500 to 1900, compile their comments on ornamentation in chronological order, and provide cross indices according to performing medium and author. Further cross indices are necessary because of the extreme lack of standard terminology even within one historical period. One term may be used for quite different ornaments and many terms may indicate only one ornament. The end product will also provide scholars in the field a way to follow the development of practice and terminology as stated by individual authors and in any particular historical context.
Overview of Oriental Medicine “Ginseng”
Faith Fennell, Northeastern State University
The major difference between Oriental and Western or better still allopathic medicine is that the former is rooted in traditional culture, while Western medicine is part of modern empirical science. Western [allopathic] medicine turns to be popular in today’s society and for that matter, people tend to doubt the efficacy of Oriental medicine. It is not surprising that in today’s China, Chinese medicine is often debated. In the past 5,000 years, Chinese people have been dependent on Oriental medicine to cure diseases and to protect themselves against epidemics. Consequently, Oriental medicine has contributed to population growth throughout history. There are over 300 types of traditional medicines on the globe, however, Oriental medicine has become increasingly popular. It is not just hear say that oriental medicine is effective but rather the effectiveness of oriental medicine can be seen from the growing number of people around the world who choose to study it. By definition, Oriental medicine is a set of practical skills targeting a full array of diseases, from the common cold to more serious ones, such as tumors and heart disease. This poster highlights some advantages and disadvantages of using ginseng for treating ailments.
Owning the Issues: Variation of Issue Salience among States
Shannon Bridgmon, Northeastern State University
Political parties have many purposes, but their primary goal is to capture elected office (Aldrich 1995). They also serve as quasi-public organizations that mobilize the electorate and organize political debate. Previous research (Budge and Farlie 1977, 1983; Petrocik 1981, 1996) suggests that parties will emphasize issues that provide them an electoral or policy advantage. However, little exists to determine if this pattern extends to state politics. While initial research (Bridgmon 2010) confirms this approach for southern state parties, this paper will measure the levels of importance political parties in all U.S. states, as expressed through each state party’s platform. All official Republican and Democratic state party platforms drafted or in effect during 2010 will serve as the data for this study. After determining levels of issue salience variations, this study confirms that parties emphasize issues to maximize electoral prospects.
Oxytocin as a Mitigator of Aggression
Stephanie Menotti, Amelia Brewer, Lindsey Osterman, University of Central Oklahoma
This study explored the effects of oxytocin on aggression and examined whether increased oxytocin levels lowered aggression. The hypothesis for the current study is that participants who receive an oxytocin stimulus will show less aggression in scores on a partner rating task than the participants who did not receive the oxytocin stimulus. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that the participants in the oxytocin groups will have a lower ratio on a word completion task which measures the cognitive accessibility of aggressive concepts. Participants completed a task that induced frustration and then completed a word completion task that showed cognitive preparedness for aggression and a partner rating task which measured aggression. Each participant viewed a video prior to or following the aggression task. The video either raised oxytocin or was neutral, depending on the condition the participant was in. Results for the study showed a trend for the word completion task in predicting a lower cognitive assessment of aggressive concepts. Due to this trend, the hypothesis that oxytocin will lower aggression is partly supported.
Paleontological Survey of Ordovician West Spring Creek Formation, Arbuckle Group, Kiowa County, OK
Brian Campbell, Zella Classen, Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma has a varied geological and paleontological history. There is still much to learn from the geologic exposures in this state. Numerous studies have been done with Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleontology and sedimentary geology, but many Paleozoic exposures have only cursory published studies, with most of these exposures having not been revisited for decades. We initiated a general paleobiological survey of the West Spring Creek formation (Ows), Arbuckle Group from the Ordovician Period, early Paleozoic Era. These exposures are dating from 443.7 – 488.3 Ma (+/- 1.5) and have little or no published research. This study employed a SWOSU student with an interest in invertebrate paleontology to assist with the cleaning of samples and identification of fauna. Several unpublished organisms and undescribed features from the Ows formation were identified. Identified organisms include: crinoids, brachiopods, gastropods, straight and coiled cephalopods. Identified mineral features include: pyrite crystals, limey sandstone, and chert nodules. We had anticipated finding pelecypods; unfortunately none were to be identified.
Parasite Survey of the Sonoran Mud Turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense)
Kristen Bliss, Paul Stone, Wayne Lord, University of Central Oklahoma
Parasitism has wide-reaching implications throughout the fields of ecology and medicine; while these pathogenic associations have been thoroughly documented across many taxa, parasitism among reptiles still remains severely understudied and poorly understood. Helminth infection among Testudines, specifically, is less understood; especially in regard to the effect diseased individuals may have on community health and structure. The Sonoran Mud Turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense) occupies an ephemeral, aquatic environment subject to seasonal drying. Little is known about the organisms parasitizing this species, specifically the study population located in the Peloncillo Mountains, New Mexico. Fecal samples were opportunistically hand-collected using catch-and-release trapping methods from May 2012 through October 2012 and preserved onsite in Zinc-PVA solution or 10% Formalin solution. Samples were concentrated and examined under light microscopy for the presence of Helminth eggs. Thus far, eggs from the genus Capillaria have been found in various samples. The Capillaria genus (Nematoda: Trichinellidae) contains filarial worms which prey upon a wide range of organisms including birds, mammals, and reptiles; however, Capillaria has yet to be documented within Kinosternon sonoriense. Further investigation into the extent of Capillariasis which exists within the Peloncillo population, as well as other possible parasitic infections within the population is warranted.
Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Alcohol Use Throughout the Lifespan
Hunter Holder, University of Central Oklahoma
The study will investigate how alcohol use patterns in adulthood vary among people that participated in various types of extra-curricular activities (i.e., academics, athletics, and fine arts) during high school. This study will use data from Add Health, a 14 year-long longitudinal study using a nationally representative sample of over 16000 adolescents focusing on their physical and psychological health. Previous research has shown that both participation in extra-curricular activities and peer-influence can affect alcohol use and abuse during adolescence (Borden, Donnermeyer, & Scheer, 2001). Research has also shown that age of onset of alcohol use affects life-long alcohol abuse and dependence (Grant & Dawson, 1997). This study is an attempt to build upon these known relationships by determining if these differences in high school persist into adulthood by looking at alcohol use in the fourth wave of Add Health during which participants were in their early 30’s. This information will help school districts, community organizations, and their administrators develop and implement more focused primary prevention programs